• Title, Summary, Keyword: LAK

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Impact of IL-2 and IL-2R SNPs on Proliferation and Tumor-killing Activity of Lymphokine-Activated Killer Cells from Healthy Chinese Blood Donors

  • Li, Yan;Meng, Fan-Dong;Tian, Xin;Sui, Cheng-Guang;Liu, Yun-Peng;Jiang, You-Hong
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.18
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    • pp.7965-7970
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    • 2014
  • One of the goals of tumor immunotherapy is to generate immune cells with potent anti-tumor activity through in vitro techniques using peripheral blood collected from patients. However, cancer patients generally have poor immunological function. Thus using patient T cells, which have reduced in vitro proliferative capabilities and less tumor cell killing activity to generate lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells, fails to achieve optimal clinical efficacy. Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a potent activating cytokine for both T cells and natural killer cells. Thus, this study aimed to identify optimal donors for allogeneic LAK cell immunotherapy based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the IL-2 and IL-2R genes. IL-2 and IL-2R SNPs were analyzed using HRM-PCR. LAK cells were derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells by culturing with IL-2. The frequency and tumor-killing activity of LAK cells in each group were analyzed by flow cytometry and tumor cell killing assays, respectively. Regarding polymorphisms at IL-2-330 (rs2069762) T/G, LAK cells from GG donors had significantly greater proliferation, tumor-killing activity, and IFN-${\gamma}$ production than LAK cells from TT donors (P<0.05). Regarding polymorphisms at IL-2R rs2104286 A/G, LAK cell proliferation and tumor cell killing were significantly greater in LAK cells from AA donors than GG donors (P<0.05). These data suggest that either IL-2-330(rs2069762)T/G GG donors or IL-2R rs2104286 A/G AA donors are excellent candidates for allogeneic LAK cell immunotherapy.

A Study on the Formation and Development of Beob-Lak of Won-Buddhism (원불교 법락의 형성과 그 변천에 관한 고찰)

  • Kim, Hye-Sun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Costume
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    • v.58 no.8
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    • pp.184-199
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    • 2008
  • This thesis aims to examine the formation, and the religious meaning and symbolism of Beob-Lak, which is attached to the preacher's clothing as a full dress of Won-Buddhism, which, as a new religion, was originated in Korea's historical foundation in 1916. In addition, it tries to provide the basic data for the study on Korean religious costume by examining Beob-Lak in the context of social atmosphere of Korea, which has accepted various religions. As a result, I found that Beob-Lak was originated from the different colored lines of the early Japanese Buddhist religious costume and it employed rochza as an independent component, but that the present protocol of Beob-Lak was completed by the first Jongbeobsa Jeongsan Jongsa in the late 1950s and all the religious workers have put it on with the religious costume in great worships since the early 1980s. Beob-Lak of Won-Buddhism, which employs Ilwonsang Beobsinbul as the symbol of its religious doctrine, symbolizes the succession of Beob and represents the will to repay the teacher's favors to hand down the great truth. At the center, Ilwonsan(one round shape) is the symbol of the innate place for everything in the universe, and its yellow color symbolizes the highest nobleness. I expect to see following researches which deal with the costume of Won-Buddhism from various views on the basis of this study on the formation and development of Beob-Lak, which is the symbol of formal full dress of Won-Buddhism as Korea-style new religion created over 90 years ago.

A syudy of Algorithm using the method of HLMF and NCD on the 'Lak-seo nine palace' (HLMF 및 NCD 기법을 적용한 낙서구궁의 Algorithm에 관한 연구)

  • Han, Doung-Soo;Cho, Sung-Je
    • The Journal of Korea Institute of Information, Electronics, and Communication Technology
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.141-151
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    • 2011
  • This paper aim at producing a Digital Modeling of the science of divination using a study of a new method with a mathematical function on "Lak-seo nine palace". For that goal, we must study a new law of moving forward and a new common difference on 'Lak-seo nine place'. We call this "the method of HLMF and NCD". Therefore, When drawing up 'a plan of Lak-seo nine palace', we will provide convenience in the field, so we don't make it by handwrite, but will produce it by a digital mode.

Preclinlcal Evaluation of Polysaccharides Extracted from Korean Red-ginseng as an Antineoplastic Immunostimulator (홍삼다당체의 항암면역증강작용 연구)

  • 김기환;정인성
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.78-84
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    • 1997
  • As a part of our ongoing effort to develop new antineoplastic immunostimulator from natural sources, bioassay-directed fractionationn of polysaccharides from Korean red ginseng was carried out by observing the proliferation of marine spleen cells and the generation of lymphoklne activated killer (LAK) cells. The acidic polysaccharide fractions proliferated spleen cells and generated LAK cells in proportion to their acidity in vitro. The LAK cell which was induced by ginseng showed tumoricidal activity against both NK celt sensitive and insensitive tumor target cells without major histocompatibility (MHC) restriction. Adherent macrophages and CD4+helper T cells were involved in the generation of the LAK cells. The acidic polysaccharide from Korean red ginseng synerglzed with recombinant IL-2 (rIff-2) at lower than 3 U/ml. The optimal doses of the acidic polysaccharide from Korean red ginseng for the proliferation of spleen cells and for the generation of LAK cells were 1 mg/ml and 100 $\mu\textrm{g}$/ml, respectively; this means that the mechanisms for the both activities may be different from each other.

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Development of Coffee Production and Land Mobility in Dak Lak, Vietnam (베트남 닥락지역의 커피재배와 토지유동성)

  • Kim, Doo-Chul;Hoang, Truong Quang
    • Journal of the Economic Geographical Society of Korea
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.359-371
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    • 2013
  • Vietnam is the second-largest coffee exporter in the world. Most of the coffee areas are concentrated in Dak Lak-a province of commercial agricultural production, making up 32.4% of the total coffee area in Vietnam. At present, coffee is the main income source for the province, with coffee accounting for 85% and 40%(2010) of the export value of the province and of the country, respectively. Although the rapid development of Dak Lak's coffee production significantly benefits the province and its coffee planters socioeconomically, emerging urgent problems such as land dispute among ethic groups need to be addressed. This paper aims to examine how coffee-production development in Dak Lak has affected land mobility. In addition, we consider how these changes have affected the livelihoods of the Kinh-the majority ethnic group in Vietnam-as well as the ethnic minorities. As a result, it is pointed out that the coffee development in Dak Lak creates the individual ownership on land. This ownership is more and more fortified when the encroaching land of the Kinh immigrants happens impetuously defying the customary law of the ethnic minorities.

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Frontier, Transitional Process and Coffee Production's Geography in Dak Lak province, Vietnam (베트남 닥락성(Dak Lak Province)에서의 커피생산지리 변화과정과 그 배경 -변경적 특성, 전환경제적 특성의 영향을 중심으로-)

  • Joh, Young Kug
    • Journal of the Economic Geographical Society of Korea
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.323-343
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    • 2013
  • This study explores spatial and temporal evloution of Dak Lak as one of coffee frontiers in Vietnam. So far, many authiors have studied this region under the framework of global-local interactions and emphasized the impacts from global coffee market. However not only unique past situation as the underdeveloped frontier and also the interventions of Vietamese government for transforming her socioeconomic system have played not less pivotal role than the global market in forging the present geography of Dak Lak. Under this logic, this study have traced restucturing in production system of state farms and smallholders' particpation in coffee farming. This study shows that various and unique localities as a frontier and specific situation accrued from transitional process has reflected in the present geography of coffee production in Dak Lak. Finally, this paper can be arguable to contribute some useful insights for understanding the evolution of coffee frontier in Vietnam.

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Expansion of Coffee Plantation and Institutionalization of Customary Land Ownership - Case study of Dak Lak Province in Vietnam (베트남 중부고원지대 커피재배지역의 확대와 토지소유관행의 제도화: 닥락성(省)을 사례로)

  • Kim, Doo-Chul;Truong, Quang Hoang;Joh, Young Kug
    • Journal of the Economic Geographical Society of Korea
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.378-398
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    • 2016
  • This paper aims to clarify the process of institutionalization of customary land ownership along with the expansion of coffee plantation in Dak Lak Province, Vietnam. Vietnam is the second-largest coffee exporter in the world. Most of the coffee areas are concentrated in Dak Lak-a province of commercial agricultural production. The expansion of coffee plantation in Dak Lak have brought a severe competition of land resources, and resulted in the transition of land ownership scheme from customary commons by ethnic minorities to those of exculsive private assets which is secured by the state. Institutionalization of customary land ownership in Dak Lak, however, was differently happened according to the geography from the center of state power as well as the value of land resources. In this paper, the authors argue that institutionalization of customary land ownership in Dak Lak was a result of compromising between statemaking process in the frontiers and "everyday resistance" of ethnic minorities, comparing 3 geographically different ethnic minorities' communities.

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Effect of target cell nitric oxide synthesis on the sensitivity to lymphokine-activated killer cell cytotoxicity (표적세포의 Nitric oxide 합성이 LAK 세포의 세포독성에 대한 예민도에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Sung Il;Park, Ju Hyung;Lee, Chi Kug;Kim, Shin Chae;Choi, Bo Geum;Kwak, Jae Yong;Yim, Chang Yeol
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.162-169
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    • 2001
  • Background: Nitric oxide (NO), a cytotoxic molecule is produced in various tissues including tumor cells during interleukin-2 (IL-2) therapy . Lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells are induced during IL-2 therapy, and have cytotoxic activity against tumor cells. The current study investigated the effects of NO synthesized in target cells or exposure of target cells to NO on the sensitivity of target cells to LAK cell cytotoxicity. Methods: Cytotoxicity was measured using 4 h chromium release assays. LAK cells which were induced by a 4 day incubation of BALB/c mouse splenocytes with IL-2 (6,000 IU/mL) were employed as effector cells. RD-995 skin tumor cells originated from a C3H/HeN mouse were employed as target cells. NO synthesis in target cells was induced by a 24 h incubation of RD-995 cells with $IFN{\gamma}$ (25 U/mL), TNF (50 U/mL) and IL-1 (20 U/mL). S-nitrosyl acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), an NO donor, was used to expose target cells to NO. $N^G$-monomethyl-L-arginine (MLA) and carboxy-PTIO were added during cytotoxicity assays to inhibit NO synthesis, and to scavenge NO produced by target cells, respectively. Results: Sensitivity of NO-producing RD-995 cells to LAK cell cytotoxicity was decreased by addition of MLA and carboxy-PTIO during cytotoxicity assays. However, the two reagents had no effect on the sensitivity of non-NO-producing RD-995 cells. Pretreatment of RD-995 target cells with SNAP increased the sensitivity in comparison with untreated cells. Conclusions: Sensitivity of target cells to LAK cell cytotoxicity is increased by target cell NO synthesis or exposure to NO. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether these in vitro results have relevance to in vivo phenomena.

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TRMA: Two-Round RFID Mutual Authentication Protocol (TRMA: 2-라운드 RFID 상호 인증 프로토콜)

  • Ahn, Hae-Soon;Bu, Ki-Dong;Yoon, Eun-Jun;Nam, In-Gil
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics Engineers of Korea CI
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    • v.46 no.5
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    • pp.71-78
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    • 2009
  • In RFID system, the communicated data can be easily eavesdropped and tampered with by an attacker because the communication between the reader and the tag is performed in an insecure channel. Therefore, authentication is an important role in RFID applications for providing security and privacy. In 2006, Lee, Asano and Kim proposed an RFID mutual authentication protocol (the LAK protocol) which utilizes a hash function and synchronized secret information. However, Cao and Shen showed that the LAK protocol is vulnerable to replay attack, and therefore an adversary can impersonate the tag. This paper proposes a new simple two-round RFID mutual authentication (TRMA) protocol based on secure one-way hash function. As a result, the proposed TRMA protocol not only can prevent various attacks and but also provides communication efficiency since they mutually authenticate by performing two-round between RFID tag and RFID reader.

The Coffee Production and Change, and the Implications in Dak Lak, Vietnam (베트남 닥락 지방의 커피 생산과 변화, 그리고 의미)

  • Lee, Sang-Yool
    • Journal of the Economic Geographical Society of Korea
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.389-407
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    • 2013
  • The objective of this research is to provide an understanding of how coffee production has been taking place since the coffee industry in Vietnam came out in the global market after Doi Moi. Current research tries to understand how the local households of coffee production adjusts to their production process according to internal and external influences. In order to explore coffee production in the level of local and household units, the structure of coffee production in Dak Lak is first explored in terms of production and sales with the cases from two communes. The examination reveals that general characteristics of coffee crops that would reflect coffee production structure. Further, this study interrogates farmers' response to reflect some direct and indirect influences in recent years. That shows how the elements of coffee production in global market induce a change of coffee production in the study area. Those aspects are analyzed in relation to yearly coffee price fluctuation and diversification. Also, this research explores some of farmers' responses toward the environmental friendly coffee production.

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