• Title, Summary, Keyword: LLC-PK1 cells

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Fucoidan Protects LLC-PK1 Cells against AAPH-induced Damage

  • Park, Min-Jung;Han, Ji-Sook
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.259-265
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    • 2008
  • This study was designed to investigate the protective effect of fucoidan against AAPH-induced oxidative stress in LLC-PK1 cells (porcine kidney epithelial cells). Oxidative stress was induced by exposing of LLC-PK1 cells to the 1 mM 2,2'-azobis(2-amidino propane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) for 24 hr. Exposure of LLC-PK1 cells to 1 mM AAPH for 24 hr resulted in a significant (p<0.05) decrease in cell viability, but fucoidan treatment protected LLC-PK1 cells from AAPH-induced cell damage in a dose dependant manner. To investigate the protective action of fucoidan against AAPH-induced damage of LLC-PK1 cells, we measured the effects of fucoidan on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes activities of AAPH treated cells as well as scavenging activities on superoxide anion radical and hydroxyl radical. Fucoidan had protective effect against the AAPH-induced LLC-PK1 cellular damage and decreased lipid peroxidation and increased activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px). Furthermore, fucoidan showed strong scavenging activity against superoxide anion radical. The $IC_{50}$ value of fucoidan was $48.37{\pm}1.54\;{\mu}g/mL$ for superoxide anion radical scavenging activity. The fucoidan also had high hydroxyl radical scavenging activity ($IC_{50}=32.03\;{\mu}g/mL$). These results indicate that fucoidan protects against AAPH-induced LLC-PK1 cell damage by inhibiting lipid peroxidation, increasing antioxidant enzyme activities and scavenging offree radicals.

Protective Effect of Sasa borealis Leaf Extract on AAPH-Induced Oxidative Stress in LLC-PK1 Cells

  • Hwang, Ji-Young;Lee, Hee-Seob;Han, Ji-Sook
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.12-17
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    • 2011
  • This study was designed to investigate the protective effect of Sasa borealis leaf extract on 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced oxidative stress in LLC-PK1 cells (porcine kidney epithelial cells). The butanol fraction from Sasa borealis leaf extract (SBBF) was used in this study because it possessed strong antioxidant activity and high yield among fractions. Exposure of LLC-PK1 cells to 1 mM AAPH for 24 hr resulted in a significant decrease in cell viability, but SBBF treatment protected LLC-PK1 cells from AAPH-induced cell damage in a dose dependant manner. To determine the protective action of SBBF against AAPH-induced damage of LLC-PK1 cells, we measured the effects of SBBF on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes activities of AAPH treated cells as well as scavenging activities on superoxide anion radical and hydroxyl radical. SBBF had a protective effect against the AAPH-induced LLC-PK1 cellular damage and decreased lipid peroxidation and increased activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. Furthermore, SBBF showed strong scavenging activity against superoxide anion radical. The $IC_{50}$ value of SBBF was $28.45{\pm}1.28\;{\mu}g/mL$ for superoxide anion radical scavenging activity. The SBBF also had high hydroxyl radical scavenging activity ($IC_{50}=31.09{\pm}3.08\;{\mu}g/mL$). These results indicate that SBBF protects AAPH-induced LLC-PK1 cells damage by inhibiting lipid peroxidation, increasing antioxidant enzyme activities and scavenging free radicals.

Endogenous Sphingoid Bases Accumulation by FTY720 in $LLC-PK_1$ Cells (FTY720에 의한 $LLC-PK_1$ 세포내 sphingoid bases의 축적)

  • 이우진;이용문
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.85-90
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    • 1999
  • FTY720, a novel immunosuppressant, elevated the level of endogenous sphingoid bases in a dose-dependent manner within 3 hr in $LLC-PK_1$ cells. The relative molar ratio of sphingoid bases expressed as sphingosine/sphinganine (SPN/SPA), a biomarker of altered sphingolipid biosynthesis, in $10{\;}{\mu}M$ of FTY720 showed tow-fold increase as compared with the one in control culture. FTY720 under the serum-free medium condition increased only cytosolic free sphingosine concentration, not sphinganine concentration in a time-dependent manner over the 8 hr incubation under the same condition as in serum free cultures, the SPN/SPA ratio began to fluctuate and the number of floating cells as an indicator of cytotoxicity was increased 8 hr after the addition of FTY720 to cultured cells. These results suggest that the process of FTY720-induced cell death in $LLC-PK_1$ cells.

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Protective Effects of Chungkookjang Extract on High Glucose Induced Oxidative Stress in LLC-PK1 Cells

  • Yi, Na-Ri;Seo, Kyoung-Chun;Choi, Ji-Myung;Cho, Eun-Ju;Song, Young-Ok;Han, Ji-Sook
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.84-89
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    • 2008
  • This study was designed to investigate the protective effect of a methanol extract of Chungkookjang (CKJ) on high glucose induced oxidative stress in LLC-$PK_1$ cells (renal tubular epithelial cells), which are susceptible to oxidative stress. Freeze dried CKJ powder was extracted with methanol, and the extract solution was concentrated, and then used in this study. To determine the protective effect of CKJ extract, oxidative stress was induced by exposing of LLC-$PK_1$ cells to high glucose (30 mM) or normal glucose (5 mM) for 24 hr. Exposure of LLC-$PK_1$ cells to high glucose for 24 hr resulted in a significant (p<0.05) decrease in cell viability, catalase, SOD and GSH-px activity and a significant (p<0.05) increase in intracellular ROS level and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) formation in comparison to the cells treated with 5 mM glucose. CKJ extract treatment decreased intracellular ROS level and TBARS formation, and increased cell viability and activities of antioxidant enzymes including catalase, SOD and GSH-px in high glucose pretreated LLC-$PK_1$ cells. These results suggest that CKJ extract may be able to protect LLC-$PK_1$ cells from high glucose-induced oxidative stress, partially through the antioxidative defense systems.

Protective Effect of Membrane-Free Stem Cell Extract against Oxidative Stress in LLC-PK1 Cells (무막줄기세포추출물의 LLC-PK1 세포에서의 산화적 스트레스 개선 효과)

  • Kim, Min Jeong;Kim, Ji Hyun;Park, Hye Sook;Kim, Young Sil;Cho, Eun Ju
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.20 no.8
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    • pp.303-312
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    • 2019
  • Oxidative stress in kidneys can precede the development of chronic renal injury. We investigated the antioxidative effect of membrane-free stem cell extract (MFSCE) from adipose tissue in LLC-$PK_1$ renal proximal tubule cells. Treatment of LLC-$PK_1$ cells with MFSCE showed the up-regulation of heme-oxygenase-1, thioredoxin reductase 1, and NADPH quinine oxidoreductase-1 protein expressions, which are proteins related with antioxidative activities. When oxidative stress was induced by 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1), cell viability was decreased, indicating that LLC-$PK_1$ cells were damaged by SIN-1. However, MFSCE significantly elevated cell viability from 58.84% to 64.43% at the concentration of $2.5{\mu}g/mL$ in oxidative stress-induced LLC-$PK_1$ cells. Furthermore, MFSCE ameliorated inflammation and apoptosis in SIN-1-treated LLC-$PK_1$ cells by modulating protein expressions. Inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 protein expressions were down-regulated when LLC-$PK_1$ cells were treated with MFSCE. Apoptosis-related proteins, including B-cell lymphoma-2-associated X protein/B-cell lymphoma-2 ratio, cleaved caspase-3, and cleaved-poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, were also down-regulated. It indicated that MFSCE protected apoptosis against oxidative stress in LLC-$PK_1$ cells. Taken together, these results suggested that MFSCE had a protective effect against SIN-1-induced oxidative stress in LLC-$PK_1$ cells. Therefore, MFSCE could be a promising therapeutic agent for oxidative stress-induced renal injury.

Production of Exo-polysaccharide from Submerged Culture of Grifola frondosa and Its Antioxidant Activity

  • Lee, Keyong-Ho;Yoon, Won-Ho
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.18 no.5
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    • pp.1253-1257
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    • 2009
  • Exo-polysaccharide isolated from the culture of Grifola frondosa was modified by sodium periodate ($NaIO_4$) and sodium chlorite ($NaClO_2$) to delete polysaccharide part and phenolic compound, respectively, and was investigated what effect has each part of exo-polysaccharide against 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced oxidative stress in porcine kidney epithelial cells (LLC-PK1). Oxidative stress on LLC-PK1 cell was measured by cell viability, lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) activity. Exposure of LLC-PK1 cells to 1 mM AAPH for 24 hr resulted in significant decrease in cell viability, SOD, and GSH-px action, and significant increase in lipid peroxidation. The treatment of exo-polysaccharide and $NaIO_4$ modified sample protected LLC-PK1 cells from AAPH-induced cell damage such as cell viability, lipid peroxidation, SOD, and GSH-px activity in a dose dependant manner (10, 100, and $500{\mu}g/mL$). However, the treatment of $NaClO_2$ modified sample did not affect for cell viability, lipid peroxidation, SOD, and GSH-px activity. The antioxidant activity of exo-polysaccharide was significantly decreased on AAPH-induced LLC-PK1 cell system when phenolic compound was deleted. The antioxidant activity was significantly correlated with the content of phenolic compound of exo-polysaccharide.

Fumonisin $B_1$-induced Alteration of Sphingolipid Metabolism in $LLC-PK_1$ Cells ($LLC-PK_1$ 세포에서의 퓨모너신 $B_1$에 의해 유도된 스핑고리피드 대사)

  • Yoo, Hwan-Soo;Yun, Yeo-Pyo
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.41 no.6
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    • pp.789-796
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    • 1997
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of sulfinpyrazone on fumonisin $B_1$-induced elevation of free sphingoid bases in LLC-$PK_1$ cells. Fumonis ins are a family of mycotoxins produced by the fungi Fusarium moniliforme which is common contaminant in corn. Fumonisins are also potent inhibiors of sphingosine and sphinganine N-acyltransferases (ceramide synthases), key enzymes in sphingolipid metabolism resulting in the elevation of free sphinganine. The cytosolic concentration of fumonisin B1 was known to be closely proportional to the elevation of free sphinganine in LLC-PK1 cells [Yoo, H.-S., Norred, W.P., Wang, E., Merrill, A.H., Jr., and Riley, R.T. (1992) Toxicol. Appl.Pharmacol. 114. 9-15]. Sulfinpyrazone, an anion transport inhibitor, reduced the elevated level of free sphinganine resulting from fumonisin B1 inhibition of de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis. Fumonisin B1 at a concentration of 20${\mu}$M showed approximately 120pmol/$10^6$ cells relative to 3-10pmol/$10^6$ cells in control cultures, and sulfinpyrazone at a concentration of 200${\mu}$M partially reversed the increased level of free sphinganine induced by fumonisin $B_1$ down to normal level after exposure to fumonisin $B_1$ for 8 to 24hr. However, the reduced effect of sulfinpyrazone on the fumonisin $B_1$-induced elevation of intracellular sphinganine was not shown after 24hr. Fumonisin $B_1$ exposure to LLC-PK1 cells for 36 and 48hr showed approximately 74 and 80pmol per $10^6$ cells relative to 82 and 76pmol,respectively, in fumonisin $B_1$ plus sulfinpyrazone-treated cultures. Sulfinpyrazone-induced less elevation of free sphinganine in confluent cells after exposure to fumonisin $B_1$ suggested that either sulfinpyrazone may block the availability of fumonisin $B_1$ to cells or act on the fumonisin $B_1$ interaction with ceramide synthase.

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Antioxidative effects of fermented sesame sauce against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage in LLC-PK1 porcine renal tubule cells

  • Song, Jia-Le;Choi, Jung-Ho;Seo, Jae-Hoon;Kil, Jeung-Ha;Park, Kun-Young
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.138-145
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    • 2014
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: This study was performed to investigate the in vitro antioxidant and cytoprotective effects of fermented sesame sauce (FSeS) against hydrogen peroxide ($H_2O_2$)-induced oxidative damage in renal proximal tubule LLC-PK1 cells. MATERIALS/METHODS: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl radical ($^{\bullet}OH$), and $H_2O_2$ scavenging assay was used to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activity of FSeS. To investigate the cytoprotective effect of FSeS against $H_2O_2$-induced oxidative damage in LLC-PK1 cells, the cellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation, and endogenous antioxidant enzymes including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) were measured. RESULTS: The ability of FSeS to scavenge DPPH, $^{\bullet}OH$ and $H_2O_2$ was greater than that of FSS and AHSS. FSeS also significantly inhibited $H_2O_2$-induced ($500{\mu}M$) oxidative damage in the LLC-PK1 cells compared to FSS and AHSS (P < 0.05). Following treatment with $100{\mu}g/mL$ of FSeS and FSS to prevent $H_2O_2$-induced oxidation, cell viability increased from 56.7% (control) to 83.7% and 75.6%, respectively. However, AHSS was not able to reduce $H_2O_2$-induced cell damage (viability of the AHSS-treated cells was 54.6%). FSeS more effectively suppressed $H_2O_2$-induced ROS generation and lipid peroxidation compared to FSS and AHSS (P < 0.05). Compared to the other sauces, FSeS also significantly increased cellular CAT, SOD, and GSH-px activities and mRNA expression (P < 0.05). CONCULUSIONS: These results from the present study suggest that FSeS is an effective radical scavenger and protects against $H_2O_2$-induced oxidative damage in LLC-PK1 cells by reducing ROS levels, inhibiting lipid peroxidation, and stimulating antioxidant enzyme activity.

Inhibition of de Novo Sphingolipid Biosynthesis by Geranyllinalool in $LLC-PK_1$ Cells (Geranyllinalool에 의한 LLC-PK1 세포내 스핑고지질 생합성 억제)

  • 조양혁;이용문
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.61-67
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    • 1999
  • Geranyllinalool, a polyisoprenoid compound, was found to block the early biosynthetic pathway of sphingolipids in LLC-PKl cells. Sphinganine, an intermediate in sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway, was abruptly accumulated in LLC-PKl cells at $2{\;}{\mu}M$ of fumonisin B1(FB1), a specific inhibitor of sphinganine N-acyltransferase, for 24 hr. Geranyllinalool lowered the $B_1(FB_1)$, a specific inhibitor of sphinganine N-acyltransferase, for 24 hr. Geranyllinalool lowered th FB1 and $50{\;}\mu$M geranyllinalool. l-Cy-closerine, an inhibitor of serine-palmitoyl transferase, was used as a positive control to evaluate the inhibitory effect of geranyllinalool. These results suggest that geranyllinalool may inhibit the serine-palmitoyl transferase, the first enzyme in de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis, resulting in the altered regulation of sphingolipid metabolism.

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Protective Effect of Ginsenoside Rgl on H2O2-Induced Cell Death by the Decreased Ceramide Level in LLC-PK1 Cells

  • Lee, Youn-Sun;Yoo, Jae-Myung;Shin, Hyun-Woo;Kim, Dong-Hyun;Lee, Yong-Moon;Yun, Yeo-Pyo;Hong, Jin-Tae;Oh, Sei-Kwan;Yoo, Hwan-Soo
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2006
  • Ceramide has been involved in celt death and acted as a lipid mediator of stress responses. Elevation of ceramide level was reported to occur in oxidative stress and lead to cell death in many cell types. This study was undertaken to elucidate a protective role of ginsenoside Rgl in cell death induced by oxidative stress. When LLC-PK1 cells were treated with $H_2O_2$ at a concentration of $400{\mu}M$ for 5 hr, cell death was observed and a released LDH activity indicative of cytotoxicity was Increased. $H_2O_2$ exposure to LLC-PK1 cells was shown to elevate the content of total ceramide by approximately 200% compared to control cells. Ceramide level was hypothesized to be a key to a reversal of cell death to survival. Ginsenoside Rgl at the concentrations ranging from 12.5 to $250{\mu}M$ protected LLC-PK1 cells from cell death induced by $H_2O_2\;at\;400{\mu}M$ for 5 hr, and decreased the ceramide level relative to $H_2O_2$. Ginsenoside Rgl inhibited neutral human ceramidase by 71% of controls, while sphingomyelinase was not inhibited. These results suggest that ginsenoside Rgl show the protection against cell death via the modulation of ceramide metabolism, and ceramide may be a promising therapeutic target for human diseases related to cell death.