• Title, Summary, Keyword: L6

Search Result 27,608, Processing Time 0.093 seconds

Synthesis and Characterization of Poly(L-lactic acid-co-glycine-L-lactic acid) and Poly - ( L-1actic acid-co-gl ycine-L-methyl 1actic acid) (생체분해성 고분자의 합성 및 물성에 관한 연구(II) -Poly (L-lactic acid-co-glycine-L-lactic acid) 와 Poly- (L-lactic acid-co-glycine-L-methyl lactic acid))

  • Sung, Yong-Kiel;Song, Dae-Kyung;Park, Kyung-Hee
    • Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
    • /
    • v.9 no.2
    • /
    • pp.225-232
    • /
    • 1988
  • Poly (L- lactic acid-co-glycine-L-lactic acid) and Poly (L-lactic acid-co-glycine-L- methyl lactic acid ) have been prepared by ring opening polymerization. The monomer 6, 6-dimethyl morpho-line-2, 5-dione was synthesized by the bromoisobutylation of 2-bromoisobutyryl bromide with glycin e. L-lactide, 6-methyl morpholine-2, 5-diode. and 6, 6-dimethyl morpholine-2, 5-diode have been used as starting materials for polydepsipeptides. The synthesized monomers and copolymers have been identified by NMR and FT-lR spa- ctrophotometer. The thermal propert ies and glass transition temperature(Tg) of the copolymers have been measured by differential scanning calorimetry. The Tg values of poly(L-lactic acid co-glycine-L-lactic acid) system are increased from $53^{\circ}C\; to\; 107^{\circ}C$ with increasing the mole fraction of 6-methyl morpholine-2, 5-diode. And the Tg values of poly(L-lactic acid co-glycine-L-methyl lactic acid) system are increased from $53^{\circ}C\;to\;138^{\circ}C$ with increasing the mole fraction of 6. 6-dimethyl morpholine-2, 5-diode The thermal stability of poly (L-lactic acid-co-glycine-L-methyl lactic acid) is slightly greta text than that of poly(L-lactic acid-co-glycine-L-lactic acid) due to the methyl group.

  • PDF

A case of fused lumbar vertebrae in Cheju native horse (제주말의 요추골유합 1례)

  • Kim, Chong-Sup;Won, Chung-Kil;Suh, Myung-Deuk
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
    • /
    • v.43 no.1
    • /
    • pp.1-3
    • /
    • 2003
  • The fused lumbar vertebrae (L) of the female Cheju native horse were observed macroscopically. The 5th L and 6th L were partially fused. They were composed of four parts between the spinous process of the 5th L and 6th L, left and right transverse process of the 5th L and 6th L, caudal articular process of the 5th L and cranial articular process of the 6th L, and fossa of vertebra of the 5th L and head of vertebra of the 6th L. The dorsal lumbar foramen and ventral lumbar foramen were formed each at left and right of medial parts in the fused transverse processes of the 5th and 6th lumbar vertebrae.

A Novel Trp-rich Model Antimicrobial Peptoid with Increased Protease Stability

  • Bang, Jeong-Kyu;Nan, Yong-Hai;Lee, Eun-Kyu;Shin, Song-Yub
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
    • /
    • v.31 no.9
    • /
    • pp.2509-2513
    • /
    • 2010
  • In order to increase protease stability of a novel Trp-rich model antimicrobial peptide, $K_6L_2W_3$ (KLWKKWKKWLK-$NH_2$)and investigate the effect of L-amino acid to peptoid residue conversion on biological functions, we synthesized its antimicrobial peptoid, $k_6l_2w_3$. Peptoid $k_6l_2w_3$ had similar bacterial selectivity compared to peptide $k_66L_2W_3$. The bactericidal rate of $k_6l_2w_3$ was somewhat slower than that of $K_6L_2W_3$. Peptoid $k_6l_2w_3$ exhibited very little dye leakage from bacterial outer-membrane mimicking PE/PG liposomes, as observed in $K_6L_2W_3$, indicating that the major target site of $K_6L_2W_3$ and $k_6l_2w_3$ may be not the cell membrane but the cytoplasm of bacteria. Trypsin treatment of $K_6L_2W_3$ completely abolished antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. In contrast, the antimicrobial activity of $k_6l_2w_3$ was completely preserved after trypsin treatment. Taken together, our results suggested that antimicrobial peptoid $k_6l_2w_3$ can potentially serves as a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of microbial infection.

Template Synthesis and Characterization of Four- and Five-Coordinate Copper(II) Complexes with Hexaaza Macrotricyclic Ligands 1,3,6,9,11,14-Hexaazatricyclo $[12.2.1.1^{6,9}]octadecane(L_1)$ and 1,3,6,10,12,15-Hexaazatricyclo $[13.3.1.1^{6,10}]eicosane(L_1)$

  • Myunghyun Paik Suh;Shin-Geol Kang;Teak-Mo Chung
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
    • /
    • v.11 no.3
    • /
    • pp.206-208
    • /
    • 1990
  • Cu(II) hexaazamacrotricyclic complexes $[Cu(L)](ClO_4)_2$ and $[(Cu(L)Cl]ClO_4$, where L = 1,3,6,9,11,14-hexaazatricyclo$[12.2.1.1^{6,9}]octadecane(L_1)$ or 1,3,6,10,12,15-hexaazatricyclo$[13.3.1.1^{6,10}]eicosane(L_2)$, have been prepared by the simple template condensation reactions of triamines, diethylenetriamine for $L_1$, and N-(2-aminoethyl)-1,3-propanediamine for $L_2$, with formaldehyde in the presence of $Cu(OAc)_2\;or\;CuCl_2$. The Cu(II) complexes of $L_1$ contain two 1,3-diazacyclopentane ring moieties and those of $L_2$ contain two 1,3-diazacyclohexane ring moieties that are fused to the 14-membered macrocyclic framework. Spectra indicate that complexes $[Cu(L)](ClO_4)_2\;and\;[Cu(L)Cl]ClO_4$ have square-planar and square-pyramidal chromophores, respectively. square-planar $[Cu(L)](ClO_4)_2$ are remarkably stable against ligand dissociation in acidic aqueous solutions. Square-pyramidal $[Cu(L)Cl]ClO_4$ complexes dissociate their axial Cl-ligands easily in aqueous solutions to form $[Cu(L)H_2O]^{2+}$ species. Infrared and UV/vis absorption spectra of the Cu(II) complexes reveal that Cu-N interactions and the ligand field strengths are significantly weaker in the complexes of $L_2$ than in the complexes of $L_1$.

  • PDF

Production of Cellulase from Lignocellulosic Waste. (리그노셀룰로스계 폐기물을 이용한 Cellulase의 생산)

  • 강성우;이진석;김승욱
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
    • /
    • v.30 no.1
    • /
    • pp.98-102
    • /
    • 2002
  • Lignocellulosic wastes available in abundance can be excellent substrates for the production of cellulase. Different types of substrates and various pretreatments were used to improve the production of cellulase. The steam-exploded wood chip gave the highest activities of FPase (0.84 IU/mL) and CMCase (6.5 IU/mL) in the shake-flask culture. In 30 L bioreactor the steam-exploded wood chip and residue after saccharification gave the FPase activity (0.72 IU/mL) and the CMCase activity (6.3 IU/mL), respectively, similar those obtained in lactose.

Effects of Berberine on L-DOPA Therapy in 6-Hydroxydopamine-induced Rat Models of Parkinsonism (Berberine이 백서의 6-Hydroxydopamine-유도 파킨슨병 모델에서의 L-DOPA 요법에 미치는 영향)

  • Shin, Kun-Seong;Kwon, Ik-Hyun;Choi, Hyun-Sook;Lim, Sung-Cil;Hwang, Bang-Yeon;Lee, Myung-Koo
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
    • /
    • v.55 no.6
    • /
    • pp.510-515
    • /
    • 2011
  • Isoquinoline compounds including berberine enhance L-DOPA-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells. In this study, the effects of berberine on L-DOPA therapy in unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced rat models of parkinsonism were investigated. Rats were prepared for the models of Parkinson's disease by 6-OHDA-lesioning for 14 days and then treated with L-DOPA (10 mg/kg) with or without berberine (5 and 30 mg/kg, i.p.) for 21 days. Treatment with berberine (5 and 30 mg/kg, i.p.) showed a dopaminergic cell loss in substantia nigra of 6-OHDA-lesioned rats treated with L-DOPA: 30 mg/kg berberine was more intensive neurotoxic. The levels of dopamine were also decreased by berberine (5 and 30 mg/ kg) in striatum-substantia nigra of 6-OHDA-lesioned rats treated with L-DOPA. These results suggest that berberine aggravates cell death of dopaminergic neurons in L-DOPA-treated 6-OHDA-lesioned rat models of Parkinson's disease. Therefore, the long-term L-DOPA therapeutic patients with isoquinoline compounds including berberine may need to be checked for the adverse symptoms.

Analysis of Influence on Stream Water Quality by Soil Erosion Control Structures (사방공작물이 계류수질에 미치는 영향 분석)

  • Park, Jae-Hyeon;Kim, Choonsig
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
    • /
    • v.102 no.4
    • /
    • pp.571-577
    • /
    • 2013
  • This study was carried out to establish the construction guidelines of soil erosion control structures for a restoration of mountain stream with analysis of water quality around constructed soil erosion control structures in mountain streams. Water pH of the Uidong valleys in Bukhansan (Mt.) was similar between the constructed soil erosion control structures of lower stream areas [pH 6.53(6.25~6.82)] and the non-constructed areas of upper stream areas [pH 6.32(5.73~6.90)]. Mean concentration of dissolved oxygen was also similar between the constructed soil erosion control structures of lower steam areas [10.2 mg/L(9.9~10.4 mg/L)] and the non-constructed areas of upper stream areas [10.3 mg/L (9.6~10.6 mg/L)]. Mean electric conductivity was similar between the lower [$63.9{\mu}S/cm$ ($32.6{\sim}120.4{\mu}S/cm$)]a nd the upper stream areas [$62.2{\mu}S/cm$ ($40.3{\sim}89.5{\mu}S/cm$)]. Mean concentration of anions was also similar between the lower [15.94 mg/L (3.43~7.98 mg/L)] and the upper stream areas [14.51 mg/L (2.56~4.29 mg/L)]. Water pH of the Honggei valleys in Sancheong-gun was similar between the lower [pH 6.86(6.50~7.10)] and the upper stream areas [pH 6.89(6.61~7.12)]. Mean concentration of dissolved oxygen was also similar between the lower [11.9 mg/L(11.5~12.3 mg/L)] and the upper stream areas [12.2 mg/L (11.6~12.6 mg/L)]. Mean electric conductivity was similar between the lower [$633.4{\mu}S/cm$ ($31.6{\sim}34.6{\mu}S/cm$)] and the upper stream areas [$32.7{\mu}S/cm$ ($31.4{\sim}34.3{\mu}S/cm$)]. Mean concentration of anion was also similar to both stream areas [1.0 mg/L (0.1~2.2 mg/L)]. Water quality in the Uidong and the Honggei valleys was not significantly different between the constructed soil erosion control structures of lower stream areas and the non-constructed areas of upper stream areas. It will be needed to study the time-series analysis of water quality before and after the construction of soil erosion control structure the restoration of mountain streams because the water quality in mountain streams could be affected during the construction processes of structures.

Runoff Characteristics of Non-point Source Pollutants from Road Area During Rainfall Events (강우시 도로지역 비점오염물질 유출특성)

  • Park, Woon Ji;Lee, Su In;Lee, Hae Seung;Lee, Young Joon;Choi, Joong Dae
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.403-403
    • /
    • 2015
  • 본 연구에서는 강우시 도로지역에서 발생하는 비점오염물질 유출 및 수질특성을 살펴보고자 도로지역(국도 46호선)을 대상으로 총 16회의 강우사상에 대해 분석하였다. 모니터링 기간(2014년 5월~9월)동안 연구대상지역에는 3.2~80.3 mm의 강우가 발생하였으며, 강우강도는 0.39~11.29 mm/hr의 범위로 나타났다. 선행무강우일수는 0.3~20.1일이며, 총 유출량은 0.1~6.8 ㎥, 유출율은 0.24~0.85(평균 0.6)의 범위로 나타났다. 강우 모니터링 결과, 유량가중평균농도(Event Mean Concentration, EMC)는 TOC 4.9~56.2 mg/L(평균 18.0 mg/L), BOD 3.1~21.5 mg/L(평균 7.5 mg/L), COD 6.7~58.6 mg/L(평균 23.6 mg/L), SS 2.1~281.9 mg/L(평균 59.4 mg/L), T-N 1.07~13.46 mg/L(평균 4.89 mg/L) 그리고 T-P 0.065~0.680 mg/L(평균 0.23 mg/L)의 범위로 나타났으며, 강우계급별로 살펴보면 0~10 mm일 때 BOD 9.3 mg/L, COD 30.5 mg/L, SS 84.1 mg/L, T-N 5.42 mg/L, T-P 0.27 mg/L로, 10~30 mm일 때 BOD 6.6 mg/L, COD 22.0 mg/L, SS 29.0 mg/L, T-N 4.9 mg/L, T-P 0.20 mg/L로, 50 mm 이상의 강우에서는 BOD 3.6 mg/L, COD 7.1 mg/L, SS 46.4 mg/L, T-N 3.42 mg/L, T-P 0.10 mg/L로 강우계급별 EMC는 대부분 수질항목에 있어 10 mm 이하 계급의 평균 EMC가 높은 수준으로 나타났다. 그리고 각 강우사상에 대한 단위면적당 오염부하는 TOC 0.06~3.5 kg/ha, $BOD_5$ 0.03~1.6 kg/ha, CODMn 0.09~4.74 kg/ha, SS 0.09~35.99 kg/ha, T-N 0.012~2.600 kg/ha, T-P 0.001~0.062 kg/ha의 범위로 산정되었다. 도로지역은 불투수층 면적비율이 높아 누적강우량 10 mm 이하에서도 유출이 발생하는 것으로 분석되었으며, 작은 강우에도 초기유출이 발생하고 유출되는 오염물질 농도가 높은 경향을 나타내었다.

  • PDF

Effect on the Concentration of Glucose and Sucrose on the Hydrogen Production using by the Facultative Anaerobic Hydrogen Producing Bacterium Rhodopseudomonas sp. MeL 6-2 (통성혐기성 수소생산균주 Rhodopseudomonas sp. MeL 6-2를 이용한 수소생산효율에 미치는 포도당 및 자당 농도의 영향)

  • Lee, Eun-Young
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
    • /
    • v.37 no.2
    • /
    • pp.176-182
    • /
    • 2009
  • Hydrogen producing bacterium, strain MeL 6-2 was isolated from the sludge of the factory areas in Anyang through the acclimation in basal salt medium (BSM) supplemented with 10 g/L of sucrose. Isolated strain MeL 6-2 was a facultative anaerobe which could grow in both aerobic and anaerobic environments. An aerobically grown pure culture isolated from enriched culture was analyzed by 16S rDNA sequencing and identified as Rhodopseudomonas sp. MeL 6-2. Effects of the concentrations of glucose and sucrose on the hydrogen production rate and the hydrogen production yield were investigated. When glucose in the range of 1~12 g/L was supplemented to the BSM, strain MeL 6-2 could grow without lag phase. An increased glucose concentration increased the specific hydrogen production rate linearly to $4.2\;mmol-H_2{\cdot}L^{-1}{\cdot}h^{-1}$ at 10 g/L, and $60\;mmol-H_2{\cdot}mg-DCW^{-1}{\cdot}h^{-1}$, but decreased slightly as the concentration increased to 12 g/L. The hydrogen production yield was maintained over a range from 2.6 to $3.1\;mol-H_2{\cdot}mol-glucose^{-1}$. When sucrose in the range of 1~12 g/L was supplemented to the BSM, strain MeL 6-2 could grow after ten hours. An increased sucrose concentration increased the specific hydrogen production rate and the hydrogen production yield to $163\;mmol-H_2{\cdot}mg-DCW^{-1}{\cdot}h^{-1}$ and to $4.5\;mol-H_2{\cdot}mol-sucrose^{-1}$, respectively.

Synthesis of 2',3'-Dideoxyisoguanosine from Guanosine

  • Kim, Sung-Han;Lee, Sang-Jun;Sun, Won-Suck;Oh, Sung-Wook;Kim, Jung-Han
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
    • /
    • v.22 no.6
    • /
    • pp.619-623
    • /
    • 1999
  • $2^{l},3^{l}$-dideoxyisoguanosine was synthesized from guanosine via intermediate 6-[(4-methyl-phenyl)thio]-2-oxo-9-($2^{l},3^{l},5^{l}$-tri-O-acetyl-$\beta$-D-ribofuranosyl)-2,3-dihydropurine (4). The 2-oxo, 6-amino and $5^{l}$-hydroxy triprotected isoguanosine derivative was utilized to reduce high polarity and promote poor solubility of intermediates. The protecting groups for oxo and 6-amino were easily removed in reduction of olefin in ribose without additional reaction steps.$2^{l},3^{l}$-Vicinal diol in ribose sugar moiety was transformed to olefin with Bu3SnH by radical reaction via bisxanthate. Removing $5^{l}$-O-TBDMS protecting group gave final product, $2^{l},3^{l}$-dideoxyisoguanosine (12) in a 10% overall yield.

  • PDF