• Title, Summary, Keyword: LEEP

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Long-term Outcomes of a Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure for Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia in a High Incidence Country

  • Sangkarat, Suthi;Ruengkhachorn, Irene;Benjapibal, Mongkol;Laiwejpithaya, Somsak;Wongthiraporn, Weerasak;Rattanachaiyanont, Manee
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.1035-1039
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    • 2014
  • Aim: To evaluate the operative, oncologic and obstetric outcomes of the loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) in cases with cervical neoplasia. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted on patients who were suspected of cervical neoplasia and therefore undergoing LEEP at Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Thailand, during 1995-2000. Outcome measures included operative complications in 407 LEEP patients and long-term outcomes in the 248 patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) who were treated with only LEEP. Results: There were 407 patients undergoing LEEP; their mean age was $39.7{\pm}10.5$ years. The histopathology of LEEP specimens revealed that 89 patients (21.9%) had lesions ${\leq}CIN$ I, 295 patients (72.5%) had CIN II or III, and 23 patients (5.6%) had invasive lesions. Operative complications were found in 15 patients and included bleeding (n=9), and infection (n=7). After diagnostic LEEP, 133 patients underwent hysterectomy as the definite treatment for cervical neoplasia. Of 248 CIN patients who had LEEP only, seven (2.8%) had suffered recurrence after a median of 16 (range 6-93) months; one had CIN I, one had CIN II, and five had CIN III. All of these recurrent patients achieved remission on surgical treatment with re-LEEP (n=6) or simple hysterectomy (n=1). A significant factor affecting recurrent disease was the LEEP margin involved with the lesion (p=0.05). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed 5-year and 10-year disease-free survival (DFS) estimates of 99.9%. Twelve patients became pregnant a total of 14 times, resulting in 12 term deliveries and two miscarriages - one of which was due to an incompetent cervix. Conclusions: LEEP for patients with cervical neoplasia delivers favorable surgical, oncologic and obstetric outcomes.

Is the Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure Necessary for Minor Cervical Cytological Abnormalities?

  • Aksan-Desteli, Guldeniz;Gursu, Turkan;Baykal, Cem Murat
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.305-308
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    • 2014
  • Background: To investigate the indications of loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) and its overtreatment rates for the see and treat and three step strategies in cases of atypical squamous cells of undetermined cytology (ASC-US) and low grade intraepithelial neoplasia (LGSIL) cytology. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed colposcopy directed biopsy (CDB) and LEEP results of 176 paients with ASC-US or LGSIL cytologies who underwent colposcopic examination. Results: Initial cytologies were ASCUS in 120 women and LGSIL in 56. According to the see and treat approach immediate LEEP was performed for38 women. Among the remaining 138 women, LEEP was performed for 32 whose CDB results revealed CIN2/3 lesions. In the see and treat group the recognition of CIN2/3 was found to be 39.4%. The overtreatment rate was 60% as compared to 25% in the three step group. In CDB group detection of CIN 2 or greater lesions increased with 3 or more biopsies. Conclusions: In patients with ASC-US/LGSIL cytologies CDB should be performed before LEEP to prevent overtreatment, with attention to all suspected areas and more than 2 biopsies taken.

Post-Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure Complications in Srinagarind Hospital

  • Maleerat, Pimjai;Chumworathayi, Bandit;Kietpeerakool, Chumnan;Luanratanakorn, Sanguanchoke;Temtanakitpaisan, Amornrat
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.2211-2215
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and predictors of post-Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure (LEEP) complications in Srinagarind Hospital, Khon Kaen, Thailand. Retrospective chart review was performed for 200 patients undergoing LEEP during January 2012 to February 2013. Their mean age was 45 years-old. Fifty-three (26.5%) were menopausal. The three most common preceding abnormal cervical cytology were high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL; 50%), atypical squamous cell cannot exclude HSIL (ASC-H; 10.5%), and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL; 10%). The overall complications prevalence rate was 16.5% (95%CI, 11.4-21.6). Complications included bleeding (11%; 95%CI, 6.66-15.3), offensive discharge (4%; 95%CI, 1.28-6.72), and pelvic inflammatory disease (1.5%; 95%CI, 0.18-3.18). Only mode of delivery was an independent predictor of post-LEEP complications. Women with previous caesarean sections carried an increased risk of complications by 3.9 times (95%CI, 1.21-12.56) compared with vaginal delivery. In conclusion, LEEP is generally safe with an acceptable complication rate. Previous caesarean section was the only independent predictor for post-LEEP complications. However, this predictor still needs prudent evaluation as no clear cause-effect relationship was identified.

Comparison of Two Step LEEP and Cold Conisation For Cervical Intraepithelial Lesions to Decrease Positive Surgical Margins

  • Senol, Taylan;Polat, Mesut;Ozkaya, Enis;Karateke, Ates
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.7
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    • pp.3317-3320
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: To assess the success rates of two step loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) compared with conventional cold conization procedures for decreasing positive surgical margins. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 70 patients who underwent colposcopic evaluation in Zeynep Kamil Women and Children's Health Training and Research Hospital between 2013-2015 with indications of CIN 2/3 or persistent CIN 1 for more than 2 years. The study included age matched groups of patients with similar histopathololical lesions who underwent cold conization (n=40) or LEEP (N=30). Results: Comparison of tissue characteristics between the two groups revealed significantly higher deepest depth and lower volume of tissue removed by the two step LEEP. Ectocervical positivity rate was similar between groups (1/39 versus 0/29, P>0.05), while endocervical surgical margin positivity rate was significantly higher in the cold conization group (9/39 versus 0/29, P<0.05). Surgical margin positive cases were significantly older than the cases with negative margins (P<0.05). Conclusions: Two step LEEP made it easier to reach the squamocolumnar junction in the endocervical region with lower blood loss and applicability in office settings. Our study suggests to use two step approach in cases with high grade and glandular CIN.

Application of HPV DNA Testing in Follow-up after Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedures in Northern Thailand

  • Khunamornpong, Surapan;Settakorn, Jongkolnee;Sukpan, Kornkanok;Kietpeerakool, Chumnan;Tantipalakorn, Charuwan;Suprasert, Prapaporn;Siriaunkgul, Sumalee
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.14
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    • pp.6093-6097
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    • 2015
  • Background: HPV DNA testing has been recently introduced as an adjunct test to cytology in the follow-up of patients after treatment for cervical lesions using the loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP). The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of HPV testing in the detection of persistent or recurrent disease after LEEP in patients with cervical epithelial lesions in northern Thailand. Materials and Methods: Patients who underwent LEEP as a treatment for histological low-grade (LSIL) or high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) or worse at Chiang Mai University Hospital between June 2010 and May 2012 were included. Follow-ups were scheduled at 6-month intervals and continued for 2 years using co-testing (liquid-based cytology and Hybrid Capture 2 [HC2]) at 6 months and 24 months and liquid-based cytology alone at 12 and 18 months. Results: Of 98 patients included, the histological diagnoses for LEEP included LSIL in 16 patients, and HSIL or worse in 82 patients. The LEEP margin status was negative in 84 patients (85.7%). At follow-up, 10 patients (10.2%) had persistent/recurrent lesions; 4 among LSIL patients (25.0%) and 6 in the group with HSIL or worse (7.3%). Only 2 of 82 patients (2.4%) with HSIL or worse diagnoses had histological HSIL in the persistent/recurrent lesions. Using histologically confirmed LSIL as the threshold for the detection of persistent/recurrent disease, cytology had a higher sensitivity than HC2 (90.0% versus 70.0%). At the 6-month follow-up appointment, combined cytology and HC2 (co-testing) had a higher sensitivity in predicting persistent/recurrent disease (80.0%) compared with that of cytology alone (70.0%) and HC2 (50.0%). Conclusions: After LEEP with a negative surgical margin, the rate of persistent/recurrent lesions is low. The addition of HPV testing at the 6-month visit to the usual cytology schedule may be an effective approach in the follow-up after LEEP.

Cytohistologic Discrepancy of High-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions in Papanicolaou Smears

  • Poomtavorn, Yenrudee;Himakhun, Wanwisa;Suwannarurk, Komsun;Thaweekul, Yuthadej;Maireang, Karicha
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.599-602
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    • 2013
  • Objectives: To evaluate the frequency of cytohistologic discrepancy of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs) in Pap smears and associated factors. Methods: Medical records of 223 women with HSIL Pap smears who were treated at Thammasat University Hospital were reviewed. Data on age, parity, menopausal status, contraceptive use and colposcopic directed biopsy and loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) pathology results were recorded. Results: Mean (SD) age of patients was 38.0 (9.4) years. The majority were premenopausal (86.5%) and multiparous (83.9%). Cytohistologic discrepancy between the Pap test and colposcopic-directed biopsy histology was 45.7% and that between the Pap test and LEEP histology was 29.5%. Fifty-four (24.2%) women had no high-grade CIN on both colposcopic directed biopsy and LEEP. Nulliparity, postmenopausal status and having no oral contraceptive pills use were factors associated with cytohistologic discrepancy. Conclusion: The exact cytohistologic discrepancy rate was relatively high (24.2%). Factors associated with cytohistologic discrepancy were nulliparity and postmenopausal status and having no oral contraceptive pill use.

Herbal Medicine for Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia After Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (자궁경부 상피내종양의 환상투열요법 후 한약치료의 효과 : 체계적 문헌고찰 및 메타분석)

  • Lee, Su-Jeong;Ji, Hae-Ri;Lee, Hye-Jung;Hwang, Deok-Sang;Lee, Chang-Hoon;Jang, Jun-Bock;Lee, Jin-Moo
    • The Journal of Korean Obstetrics and Gynecology
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.44-62
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    • 2020
  • Objectives: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of herbal medicine for recovery and treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) after loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP). Methods: We searched two english, one chinese and four korean database up to November 4, 2019. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were eligible. Primary outcome included Human papilloma virus (HPV) clearance rate and the effective ratio of treatment. And vaginal bleeding time and volume, improvement of symptoms, and recovery of wound were regarded as secondary outcomes. The risk of bias was assessed by two independent authors using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Results: Of 47 screened, 10 RCTs were included. Number of participants per study ranged from 58 to 360. The studies which used HPV clearance rate as primary outcome were considered as low risk of bias. Most of the studies had considerable heterogeneity in terms of type of intervention, comparison and time-points for outcome measurement. Compared to LEEP alone, herbal vaginal suppository combined group showed favorable results for HPV clearance in patients (5 studies, n=627, 95% CI 1.26 to 1.55, I2=75%). And compared to LEEP alone, herbal external application also showed favorable results for HPV clearance in patients (2 studies, n=252, 95% CI 1.19 to 1.61, I2=86%). Three studies reported mild and temporary adverse events, and no serious adverse events were reported. Conclusions: The studies showed that herbal medicine can significantly effective on recovery of CIN after LEEP. However, included studies suffered from incomplete reporting, high or unclear risk of bias and substantial heterogeneity between studies. In the Future, further high-quality RCTs are needed to prove effectiveness of herbal medicine for CIN after LEEP and reduce the risk of bias.

Pap Smear Combined with HPV Testing: A Reasonable Tool for Women with High-grade Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Treated by LEEP

  • Mo, Ling-Zhao;Song, Hong-Lin;Wang, Jian-Li;He, Qing;Qiu, Zhang-Can;Li, Fei
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.10
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    • pp.4297-4302
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    • 2015
  • Background: To evaluate HPV testing by Hybrid Capture II (HCII) in conjunction with cytology in detecting the residual/recurrence disease after treatment of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN II-III) with loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP). Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of 158 patients with histologically confirmed CIN II-III who underwent LEEP between January 2011 and October 2012 was conducted. Post-treatment control was scheduled at the 3rd, 6th, 12th and 18th month. All patients were followed up by Pap smear and HR-HPV genotype and viral load testing. Results: Pre-treatment, HR-HPV DNA, was detected in all specimens of the patients. At follow-up, 25 patients were diagnosed as the residual/recurrent disease during the FU visit, among whom, 16 patients with positive margin: 13 patients (52%) with HR-HPV DNA+/cytology+, 2 patients (8%) with HR-HPV DNA+/cytology-, 1 patient (4%) with cytology+/HR-HPV DNA-; 9 patients with clean margin - 5 patients (55.6%) with HR-HPV DNA+/cytology+; 2 patients (22.2%) with HRHPV DNA+/cytology-, 2 patients (22.2%) with cytology+/HR-HPV DNA-. None of them persisting HR-HPV DNA-/cytology-with positive or negative margin was identified as the residual/recurrent disease. The majority of residual/recurrent disease was detected at the 12th and 18th month FU, and there was almost no difference in the sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV) between at the 3rd month and the 6th month FU visits. 14 residual/recurrence disease (14/46:30.4%) had pre-treatment high viral load (>5 000 RUL/PC) and 11 (11/112, 9.8%) with pre-treatment low viral load, P<0.05. Conclusions: (1) The persistence HR-HPV DNA is the root cause of the residual/recurrent disease for the women treated for high-grade CIN; the pre-treatment viral load and margin can be seen as the predictor. (2) The FU visit beginning at the 6th month post-treatment and lasting at least 24 months with the combination of cytology and HPV testing. (3) Patients with high pre-treatment HPV load, which is considered as one risk of developing the residual/recurrent disease, should be paid more attention (especially above 500RUL/PC) to by clinicians.

Incidences of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia 2-3 or Cancer Pathologic Diagnoses in Patients with a High Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion Pap Smear Attending a Colposcopy Clinic at Srinagarind Hospital

  • Ingkapairoj, Navakorn;Luanratanakorn, Sanguanchoke;Chumworathayi, Bandit;Kietpeerakool, Chumnan;Supoken, Amornrat
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.12
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    • pp.6203-6206
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    • 2012
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of women with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) smears who had undergone the "see and treat" approach compared to those who underwent a conventional approach. The records of women with HSIL smears undergoing colposcopy at Srinagarind Hospital were reviewed. In those undergoing the conventional approach, the final histological diagnosis was made on the most severe histological results obtained after initial colposcopy. In the "see and treat" group, the final histological diagnosis was made on the examination of LEEP specimens obtained after initial colposcopy. Overtreatment in the see and treat group was defined as the LEEP specimens containing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 1 or less. During the study period, 302 women with HSIL underwent colposcopy. Twenty (6.6%) were nulliparous. One hundred and ninety-four (64.2%) underwent conventional management while the remaining 108 (35.8%) received the see and treat management. The prevalence of underlying high-grade lesions in women undergoing the conventional approach was significantly higher than that observed among women undergoing the see and treat approach (89.2% and 47.2%, respectively, P<0.001). The overtreatment rate in the see and treat group was 52.8%. Multivariate analysis revealed that only parity status was a statistically significant factor for predicting the overtreatment after undergoing the see and treat approach. In conclusion, the overtreatment rate among women undergoing see and treat in this study is notably high and therefore this approach should not be routinely practiced.