• Title, Summary, Keyword: LOD

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i-Manager: An Implementation of LOD Instance Development System (i-Manager : LOD 인스턴스 개발 시스템의 구현)

  • Moon, Hee-kyung;Han, Sung-kook
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.1174-1182
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    • 2017
  • The research and development on Web of Data to realize the opening and sharing of diverse, heterogonous data on the Web has been actively accomplished. As a standard data model for this effort, LOD (Linked Open Data) based on ontology has been proposed. A specialized instance generation system is vital to the development of LOD-based system effectively. This paper implements i-Manager as an appropriate environment for the development of LOD instances, considering the requirements of LOD systems and the practical development environment of the diverse application domains. i-Manager separates the instance layer from the ontology layer by way of LOD Interface Sheet (LIS) and implements the specialized functions requested in LOD instance development, such as instance edit/store, visualization and SPARQL query processing. This paper proposes a new approach for LOD instance development, and i-Manager can be applied for the practical LOD development environment in the diverse application areas.

Study on Statecharts-based Progressive Behavior LOD Model for Virtual Objects (가상 객체를 위한 스테이트챠트 기반의 점진적인 행위 LOD 모델 연구)

  • Seo, Jin-Seok;Youn, Joo-Sang
    • Journal of Digital Contents Society
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.185-194
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    • 2011
  • This paper introduces a Statecharts-based progressive behavior LOD model for computer games and virtual reality systems. In order to use computing resources efficiently and generate an LOD model having arbitrary complexity, we defined a progressive behavior LOD model which including a Statecharts-based specification process, refinement operations, a switching policy, and an LOD selection policy. Additionally, in order to show the possibility of the proposed approach, we demonstrate an example of progressive LOD models by illustrating a step-by-step design of a virtual vehicle.

HSM(Hierarchical State Machine) based LOD AI for Computer GamesS (게임을 위한 계층적 상태 기계 기반의 인공지능 LOD)

  • Seo, Jinseok
    • Journal of Digital Contents Society
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.143-149
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    • 2013
  • Many researchers and developers take a greater interest on the LOD AI techniques as users demand more elaborate and sophisticated game AI in recent years. However, contrary to the traditional geometry LOD, existing LOD AI techniques can be used only to a limited extent. Therefore, in this paper, I propose an LOD AI technique, which uses HSM(Hierarchical State Machine) and the Lua script language as the method to control game objects. Using the proposed approach, we can easily produce multilevel AI models for LOD and design various objects without hard-coding state machines. Moreover, in order to show the effectiveness of the presented technique, this paper exemplifies the results of the efficiency test through the prototype engine.

Change Acceptable In-Depth Searching in LOD Cloud for Efficient Knowledge Expansion (효과적인 지식확장을 위한 LOD 클라우드에서의 변화수용적 심층검색)

  • Kim, Kwangmin;Sohn, Yonglak
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.171-193
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    • 2018
  • LOD(Linked Open Data) cloud is a practical implementation of semantic web. We suggested a new method that provides identity links conveniently in LOD cloud. It also allows changes in LOD to be reflected to searching results without any omissions. LOD provides detail descriptions of entities to public in RDF triple form. RDF triple is composed of subject, predicates, and objects and presents detail description for an entity. Links in LOD cloud, named identity links, are realized by asserting entities of different RDF triples to be identical. Currently, the identity link is provided with creating a link triple explicitly in which associates its subject and object with source and target entities. Link triples are appended to LOD. With identity links, a knowledge achieves from an LOD can be expanded with different knowledge from different LODs. The goal of LOD cloud is providing opportunity of knowledge expansion to users. Appending link triples to LOD, however, has serious difficulties in discovering identity links between entities one by one notwithstanding the enormous scale of LOD. Newly added entities cannot be reflected to searching results until identity links heading for them are serialized and published to LOD cloud. Instead of creating enormous identity links, we propose LOD to prepare its own link policy. The link policy specifies a set of target LODs to link and constraints necessary to discover identity links to entities on target LODs. On searching, it becomes possible to access newly added entities and reflect them to searching results without any omissions by referencing the link policies. Link policy specifies a set of predicate pairs for discovering identity between associated entities in source and target LODs. For the link policy specification, we have suggested a set of vocabularies that conform to RDFS and OWL. Identity between entities is evaluated in accordance with a similarity of the source and the target entities' objects which have been associated with the predicates' pair in the link policy. We implemented a system "Change Acceptable In-Depth Searching System(CAIDS)". With CAIDS, user's searching request starts from depth_0 LOD, i.e. surface searching. Referencing the link policies of LODs, CAIDS proceeds in-depth searching, next LODs of next depths. To supplement identity links derived from the link policies, CAIDS uses explicit link triples as well. Following the identity links, CAIDS's in-depth searching progresses. Content of an entity obtained from depth_0 LOD expands with the contents of entities of other LODs which have been discovered to be identical to depth_0 LOD entity. Expanding content of depth_0 LOD entity without user's cognition of such other LODs is the implementation of knowledge expansion. It is the goal of LOD cloud. The more identity links in LOD cloud, the wider content expansions in LOD cloud. We have suggested a new way to create identity links abundantly and supply them to LOD cloud. Experiments on CAIDS performed against DBpedia LODs of Korea, France, Italy, Spain, and Portugal. They present that CAIDS provides appropriate expansion ratio and inclusion ratio as long as degree of similarity between source and target objects is 0.8 ~ 0.9. Expansion ratio, for each depth, depicts the ratio of the entities discovered at the depth to the entities of depth_0 LOD. For each depth, inclusion ratio illustrates the ratio of the entities discovered only with explicit links to the entities discovered only with link policies. In cases of similarity degrees with under 0.8, expansion becomes excessive and thus contents become distorted. Similarity degree of 0.8 ~ 0.9 provides appropriate amount of RDF triples searched as well. Experiments have evaluated confidence degree of contents which have been expanded in accordance with in-depth searching. Confidence degree of content is directly coupled with identity ratio of an entity, which means the degree of identity to the entity of depth_0 LOD. Identity ratio of an entity is obtained by multiplying source LOD's confidence and source entity's identity ratio. By tracing the identity links in advance, LOD's confidence is evaluated in accordance with the amount of identity links incoming to the entities in the LOD. While evaluating the identity ratio, concept of identity agreement, which means that multiple identity links head to a common entity, has been considered. With the identity agreement concept, experimental results present that identity ratio decreases as depth deepens, but rebounds as the depth deepens more. For each entity, as the number of identity links increases, identity ratio rebounds early and reaches at 1 finally. We found out that more than 8 identity links for each entity would lead users to give their confidence to the contents expanded. Link policy based in-depth searching method, we proposed, is expected to contribute to abundant identity links provisions to LOD cloud.

A Study on the Procedure for Constructing Linked Open Data of Records Information by Using Open Source Tool (오픈소스 도구를 이용한 기록정보 링크드 오픈 데이터 구축 절차 연구)

  • Ha, Seung Rok;Yim, Jin Hee;Rieh, Hae-young
    • Journal of the Korean Society for information Management
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.341-371
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    • 2017
  • Recently, the web service environment has changed from document-centered to data-oriented focus, and the Linked Open Data (LOD) exists at the core of the new environment. Specific procedures and methods were examined to build the LOD of records information in accordance with this trend. With the service sustainability of small-scale archive in consideration, an exemplification on LOD building process by utilizing open source software was developed in this paper. To this end, a 5-step service framework for LOD construction was proposed and applied to a collection of diary records from 'Human and Memory Archive'. Proof of Concept (POC) utilizing open source softwares, Protege and Apache Jena Fuseki, was conducted according to the proposed 5 step framework. After establishing the LOD of record information by utilizing the open source software, the connection with external LOD through interlinking and SPARQL search has been successfully performed. In addition, archives' considerations for LOD construction, including improvement on the quality of content information, the role of the archivist, were suggested based on the understanding obtained through the LOD construction process of records information.

Linkage Expansion in Linked Open Data Cloud using Link Policy (연결정책을 이용한 개방형 연결 데이터 클라우드에서의 연결성 확충)

  • Kim, Kwangmin;Sohn, Yonglak
    • Journal of KIISE
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    • v.44 no.10
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    • pp.1045-1061
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    • 2017
  • This paper suggests a method to expand linkages in a Linked Open Data(LOD) cloud that is a practical consequence of a semantic web. LOD cloud, contrary to the first expectation, has not been used actively because of the lack of linkages. Current method for establishing links by applying to explicit links and attaching the links to LODs have restrictions on reflecting target LODs' changes in a timely manner and maintaining them periodically. Instead of attaching them, this paper suggests that each LOD should prepare a link policy and publish it together with the LOD. The link policy specifies target LODs, predicate pairs, and similarity degrees to decide on the establishment of links. We have implemented a system that performs in-depth searching through LODs using their link policies. We have published APIs of the system to Github. Results of the experiment on the in-depth searching system with similarity degrees of 1.0 ~ 0.8 and depth level of 4 provides searching results that include 91% ~ 98% of the trustworthy links and about 170% of triples expanded.

New Discrete Curvature Error Metric for the Generation of LOD Meshes (LOD 메쉬 생성을 위한 새로운 이산 곡률 오차 척도)

  • Kim, Sun-Jeong;Lim, Soo-Il;Kim, Chang-Hun
    • Journal of KIISE:Computer Systems and Theory
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.245-254
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    • 2000
  • This paper proposes a new discrete curvature error metric to generate LOD meshes. For mesh simplification, discrete curvatures are defined with geometric attributes, such as angles and areas of triangular polygonal model, and dihedral angles without any smooth approximation. They can represent characteristics of polygonal surface well. The new error metric based on them, discrete curvature error metric, increases the accuracy of simplified model by preserving the geometric information of original model and can be used as a global error metric. Also we suggest that LOD should be generated not by a simplification ratio but by an error metric. Because LOD means the degree of closeness between original and each level's simplified model. Therefore discrete curvature error metric needs relatively more computations than known other error metrics, but it can efficiently generate and control LOD meshes which preserve overall appearance of original shape and are recognizable explicitly with each level.

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울릉분지 돌고래 시추공의 생층서: 고환경 및 이들의 석유탐사에의 응용

  • 이성숙;윤혜수;배부영;박세진;이의형;강소라;김재호;김기현
    • 한국석유지질학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.50-67
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    • 1999
  • Biostratigraphic and paleoenvironmental analyses are carried out on cutting samples from the Dolgorae wells drilled in the Ulleung basin. The clayey, silty, and sandy sediments of the wells yield various microfossil assemblages of relatively good preservation, among which five fossil groups are reported; a total of 97 foraminiferal species of 66 genera, 19 nannofossil species of 12 genera, 86 ostracod species of 41 genera, 107 diatom species of 44 genera, and 124 dinoflagellate cysts species of 45 genera. Based on microfossils the geologic ages of the Dolgorae wells are dated to be from late Early Miocene to Early Pleistocene. Several biohorizons are defined in Neogene successions by the LOD (Last Ocurrence Datum) and FOD (First Ocurrence Datum) of marker species including G. truncatulinoides (LOD: 1.9 Ma) of foraminifera; C. macintyeri (LOD: 1.64-1.60), G. oceanica (FOD: 1.65 Ma), G. caribbeanica (1.72 Ma), D. brouweri (LOD: 2 Ma), R. pseudoumbilica (LOD: 3.66 Ma), P. lacunosa (FOD: 4.2 Ma) of nannofossils; S. ellipsoideus (LOD: 4 Ma), S. palcacantha (LOD: 10.2), C. giusepei (LOD: 14 Ma) of dinocysts; D. seminae v. fossilis (FOD: 3.7 Ma), T. antiqua (LOD: 1.7 Ma), T. convexa (LOD: 2.4 Ma), N. kamtschatica (LOD: 2.58 Ma), T. oestrupii(FOD: 5.1 Ma) of diatoms. Abundance patterns of microfossils throughout the wells reflect changes in paleoenvironmental and sedimentological settings of the basin in relation to sea-level variations. According to these data the large-cycle and small-cycle changes of transgression and regression phases are observed in terrestrial to marine sediments. This high-resolution sequence biostratigraphy established by various fossil groups enabled more reliable correlation between strata and refined interpretation on deposition systems of the basin. It also proved to provide fundamental and precise informations regarding stratigraphic correlation, tectonic events, basin, and depositional history for hydrocarbon explorations, especially in collaboration with seismic-stratigrahic analyses.

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An Experimental Study on the Automatic Interlinking of Meaning for the LOD Construction of Record Information (기록정보 LOD 구축을 위한 의미 상호연결 자동화 실험 연구)

  • Ha, Seung-rok;An, Dae-Jin;Yim, Jin-hee
    • Journal of Korean Society of Archives and Records Management
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.177-200
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    • 2017
  • In a new technological environment such as big data and AI, LOD will link record information resources with various data from both inside and outside. At the heart of this connection is the interlinking technology, and interlinked LOD will realize the opening of record information as the highest level of open data. Given the ever-increasing amount of records, automation through interlinking algorithms is essential in building LODs. Therefore, this paper analyzed the structure of record information interlinking with the external data and characteristics of the record information to be considered when interconnecting. After collecting samples from the CAMS data of the National Archives, we constructed a record information's LOD. After that, we conducted a test bed that automatically interlinks the personal information of the record metadata with DBPedia. This confirms the automatic interlinking process and the performance and accuracy of the automation technology. Through the implications of the testbed, we have identified the considerations of the record information resources of the LOD interlinking process.

An Efficient Level-of-detail Control of Meshes by Region Tree (영역트리를 이용한 효율적인 세밀정도제어)

  • 황주영;이종현;김경호;임상석;박규호
    • Proceedings of the Korean Information Science Society Conference
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    • pp.595-597
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    • 1999
  • 기존의 LOD 제어방법들은 랜더링속도를 성공적으로 증가시켜왔으나 오버헤드가 크다는 단점을 갖고 있다. 이러한 오버헤드는 각 vertex마다 view-frustum clipping, back-face culling, 스크린 공간 기하학적 오차계산과 같은 view-dependent refinement criteria를 측정하고, 메쉬의 LOD를 바꾸기 위해서 edge collapse/vertex split를 수행하기 때문이다. 제안하는 방법은 메쉬를 여러 개의 region들로 나누고 vertex가 아닌 region에 대해 view-dependent refinement criteria를 측정하므로 오버헤드가 훨씬 작다. 또한 각 region 들의 LOD가 바뀔 때 미리 만들어 둔 LOD 버전들중에서 하나를 선택하기만 하면 되므로, edge collapse/vertex split을 수행하는 오버헤드는 없다. 실험적으로 제안하는 LOD 제어방법은 기존의 방법들보다 작은 메모리를 사용하고 LOD 제어 오버헤드도 적으며, LOD 제어를 하지 않은 경우보다 2배-5배의 랜더링 속도향상을 얻었다.

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