• Title, Summary, Keyword: LDL cholesterol

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Effect of Ginsenosides on .the Biosynthesis of Low density Lipoprotein Receptor in Cultured Chinese Hamster Ovary(CHO) Cell (인삼사포닌 (ginsenoside) 저밀도 지방단백질 수용체 생합성에 미치는 영향)

  • Ju, Chung-No;Gang, In-Cheol;Lee, Hui-Bong
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.104-113
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    • 1988
  • Effect of the purified ginsenoside $-Rb_1$ and $-Rb_2$ on LDL receptor biosynthesis of CHO cell cultured in a high cholesterol medium was investigated . Cholesterol uptake by CHO cell cultured in a medium containing various amounts of cholesterol was traced and found that the cholesterol uptake was proportional to the concentration of cholesterol in the medium, and the population of LDL receptors were proportionally decreased as the increasing cholesterol level in the cell. However, when the CHO cells were cultured in the medium containing ginsenosides, no significant decrease of LDL receptor population occured. The biosynthesis of protein and RNA of the above cells was higher than that of CHO cells cultured in the absence of the ginsenosides, suggesting that the ginsenosides might stimulate LDL receptor bio-synthesis. It was also observed that the ginsenosides stimulated the biosynthesis of estradiol and progesterone from cholesterol in the CHO cell. From the above results, it seemed that the ginsenosides lowers the cholesterol level by stimulating the cholesterol metablism including steroid hormone biosynthesis, resulting in the lowering of inhibitory action of cholesterol on LDL receptor biosynthesis.

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Validity for Use of Non-HDL Cholesterol Rather than LDL Cholesterol

  • Kwon, Se-Young;Na, Young-Ak
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Laboratory Science
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.54-59
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    • 2013
  • NonHDL cholesterol values have been suggested as a risk marker for cardiovascular disease. NonHDL cholesterol values were calculated, using a very simple measurement [nonHDL cholesterol=serum total cholesterol-HDL cholesterol]. This formula is very useful as a screening tool for identifying dyslipoproteinemias, risk assessment, and assessing the results of hypolipidemic therapy. The data from the 2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used. Analysis was done for 1,992 subjects with lipid panels (Cholesterol, HDL, LDLdirect and Triglycerides) results. We studied the relationship between nonHDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol. As a result, nonHDL cholesterol values were plotted against the LDL direct and calculated values. The linear regression equation for nonHDL cholesterol and direct LDL cholesterol was $nonHDLchol=23.60+1.03{\times}LDLdirect$ (p<0.0001, $r^2=0.80$) in all subjects. The subjects were classified into triglyceride values. When triglycerides are below 400 mg/dL, the linear fit to LDL direct is found to be $[nonHDLchol=17.34+1.07{\times}LDLdirect]$ (p<0.0001, $r^2=0.88$) and to the Friedewald LDL calculation is $[nonHDLchol=23.10+1.02{\times}LDLcalc]$ (p<0.0001, $r^2=0.82$). For triglycerides above 400 mg/dL, the linear fit equation is $[nonHDLchol=87.57+0.92{\times}LDLdirect]$ (p<0.0001, $r^2=0.50$) and to the LDL calculated, it is $[nonHDLchol=142.70+0.50{\times}LDLcalc]$ (p<0.0001, $r^2=0.32$). This study provides examples of the utility of nonHDL cholesterol concentrations in clinical medicine.

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Comparison of LDL-Cholesterol direct measurement with the estimate using various formula

  • Kwon, Se Young;Na, Young-Ak
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Laboratory Science
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.103-111
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    • 2012
  • Low-Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) is the most important marker for the treatment of hyperlipidemia in NCEP-ATP III(National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III) guideline. Therefore, LDL cholesterol is pathologically meaningful, accurate measurement should be a top priority. Currently, LDLC is directly measured in most cases, but, the estimate is still used in mass health examination or screening test. This study is about the comparison of LDL-Cholesterol direct measurement with the estimate using various formula (Friedewald: [LDL-F=TC-HDL-TG/5], Nakajima: [LDL-N=TC-HDL-TG/4], Hattori: [LDL-H =0.94TC-0.94HDL-0.19TG], Puavilai: [LDL-P=TC-HDL-TG/6], Carvalho: [LDL-C=3(TC-HDL)/4]) for calculating more accurate value. We analyzed total cholesterol (TC), try-glyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), and LDLC levels of 210 subjects between June and November in 2011. Until now, the Friedewald formula is the most commonly used estimate for the LDLC. When Friedewald formula was applied, the correlation coefficient (r) was 0.940, showing high correlation. But, the result of the direct method was significantly different, compared with those of the Friedewald formula in triglyceride levels ${\geq}400mg/dL$(p<0.05). There was the highest correlation when we used LDL-P formula(r=0.947) in triglyceride levels <400 mg/dl. Also there was the lowest mean difference regardless of triglyceride level. Therefore, the study showed that TG/6 is more precise means of calculation than TG/5. On the other hand, the calculation of LDL-Cholesterol was underestimated, compared with direct measurement. It is necessary to have more data and modified Friedewald formula should be used for the accurate calculation.

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Effects of High Polyunsaturated Fat Diet on Human Plasma Cholesterol Esterification and Transfer (고 불포화 지방산 식이가 인체 혈청 Cholesterol의 Esterification과 Transfer에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee Myoung Sook
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.26 no.7
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    • pp.819-828
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    • 1993
  • The reaction of lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase(LCAT) and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) are important in cholesterol esterification and transfer for the reverse cholesterol transport(RCT) system. The purpose of this study were to assess the effects of fatty acid unsaturation on RCT system. After 12 female human subjects consumed a prescribed high saturated fat diet prior to the period, two groups of six subjects were provided with a high PUFA(corn oil) or a high SFA(butter) as major fats in a 40 en % fat diet. Butter feeding increased plasma total-(34%), esterified-(96%), HDL_3$-(23%), LDL-(20%), and VLDL plus LDL(35%) cholesterol while corn oil feeding decreased esterified-(25%), LDL(15%) cholesterol and TG(27%). There were significant differences of fats on total-(p=0.0001), esterified-(p=0.0001), total HDL-(p=0.005), $HDL_2$-(p=0.01)and LDL-(p=0.0001) cholesterol. LCAT activity did not change during the period but highly correlated to apo A-I in HDL which was increased in the corn oil group. The 2.5 fold increased CETP activity in the butter group during the period might be related to changes in plasma VLDL plus LDL cholesterol level which were increased in the butter group.

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Dietary Fatty Acids and Blood Cholesterol

  • Hayes, K.C.;Khosla, Pramod;Pronczuk, Andrzej;Lindsey, Saralyn
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.378-392
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    • 1991
  • A series of studies in monkeys and hamsters, and reevaluation of published human data, indicate that dietary saturated fatty acids exert a dissimilar metabolic impact on cholesterol metabolism. Myristic acid(14 : 0) appears to have a major cholesterol-raising effect by means of decreasing LDL receptor activity and by increasing the direct production of LDL (from sources other than VLDL-catabolism) Palmitic acid (16 : 0) appears neutral in most cases (plasma cholesterol<200mg/dl) or until the LDL receptor is down-regulated, as with high cholesterol intake or obesity. In such cases. the down-regulated LDL receptors coupled with an increased VLDL production (induced by 16 : 0 and 18 : 1) can divert VLDL remnants to LDL and expand the LDL pool. Furthermore. the cholesterolemic impact of any saturated fatty acid can be countered up to a saturable 'threshold' level by dietary linoleic acid (18 : 2) which up-regulates the LDL receptor. Once above this 'threshold' the major fatty acids (16 : 0, 18 : 0, 18 : 1, 18 : 2, 18 : 3) appear to exert an equal impact on the circulating cholesterol concentration.

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Assessment of the Optimum LDL : HDL-cholesterol(LDL : HDL-C) Ratio for Predicting CHD (심혈관질환 예측을 위한 저밀도 대 고밀도 지단백 콜레스테롤 비(LDL : HDL-cholesterol ratio)의 적정기준에 관한 연구)

  • Yeoum, Soon-Gyo
    • Korean Journal of Adult Nursing
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.917-931
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    • 2008
  • Purpose: This study was aimed to determine the optimum low-density lipoprotein : high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL : HDL-C) ratio for predicting coronary heart disease(CHD) in Korean people. Methods: It was analyzed this data of 5,431 adults who had undergone health examinations in a hospital in Gyeonggi-do between January 2006 and December 2007. The covariation of the coronary risk factors such as age, HbA1C, systolic blood pressure(SBP), and waist-to-stature ratio(WSR) were analyzed by using logistic regression analysis. Results: The LDL : HDL-C ratio in the male and female groups was mostly distributed between 1.5 and 4.0. The LDL : HDL-C ratio was the most significant cholesterol-related parameter influencing CHD (male: B = .306, p = .054, female : B = .940, p = .010), followed by LDL-C and total cholesterol. It was observed a sharp increase in the odds ratios for LDL : HDL-C ratios of 2.25 - 2.50(male) and 2.00 - 2.25(female). A significant difference was observed in both male(2.25 : $x^2$ = 2.494, p = .072) and female(2.00 : $x^2$ = 413.742, p = .000) groups. Conclusion: The risk level of CHD was set to 2.25 for males and 2.00 for females. Therefore, the optimum LDL : HDL-C ratio for Koreans should be far lower than that for the people in western countries.

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Correlations among Anthropometric Measurements, Serum Lipid Levels and Nutrient Intake in Female University Students

  • Cheong, Sun-Hee;Chang, Kyung-Ja
    • Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.151-158
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    • 2002
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlations among the anthropometry, serum lipid levels and nutrient intake in Korean female university students. The subjects were 119 female students at a university located in Incheon. This study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire. Anthropometric data were measured and blood lipid levels were analyzed. Nutrient intake collected from 3 day-recalls was analyzed by the Computer Aided Nutritional Analysis Program. The data were analyzed by SPSS 10.0 program. Average age, height and weight of the subjects were 20.9 years, 160.1cm and 54.3kg, respectively. Average serum TG (triglyceride), total cholesterol, HDL-C (high density lipoprotein-cholesterol) and LDL-C (low density lipoprotein-cholesterol) levels of the subjects were 69.47mg/dl, 146.85 mg/dl, 50.49mg/dl and 82.52mg/dl, respectively. Average AI (atherogenic index) of the subjects was 2.03, which was in the normal range based on risk values. Average intake of most nutrients except protein, vitamin B$_1$, vitamin C and phosphorus were lower than the Korean RDA. Especially calcium and iron intakes of the subjects were under 65% of the Korean RDA. Serum TG, total cholesterol and LDL-C levels were negatively correlated with DBP (diastolic blood pressure). HDL-C/LDL-C and HDL-C/total cholesterol were positively correlated with height. Age was positively correlated with phosphorus intake. DBP of the subjects was positively correlated with calcium and iron intakes. Serum TG level was positively correlated with total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C and AI, while negatively correlated with HDL-C/total cholesterol. Total cholesterol level was positively correlated with HDL-C, LDL-C and AI, while negatively correlated with HDL-C/LDL-C, HDL-C/total cholesterol. HDL-C level was positively correlated with LDL-C, HDL-C/LDL-C and HDL-C/total cholesterol, while negatively correlated with AI. LDL-C level was negatively correlated with HDL-C/LDL-C and HDL-C/total cholesterol, while positively correlated with AI HDL-C/LDL-C ratio was positively correlated with HDL-C/total cholesterol and AI. HDL-C/total cholesterol was negatively correlated with AI. Fat intake was positively correlated with total cholesterol, HDL-C level, and vitamin B$_2$ intake was positively correlated with TG, HDL-C/LDL-C. Therefore, nutrition education is necessary for female university students to promote the lipid profile and to optimize the nutritional status. (J Community Nutrition 4(3) : 151∼158, 2002)

Effects of CPs (Combined Preparations) of Radix Salvia Miltiorrhiza, Radix Notoginseng, and Borneolum on Hyperlipidemia (CPs(단삼, 삼칠, 빙편 복합제)가 고지혈증에 미치는 영향)

  • 이건목;이길숭
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.22-32
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    • 2004
  • Objectives: In order to determine the effect of CPs, experimental studies were performed in hyperlipidemia humans. The contents of serum total cholesterol, TG (triglyceride), LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, AST/ALT and BUN/creatinine were measured. Methods: We made a comparative study of total cholesterol, TG (triglyceride), LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, AST/ALT and BUN/creatinine during one month off and on for twenty patients with hyperlipidemia who visited Gunpo Oriental Medical Center of Wonkwang University from December 2002 to July 2003. Results: The following result were obtained: 1. The serum TG and total cholesterol of patients who took CPs for one month showed significant (p<0.01) decrease. 2. The serum HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol of patients who took CPs for one month showed significantly increase in HDL, and decrease in LDL (p<0.05). 3. The serum AST/ALT and BUN/creatinine of patients who took CPs for one month showed no significant effects. Conclusions: According to the results mentioned above, the effects of CPs on serum triglyceride and total cholesterol of hyperlipidemia patients were significantly confirmed for decreasing effects.

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The Relationships of Serum Mg, Ca, Ca/Mg Ratio with Serum Lipid Profiles in College Women Living Choong-Nam Area (일부 충남지역 여대생의 혈청 마그네슘(Mg), 칼슘(Ca), 칼슘/마그네슘(Ca/Mg)비율과 혈청지질과의 상관관계 연구)

  • 김애정
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.379-387
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    • 1998
  • Magnesium(Mg) plays an important role in lipid metabolism and Mg deficiency but Ca sufficiency Increases serum cholesterol and triglyceride. The relationships of serum Mg, Ca, Ca/Mg ratio with lipids was examined in 79 female college students in Choong-Nam area. Subjects were divided into underweight, normal and overweight groups according to their BMI. The average age, body weight, height and BMI were 21.9yr, 55.9kg, 158.5cm and 22.62kg/$m^2$ respectively. Height was not different between groups. Serum cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower in the underweight group than other groups. BMI had positive correlations with LDL-cholesterol, atherogenic index (AI) and LDL-cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio(LPH), and negative correlations with HDL-cholesterol/total cholesterol ratio. Serum minerals (serum Mg, Ca, Ca/Mg ratio) and serum lipid concentrations were not significantly different between groups. However, there was a tendency of increasing serum Mg level with increasing serum HDL-cholestrol, HDL-cholesterol/total cholesterol ratio and decreasing serum LDL-cholesterol, LPH, total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio(TPH) and AI. And there was a tendency of increasing serum Ca level with increasing serum HDL-cholesterol/total cholesterol ratio and decreasing serum triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol, LPH, TPH and AI. And there was a tendency of increasing serum Ca /Mg ratio level with decreasing triglyceride, serum LDL-cholesterol and TPH. This study was limited within serum levels of minerals (serum Mg, Ca and Ca/Mg ratio), serum lipids concerned with CHD, therefore I hope there will be wider efforts to consider about the dietary levels of minerals for presentation of the connection between dietary Mg, Ca and serum lipids.

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Interreationship between the Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Serum Total Cholesterol, LDL-Cholesterol (불현성 갑상선 기능저하증과 혈청 총 콜레스테롤, 저밀도 콜레스테롤 농도와의 상관성)

  • Seok, Seong-Ja;Yoo, Wang-Keun
    • Journal of Society of Preventive Korean Medicine
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.127-134
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    • 2008
  • This study was carried out in 14,443 subjects(8,706 men, 5,737 women, mean age $41.8{\pm}9.16$) who visited the health promotion center of one university hospital. Serum $T_3$, $T_4$ and TSH concentrations were measured with CIA using commercial kits on ADVIA Centaur Assay and Serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and HDL-cholesterol were measured by auto-analyzer Hitach 7600 in enzyme method. 1. The prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism was 12.6/1,000 population(men 6.0/1,000, women 22.7/1,000) and as high as about 4 times in women than in men. 2. In subclinical hypothyroidism, the values of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were significantly high by 5.5 mg/dL, 4.6 mg/dL compared with normal group(p<0.05). 3. In all the tested hypercholesterolemia and hyperLDL-cholesterolemia, were correlated with TSH. There is higher correlation in women group than men group. These results indicate that the subclinical hypothyroidism and dyslipemia significantly correlated. Especially, it is very important to find that the hypercholesterolemia and hyperLDL-cholesterolemia are the high risk factors of atherosclerosis. Therefore, it is essential for the group of subclinical hypothyroidism to take the cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and serum lipid test as well as thyroid function test.

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