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Effects of Cynanchum wilfordii Extract on Serum Lipid Components and Enzyme Activities in Hyperlipidemic and Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats (백하수오 추출액이 고지혈증 및 Streptozotocin 유발 당뇨성 흰쥐의 혈청 지질성분 및 효소활성에 미치는 영향)

  • 김한수
    • Korean Journal of Human Ecology
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2004
  • The purpose of this study was designed to observe the effects of the feeding Cynanchum wilfordii extract on the improvement of the blood glucose, lipid components in the serum of dietary hyperlipidemic and streptozotocin(STZ) -induced diabetic rats(S.D. strain, ♂) fed the experimental diets for 5 weeks. Concentrations of total cholesterol, atherosclerotic index, LDL, LDL-Cholesterol, free-cholesterol. cholesteryl ester, TG, PL and blood glucose in serum were significantly higher in the cholesterol administration groups((group 2(cholesterol+water), 4(cholesterol+Cynanchum WIlfordii 3.5g% extract)) than those in the control group (group1 , basal diet+water). But the concentrations of total cholesterol. atherosclerotic index, LDL, LDL- cholesterol. free-cholesterol, cholesteryl ester, TG, PL and blood glucose in serum were remakably lower in the group 4 than those in the group 2. In the STZ(55mg/kg B.W.)-induced diabetic groups((group 3(STZ, IP.)+water), 5(STZ(IP.)+Cynanchum WIlfordii 3.5g% extract? the serum total cholesterol, atherosclerotic index, LDL, LDL-cholesterol, free-cholesterol. cholesteryl ester, TG, PL and blood glucose concentrations actions were rather lower in the group 5 than those in the group 3. In the ratio of HDL -cholesterol concentration to total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol concentration, Cynanchum wilfordii extract administration groups were higher percentage than III the groups 2 and 3. The activities of aspartate aminotransferase(AST), alanine aminotransferase(ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase(LDH) in serum were rather lower in the Cynanchum wllfordii extract administration groups (group 4,5) than in the cholesterol diet group(group 2) and STZ-induced diabetic group (group 3). From the above research, the physiological activity substances in Cynanchum wllfordii were effective on the improvement of the blood glucose, lipid compositions in serum of dietary hyperlipidemic and STZ-induced diabetic rats. And particularly, physiological activity substance in Cynanchum wilfordii was more effective therapeutic regimen for the control of metabolic derangements in adult disease.

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The Effect of LDL on Vibrio vulnificus Septicemia (비브리오 패혈증에 미치는 LDL의 영향)

  • Kim, Jong-Hyeon;Kim, Jong-Suk;Yoo, Wan-Hee;Hur, Hyeon
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.213-217
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    • 2006
  • The halophilic bacterium Vibrio vulnificus is known to be a foodborne pathogen that causes septicemia in human. V. vulnificus infection is characterized by the high fatality rates and the primary attack against a person who have underlying diseases such as liver cirrhosis. However, there is no effective treatment for V. vulnificus septicemia except for classical treatments such as antibiotics. Recently, it has been known that lipoprotein (LDL) plays a major role in the protection against infection and inflammation. Consequently in this paper we analyzed the effects of LDL on V. vulnificus septicemia. We purified V. vulnificus cytolysin, a major virulent factor of V. vulnificus infection and measured inhibitory effects of mouse serum, cholesterol, and LDL on its hemolytic activity. Next experiments were performed to investigate whether LDL has a protective role against septicemia induced by V. vulnificus in mice. Intraperitoneal injection of LDL (1mg as protein) into mice 3hr before V. vulnificus $(1\times10^6\;CFU)$ injection, and V. vulnificus -induced lethality was determined. For the determination the relationship between LDL or cholesterol and prognosis, we determined serum levels of cholesterol and lipoprotein from V. vulnificus septicemia patients (n=15) who had visited the Chonbuk National University Hospital in Chonju. V. vulnificus cytolysin -induced hemolysis of mice erythrocytes was completely inhibited by serum, cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein. V. vulnificus- induced lethality of mice injected with LDL showed only 40% compared to 100% of control. In survival groups (n=4) of V. vulnificus septicemia patients (n=15), their serum LDL and cholesterol revealed normal levels ($153.3{\pm}40.7,\;LDL;\;190.8{\pm}16.3$, Total cholesterol). However, in death groups (n=11) showed very low levels ($35.6{\pm}13.9,\;LDL;\;59.2{\pm}15.1$, Total cholesterol). Our study indicates that cholesterol and LDL are a prognosis indicator of V. vulnificus septicemia as well as an inhibitor of virulent action of V. vulnificus cytolysin. We suggested that the serum levels of cholesterol or LDL would be major index in the treatment and prevention of V. vulnificus septicemia.

The Assessment of Framingham Risk Score and 10 Year CHD Risk according to Application of LDL Cholesterol or Total Cholesterol (LDL Cholesterol 또는 Total Cholesterol의 적용에 따른 Framingham Risk Score와 10년 내 심혈관질환 발생 위험도 평가)

  • Kwon, Se Young;Na, Young Ak
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Laboratory Science
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    • v.48 no.2
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    • pp.54-61
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    • 2016
  • Studies on assessment tools for predicting cardiovascular disease risk (CDR), along with the studies to prevent CDR have been consistently reported. The validity of the Framingham risk score (FRS), a commonly known tool, has been verified through the precedent studies. In this study, we examined the differences of FRS according to the application of categories of LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) or Total cholesterol (TC), and attempted to evaluate the agreement of 10 yr CHD risk judgment based on the above-mentioned application. Excluding those diagnosed as cardiovascular diseases, data on subjects (755 men and 775 women) from the 2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used. We found differences of FRS and 10 yr CHD risk depending on the application of categories of LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) or Total cholesterol (TC). FRS of TC points were higher than those of LDL-C in both men and women. In classification of low risk (<10%), intermediate risk (10~19%), and high risk (${\geq}20%$), there were disagreements for 106 men and 26 women. Women showed almost perfect agreement from Coefficient of Cohen's Kappa (0.718 in men, and 0.884 in women). In assessment of 10 yr CHD risk, R-squared value from regression including TC was higher than that of LDC-C in both men and women (0.972 vs 0.885). From this result, we can draw a conclusion that correlation coefficients of FRS and CHD risk including TC were higher than those of LDC-C, and women showed a greater degree of agreement than men.

Daily Nutritional Intake and Serum Levels of Lipoprotein, Cholesterol and Protein -A Study of Buddhist Nuns- (한국여승(韓國女僧)의 영양섭취(營養攝取)와 혈청(血淸) Lipoprotein, Cholesterol 및 단백량(蛋白量)의 관계(關係))

  • Kim, Nan-Hee;Yoon, Jin-Sook;Choo, Young-Eun;Lee, Won-Jung
    • The Korean journal of physiology & pharmacology
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.195-207
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    • 1982
  • To determine the influence of vegetarian diet on serum lipoprotein, cholesterol and protein levels, 45 young Buddhist nuns (age: $20{\sim}34$ years) and 29 female students(age: $20{\sim}22$ years) were examined. Daily caloric intakes were 1,945 Kcal for the Buddhist nuns and 1,815 Kcal for the students. The ratio of% calorie of carbohydrate: protein: fat from total calories in the Buddhist nuns was 84:11:5 and that in the students was 70:15:15. The Buddhist nuns had significantly higher carbohydrate intake but markedly lower lipid intakes than the students. Anthropometric measurement showed that the Buddhist nuns had significantly higher values of body weight, skin-fold thickness, body surface area and obesity index than the students. Both systolic and diastolic pressures of the Buddhist nuns and students were similar. Serum levels of total lipid, cholesterol and proteins in the Buddhist nuns were not different from those of the students. However, when comparing the levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) fractions, the Buddhist nuns had lower level of HDL but significantly higher LDL levels than the students. Furthermore, the Buddhist nuns had significantly lower levels of serum HDL-cholesterol but significantly higher LDL-cholesterol levels. There were significant correlations between LDL and LDL cholesterol (r=0.40), VLDL and VLDL-cholesterol(r=0.85), HDL and HDL-cholesterol(r=0.45), total serum lipid and total cholesterol (r=0.66) and total serum cholesterol and LDL(r=0.79). On the other hand, values of both serum total protein, and fractions of serum proteins were similar in the Buddhist nuns and students(ratio of albumin: ${\alpha}_{1}-:\;{\alpha}_{2}-:\;{\beta}-:\;{\gamma}-$globulins=55:3:10:13:19). Hematocrit and hemogloblin levels were similar in the Buddhist nuns and students. Above results suggest that vegetarian diets of the Buddhist nuns produced alterations in the metabolism of the lipoproteins and cholesterol.

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Effect of Zinc Supplementation on Serum Cholesterol Concentration of Young Women (아연 보충이 젊은 여성의 혈청 콜레스테롤 농도에 미치는 영향)

  • 송미영
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.237-247
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    • 1990
  • This study was to investigate the effect of zinc supplementation on serum cholesterol concentration of young women. Thirty healthy students were divided into Zn and placebo groups, and were orally given with zinc(50mg/day, 220mg as ZnSO4·7H2O) or placebo for 2 month (June 9-August 7, 1988). Changes of plasma zinc, serum total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-cholesterol(LDL-C) and total lipid were analyzed from the initiation to 1 month after the end of zinc supplementation at monthly interval. Plasma zinc, serum LDL-C content and LDL-C/HDL-C were significantly increased by zinc supplementation. Serum total cholesterol content tended to be increased by zinc supplementation but was not significantly different between the two groups. Serum HDL-C content was significantly decreased by zinc supplementation. Serum total lipid content was not different between the two groups during experimental period. Thus, in this study considering the effect of zinc supplementation on serum cholesterol concentration, we conclude that the effect of zinc supplementation on coronary heart disease may be negative.

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Effects of the Zizyphus jujuba Seed Extract on the Lipid Components in Hyperlipidemic Rats

  • Kim, Han-Soo
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.72-77
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    • 2002
  • The purpose of this study was designed to observe the effects of Zizyphus jujuba seed extract on the concentrations of the lipids and blood glucose in the S.D. rats fed the experimental diets for 4 weeks. Concentrations of total cholesterol, atherosclerotic index, LDL, LDL-cholesterol, free-cholesterol, cholesteryl ester, triglyceride (TG), phospholipid (PL) and blood glucose in serum were significantly higher in the cholesterol administration groups (group 2 (cholesterol+water), group 3 (cholesterol+Zizyphus jujuba seed extract)) than those in the control group (group 1, basal diet+water). But the concentrations of total cholesterol, atherosclerotic index, LDL, LDL-cholesterol, free-cholesterol, cholesteryl ester, TG, PL and blood glucose in serum ware remarkably lower in the group 3 than those in the group 2. In the ratio of HIDL-cholesterol concentration to total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol concentration, Zizyphus jujuba seed extract administration group was higher percentage than in the group 2. The activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine amino-transferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in serum were rather lower in the Zizyphus jujuba seed extract administration group (group 3) than in the cholesterol diet group (group 2). From the above research, Zizyphus jujuba seeds were effective on the improvement of the blood glucose, lipid compositions in serum of dietary hyperlipidemic rats. And particularly, Zizyphus jujuba seeds were more effective as a therapeutic regimen for the control of metabolic derangements in adult disease.

Higher levels of serum triglyceride and dietary carbohydrate intake are associated with smaller LDL particle size in healthy Korean women

  • Kim, Oh-Yoen;Chung, Hye-Kyung;Shin, Min-Jeong
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.120-125
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    • 2012
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the influencing factors that characterize low density lipoprotein (LDL) phenotype and the levels of LDL particle size in healthy Korean women. In 57 healthy Korean women (mean age, $57.4{\pm}13.1$ yrs), anthropometric and biochemical parameters such as lipid profiles and LDL particle size were measured. Dietary intake was estimated by a developed semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. The study subjects were divided into two groups: LDL phenotype A (mean size: $269.7{\AA}$, n = 44) and LDL phenotype B (mean size: $248.2{\AA}$, n = 13). Basic characteristics were not significantly different between the two groups. The phenotype B group had a higher body mass index, higher serum levels of triglyceride, total-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, apolipoprotein (apo)B, and apoCIII but lower levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and LDL particle size than those of the phenotype A group. LDL particle size was negatively correlated with serum levels of triglyceride (r = -0.732, $P$ < 0.001), total-cholesterol, apoB, and apoCIII, as well as carbohydrate intake (%En) and positively correlated with serum levels of HDL-cholesterol and ApoA1 and fat intake (%En). A stepwise multiple linear regression analysis revealed that carbohydrate intake (%En) and serum triglyceride levels were the primary factors influencing LDL particle size ($P$ < 0.001, $R^2$ = 0.577). This result confirmed that LDL particle size was closely correlated with circulating triglycerides and demonstrated that particle size is significantly associated with dietary carbohydrate in Korean women.

Function Properties of Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) and Oxidized-LDL (저밀도 지질단백질 및 산화 LDL(Oxidized-LDL)의 특성)

  • Tae-Koong Kim
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.530-539
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    • 1994
  • All lipoproteins are made up of three major classes of lipids : triglycerides, cholesterol, and phospholipids. Lipoproteins vary in their relative content of these lipids as well as in size and protein content. Human low density lipoprotein (LDL) is a main carrier for cholesterol in the blood stream, and it is well established that cholesterol deposits in the arteries stem primarily from LDL and that increased levels of plasma LDL correlated with in increased risk of atherosclerosis. Various lines of research provide strong evidence that lDL may become oxidized in vivo and that oxidized-LDL is the species involved in the formation of early atherosclerotic lesions. the most crucial findings in this context are the following : (1) Oxidized -LDL has chemotactic properties and if present in the intimal space of the arteries would recruit blood monocytes which then can develop into tissue macrophages ; (2) marcrophages take up oxidized-LDL unregulated to from lipid laden foam cells ; (3) Oxdized-LDLis highly cytotoxic and could be responsible for damage of the endothelial layer and for the destruction of smooth muscle cells.

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Effects of Isotlavones Supplemented Diet on Lipid Concentrations and Hepatic LDL Receptor mRNA Level in Growing Female Rats (성장기 암컷 흰쥐에서 이소플라본 첨가 식이가 지질 농도와 간 LDL 수용체의 유전자 발현정도에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi Mi-Ja;Jo Hyun-Ju
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.38 no.5
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    • pp.344-351
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    • 2005
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of isoflavones on lipid concentrations and hepatic LDL receptor mRNA level in growing female rats. Twenty four rats (body weight $75\pm5g$) were randomly assigned to one of two groups, consuming control diet or isoflavones supplemented diet (57mg isoflavones/100g diet). All rats has been fed on experimental diet and deionized water ad libitum for 9 weeks. The concentration of triglyceride and total cholesterol were measured in serum and liver. Serum HDL cholesterol was measured. Hepatic LDL receptor mRNA level was tested by RT-PCR. Supplementation of isoflavones did not affect weight gain, mean food intake and food efficiency ratio. Serum total cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol of isoflavones supplemented rats were significantly lower than those of control rats (p<0.05). But hepatic cholseterol was not influenced by supplementation of isoflavones. Hepatic LDL receptor mRNA level not significantly different between control group and isoflavones supplemented group. Therefore, isoflavones may be beneficial on serum cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol lowering in growing female rats.

The Hypocholesterolemic Effect of Green Tea EGCG Was Not Mediated Via the Stimulation of the Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor Gene Expression in Cholesterol-Fed Rats

  • Moon Hee-Jung;Kim Yangha
    • Nutritional Sciences
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.175-180
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    • 2005
  • Green tea, which has high polyphenols amount, is thought to have hypocholesterolemic effects. The present study was performed to further examine the hypocholesterolemic action of green tea, especially (-) epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) for its effect on diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=15) were fed a green tea-free diet (control), $1.0\%$ green tea catechin (catechin) or $0.5\%$ green tea catechin EGCG for seven weeks. Hypercholesterolemia was induced by adding $1\%$ cholesterol and $0.5\%$ cholic acid to all diets. There was no difference in food intake and body weight gain among the groups. The green tea EGCG treatment led to a significant improvement in plasma levels of total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol and high density lipoprotein (HDL)/LDL ratio (p<0.05). There was no significant effect on the plasma HDL-cholesterol level. The catechin treatment led to a 4.19-fold increase in the LDL-receptor mRNA level compared to the control, but the EGCG treatment did not affect the hepatic LDL-receptor mRNA level. Our results suggest that when blood cholesterol level is down-regulated by green tea EGCG, the LDL receptor gene-independent pathway may dominate the hypocholesterolemic action of EGCG.