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CLASSIFICATION OF THE EQUIVARIANT LINE BUNDLES OVER $S^1$ (원 위에서의 EQUIVARIANT LINE BUNDLE 의 분류)

  • Kim, Seong-Suk
    • The Journal of Natural Sciences
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.1-3
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    • 1992
  • G가 compact Lie 군이고 $\pi$ : $E to S^1$$S^1$ 상의 G-line bundle 일때, 군 작용이 없다면, 부드러운 trivial G-line bundle $E to S^1$ 은 S(V) $\times$ $\delta to S(V)$ 와 동치이고 부드러운 nontrivial G-line bundle $E to S^1$ 은 S(V) $\times$$z_2$ $\delta to S(V)$/$Z_2$=P(V)와 동치 이다.

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CELLULAR EMBEDDINGS OF LINE GRAPHS AND LIFTS

  • Kim, Jin-Hwan
    • Bulletin of the Korean Mathematical Society
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.175-184
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    • 2002
  • A Cellular embedding of a graph G into an orientable surface S can be considered as a cellular decomposition of S into 0-cells, 1-cells and 2-cells and vise versa, in which 0-cells and 1-cells form a graph G and this decomposition of S is called a map in S with underlying graph G. For a map M with underlying graph G, we define a natural rotation on the line graph of the graph G and we introduce the line map for M. we find that genus of the supporting surface of the line map for a map and we give a characterization for the line map to be embedded in the sphere. Moreover we show that the line map for any life of a map M is map-isomorphic to a lift of the line map for M.

The Effect of the Characteristics of Fabrics and Subjective Sensory Images on the Off-line and On-line Preferences of Women's Suit Fabrics

  • Kim, Hee-Sook;Na, Mi-Hee
    • International Journal of Human Ecology
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.105-115
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    • 2012
  • This research investigated the influences of structural characteristics such as fabrics, mechanical properties, and subjective sensory images on the off-line and on-line preferences to women's spring/summer suits fabrics to extract the most effective factor towards preference as well as analyze the preferential off-line and on-line differences to predict the exact texture image on-line. Objective evaluations were done for the measurement of the mechanical properties of fabrics using Kawabata's Evaluation System and subjective evaluations were done with 109 female subjects who value the off-line and on-line sensory image of suit fabrics. For statistical analysis, factor analysis, cluster analysis, t-test, ANOVA, and regression were used. The results were as follows. The preference scores on-line were generally higher than those off-line. For the structural characteristics of fabrics, differences of thickness were observed according to preference clusters, and the preference increased as thickness was lowered off-line and on-line. For mechanical properties, WC influenced off-line and on-line preferences. Fabrics with low compression energy were preferred; however, the effect of SMD was observed off-line only. In subjective sensory images, the 'smoothness' image influenced off-line and on-line preferences the most. All sensory images influenced the off-line preferences; however, the effects of 'flexibility' and 'weight' were not shown on-line.

The Effect of Consumer's Prosumer Propensity on the WOM Effect of Fashion Website (소비자의 프로슈머 성향이 인터넷 패션사이트의 구전효과에 미치는 영향)

  • Hong, Keum-Hee
    • Fashion & Textile Research Journal
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.75-82
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    • 2012
  • Compared to off-line, on-line word-of-mouth has fast dissemination speed and extensive effects based on interactive features. Moreover, in the age of Web 2.0, on-line media has made consumers evolve from simple purchasers to producers, who intervene into product manufacturing through on-line WOM. According to this, this study is conducted to clarify how consumer's prosumer propensity affects WOM in detail when purchasing fashion products on-line through website interactivity and perceived usefulness of WOM. The results are as follows. 1. Consumer's prosumer propensity is classified in four dimensions: the propensity to participate, the propensity to relate, the propensity to amuse and the propensity to create. 2. The sample has shown low prosumer propensity overall, and there were no gender differences. 3. Testing structural equation model, it was clarified that the higher the consumer's prosumer propensity, the higher the consumer's evaluation of website interactivity and thus the greater the WOM effect through its perception of usefulness. 4. There were some differences in the path of structural equation model according to consumer's prosumer propensity. From the results, it can be concluded that consumer's prosumer propensity is a key factor in the on-line WOM. Therefore fashion businesses should actively utilize consumer's prosumer propensity to apply their opinion in the product planning stage or use it as the means of company-friendly viral marketing.

A Geophysical Study for the Subsurface Structure of the Bomun Basin (보문분지 구조파악을 위한 지구물리탐사)

  • Suh, Man-Cheol;Yun, Hye-Su
    • Journal of the Korean Geophysical Society
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.67-74
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    • 2000
  • Subsurface structure of the Bomun basin was studied along three survey tracks of Line-1, Line-2, and Line-3 using geomagnetic, radioactive, and seismic refraction methods. Abrupt changes found at 2.55 km west and 1.6 km east in the profile of magnetic anomaly along Line-1 are correlated with geologic boundary of the basin. Profiles of radioactive intensity also represent abrupt changes at 2.55 km west of Line-1 and at 1.9 km of Line-2. Cretaceous basement rock has relatively high magnetic anomaly of $200\;{\sim}\;500\;nT$ while sedimentary rocks of the Bomun basin have relatively low magnetic anomaly of $-100\;{\sim}\;+100\;nT$. Radioactive intensity also represents charateristic differences between Cretaceous basement and sedimentary rocks of the Bomun basin. Rocks of Cretaceous basement have lower radioactive intensity than the rocks of the Bomun basin. Magnetic anomaly of of the Bomun basin represents lowest anomaly in western part and increases gradullay toward east. This phenomenon is interpreted as a half graben structure dipping westward. Black shale known by previous studies near the western boundary has high magnetic anomalies and low radioactive intensity. This phenomenon provide a possibility of volcanic rock rather than black shale near the western boundary of the basin along Line-1. Sedimentary layers having velocities of 455 m/s, 1904 m/s, and 2662 m/s are developed to have westward dipping of $2.3^{\circ}$ in the central area of the Bomun basin. The result is consistent with a half-graben model dipping westward which were derieved from magnetic anomaly data.

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Physiological Evaluation of Transgenic Rice Developed for Drought Tolerance

  • Ghimiren Sita Ram;Park Sang-Kyu;Kang Dong-Jin;Lee In-Jung;Shin Dong-Hyun;Kim Sung-Uk;Kim Kil-Ung
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.133-137
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    • 2006
  • Evaluation of physiological performance of trehalose-producing transgenic rice line was conducted to investigate drought tolerance at early growth stage. Under artificially induced drought condition of 8% polyethylene glycol 6000, this transgenic rice line had leaf photosynthetic rate of 11.08 uml CO$_2$ $m^{-2}s^{-1}$, leaf transpiration rate of 8.38 mmol $H_2O$ $m^{-2}s^{-1}$ and leaf water potential of -1.12 MPa after 96 hours of treatment. Nakdongbyeo, the parent of this tyansgenic rice line, had photosynthetic rate of 15.42 $\mu$mol CO$_2$ $m^{-2}s^{-1}$, leaf transpiration rate of 8,04 mmol $H_2O$ $m^{-2}s^{-1}$ and leaf water potential of -0.88 MPa. The other variety used in this experiment for comparison, IR 72, showed higher values than both tyansgenic rice line and variety Nakdonbyeo on all three parameters; leaf photosynthetic rate of 20.61 $\mu$mol CO$_2$ $m^{-2}s^{-1}$, leaf transpiration rate of 12.88 mmol $H_2O$ $m^{-2}s^{-1}$, and leaf water potential of -0.82 MPa. So this transgenic rice line did not show superior performance in leaf transpiration rate, leaf photosynthetic rate and leaf water potential compared to variety Nakdongbyeo. This result along with visual observation on leaf rolling and drying during the experimental period indicated poor physiological performance of this transgenic rice line. Further studies on metabolic status of stress-induced trehalose, along with study on physiological response of this transgenic rice line during drought stress would shed more light on overall physiological performance of this transgenic rice line.

The Line n-sigraph of a Symmetric n-sigraph-V

  • Reddy, P. Siva Kota;Nagaraja, K.M.;Geetha, M.C.
    • Kyungpook Mathematical Journal
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    • v.54 no.1
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    • pp.95-101
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    • 2014
  • An n-tuple ($a_1,a_2,{\ldots},a_n$) is symmetric, if $a_k$ = $a_{n-k+1}$, $1{\leq}k{\leq}n$. Let $H_n$ = {$(a_1,a_2,{\ldots},a_n)$ ; $a_k$ ${\in}$ {+,-}, $a_k$ = $a_{n-k+1}$, $1{\leq}k{\leq}n$} be the set of all symmetric n-tuples. A symmetric n-sigraph (symmetric n-marked graph) is an ordered pair $S_n$ = (G,${\sigma}$) ($S_n$ = (G,${\mu}$)), where G = (V,E) is a graph called the underlying graph of $S_n$ and ${\sigma}$:E ${\rightarrow}H_n({\mu}:V{\rightarrow}H_n)$ is a function. The restricted super line graph of index r of a graph G, denoted by $\mathcal{R}\mathcal{L}_r$(G). The vertices of $\mathcal{R}\mathcal{L}_r$(G) are the r-subsets of E(G) and two vertices P = ${p_1,p_2,{\ldots},p_r}$ and Q = ${q_1,q_2,{\ldots},q_r}$ are adjacent if there exists exactly one pair of edges, say $p_i$ and $q_j$, where $1{\leq}i$, $j{\leq}r$, that are adjacent edges in G. Analogously, one can define the restricted super line symmetric n-sigraph of index r of a symmetric n-sigraph $S_n$ = (G,${\sigma}$) as a symmetric n-sigraph $\mathcal{R}\mathcal{L}_r$($S_n$) = ($\mathcal{R}\mathcal{L}_r(G)$, ${\sigma}$'), where $\mathcal{R}\mathcal{L}_r(G)$ is the underlying graph of $\mathcal{R}\mathcal{L}_r(S_n)$, where for any edge PQ in $\mathcal{R}\mathcal{L}_r(S_n)$, ${\sigma}^{\prime}(PQ)$=${\sigma}(P){\sigma}(Q)$. It is shown that for any symmetric n-sigraph $S_n$, its $\mathcal{R}\mathcal{L}_r(S_n)$ is i-balanced and we offer a structural characterization of super line symmetric n-sigraphs of index r. Further, we characterize symmetric n-sigraphs $S_n$ for which $\mathcal{R}\mathcal{L}_r(S_n)$~$\mathcal{L}_r(S_n)$ and $$\mathcal{R}\mathcal{L}_r(S_n){\sim_=}\mathcal{L}_r(S_n)$$, where ~ and $$\sim_=$$ denotes switching equivalence and isomorphism and $\mathcal{R}\mathcal{L}_r(S_n)$ and $\mathcal{L}_r(S_n)$ are denotes the restricted super line symmetric n-sigraph of index r and super line symmetric n-sigraph of index r of $S_n$ respectively.

The National and Regional Differences of the Collegian's Usage in the Catalog and On-line Shopping for Apparel (대학생의 의류통신판매에 대한 비교 연구)

  • Kim, Son-Hee;Choi, Hei-Sun
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.157-167
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    • 1999
  • This study was designed to identify the recent status of the catalog and on-line apparel shopping in Korea and compare to those in the U.S.. Data were gathered from 308 respondents in Korea and 112 in the U.S. by the on-line survey. The results are as follows; 1) The U.S. consumers had more apparel shopping experience and higher level of satisfaction than Korean consumers about the catalog and on line apparel shopping, 2) Although the residents in Taejon area had less apparel shopping experience using catalog and on-line facilities than those in Seoul area, they showed higher level of interests about on-line shopping in Korea. 3) Male respondents had more shopping experience using pc-net and internet than female respondents, and the interests about on-line shopping of the younger group were higher than those of the older age group.

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A Study on the Leg of Mutton Sleeve Pattern Design of the Ladies' Costume of the 1890's (1890년대 여성복의 Leg of Mutton Sleeve 패턴 설계에 관한 연구)

  • Moon, Myeng-Ok
    • Fashion & Textile Research Journal
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.130-139
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    • 2009
  • This study was conducted to reproduce the Leg of Mutton Sleeve pattern of the ladies' costume of the 1890's for Korean women of the twenties who have the standard body type and the average size. Nineteen Leg of Mutton Sleeve patterns of the ladies' costume of the 1890's were collected and drawn to actual size. Nineteen Leg of Mutton Sleeve patterns of the ladies' costume of the 1890's were classified into three groups(S1~S3) by the pattern pieces and the bend of the lower part of the elbow line. The S1 was one-piece sleeve pattern and the lower part of the elbow line of S1 was not bent. The gathers volume of sleeve cap of S1 was smaller than S2 and S3. The S2 was one-piece sleeve pattern and the lower part of the elbow line of S2 was bent. The S2 pattern had typical characteristics of the Leg of Mutton Sleeve that the gathers volume of sleeve cap was large and the lower part of elbow line was tight. The S3 was two-piece sleeve pattern and the lower part of the elbow line of S3 was bent. The gathers volume of sleeve cap of S3 was similar with S2. The study patterns of three groups of the Leg of Mutton Sleeve which had the characteristics and the silhouette of the Leg of Mutton Sleeve pattern of the ladies' costume of the 1890's were designed like for Korean women of the twenties who have the standard body type and the average size through modifications based on the evaluation of dressing on two occasions. The study pattern of three groups of the Leg of Mutton Sleeve were evaluated to have the silhouette of the Leg of Mutton Sleeve of the 1890's and to fit Korean women of the twenties who have the standard body type and the average size with the sensory test.

Tinkering with Number Lines

  • Lee, Ji-Eun;Lee, Mi Yeon
    • Research in Mathematical Education
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.1-13
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    • 2018
  • While the utility of the number line is considerable, articulating its conceptual foundation is often neglected in school mathematics. We suggest that it is important to build up strong conceptual foundations in the earlier grades so that number lines can be used in a more meaningful way and that any misconceptions associated with the number line can be prevented or intervened. This paper addresses unit, direction, and origin as the key elements of number lines and presents activities from Davydov's curriculum for early grades that promote exploration of those key elements and may resolve some students' misconceptions. As shown in sample activities from Davydov's curriculum, this paper suggests that students can broaden their perspectives on the number line and use it versatilely in various areas of mathematics learning when they deeply engage in the construction of a number line and have flexibility in interpreting the relationships between key number line elements.