• Title, Summary, Keyword: Korean waters

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Seasonal Variation of Water Mass Distributions in the Eastern Yellow Sea and the Yellow Sea Warm Current

  • Pang, Ig-Chan;Hyun, Kyung-Hoon
    • Journal of the korean society of oceanography
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.41-52
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    • 1998
  • A seasonal circulation pattern in the eastern Yellow Sea (EYS) is suggested from the water mass analysis and geostrophic calculation using the hydrographic data collected by National Fisheries Research and Development Institute during the years of 1970 to 1990. This research focuses on the presence of inflow of warm (and saline) waters into EYS in summer. EYS is divided into two regions in this paper: the west coast of Korea (WCK) and the central Yellow Sea (CYS). In CYS, waters are linked with warm waters near Cheju Island in winter, but with cold waters from the north in summer (in the lower layer). It is not simple to say about WCK because of the influences of freshwater input and tidal mixing. Nevertheless, water mass analysis reveals that along WCK, waters have the major mixing ratios (40-60%) of warm waters in summer, while the dominant mixing ratios (50-90%) of cold waters in winter. Such a seasonal change of water mass distribution can be explained only by seasonal circulation. In winter, warm waters flow northward into CYS and cold waters flow southward along WCK. In summer, warm waters flow northward along WCK and cold waters flow southward into CYS. This circulation pattern is supported by both statistical analysis and dynamic depth topography. Accordingly, Yellow Sea Warm Current may be defined as the inflow of warm waters to CYS in winter and to WCK in summer.

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Impact of Artificial Illumlination on Zooplankton Dynamics

  • Kim, Saywa;Park, Chul-Won
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.312-315
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    • 2002
  • Impact of artificial illumination on zooplankton dynamics has been studied in Tongyong marine ranch during the period from August 1998 to August 1999. Monthly sampling has been carried out to collect zooplankters from both natural waters and artificially illuminated waters at night. A total of 48 taxa of zooplankton occurred during the study. Copepods showed the prosperity in species number with 21 species. Every sample from illuminated waters consisted of move than 15 species except February while less than 15 species in samples from natural waters during the winter. Benthic amphipods occurred abundantly in illuminated waters. Zooplankton abundance was revealed to be increased in illuminated waters mainly due to the gathering of amphipods (4,500 indiv. $m^{-3})$ in September and October. Twenty times of zooplankton abundance was recorded in illuminated waters when compared with that in natural ones in September due to the gathering: of amphipods and ten times by the explosion of N. scintillans in August 1999. However, no distinct difference in the abundance was observed between two waters in the winter. Zooplankton gathering with artificial illumination seemed to be effective in amphipods, while copepods were hardly affected by the artificial illumination at night.

A COMPARISON OF THE DIAGNOSTIC ABILITY BETWEEN WATERS′ RADIOGRAPH AND COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF MIDFACIAL FRACTURE (안면중앙부 골절 진단시 전산화단층사진과 Waters 방사선사진의 진단능 비교)

  • Jeon In-Seong;Choi Soon-Chul
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Maxillofacial Radiology
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.179-188
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    • 1997
  • This study was intended to compare the diagnostic ability between Waters' radiograph and CT in the diagnosis of midfacial fracture. The study group included 44 patients(male:32, female :12, age range :16-74 years old) with facial injury who underwent surgery. Waters' radiograph and both axial and coronal scanning were performed before surgery. Three oral radiologists and three non-oral radiologist interpreted 44 Waters' radiographs and 88 CT in three ways; 1) interpretation using Waters' radiograph only, 2) interpretation using CT only, 3) interpretation using Waters' radiograph and CT. The interpretation sites were confined to the walls of maxillary sinus; anterior, posterior, medial, lateral and superior wall. ROC curves were made with the findings during surgery as a gold standard except the posterior wall, where the joint evaluation of Waters' radiograph and CT by other three oral radiologists was used. ROC areas were compared according to the interpreting methods, the interpretation sites, and groups (R group ; oral radiologist group, N group ; non-oral radiologist group). The obtained results were as followed : 1. The diagnostic ability of CT only and Waters' radiograph and CT was higher than Waters' radiograph only in both groups(P<0.05). But there was no difference between CT only and Waters' radiograph and CT. 2. Generally, the diagnostic ability for the lateral antral wall was the highest and that for the posterior antral wall was the lowest in both groups(P<0.05). 3. In R group, for the anterior antral wall the diagnostic ability using CT only was increased but for the medial, lateral and superior antral walls the diagnostic ability was increased in only using Waters' radiograph and CT. 4. In N group, for the anterior and medial walls the diagnostic ability using CT only was increased. But for the posterior, lateral and superior antral walls there were no difference among three interpreting methods. 5. The diagnostic ability of R group was higher than N group in all interpreting methods.

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Stylocheiron abbreviatum (Euphausiacea, Crustacea): A New Record from the Korean Waters

  • Suh, Hae-Lip
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.255-257
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    • 2012
  • The euphausiid crustacean Stylocheiron abbreviatum G. O. Sars, 1883 has been found in the southern waters of Jeju Island, Korea. This species is the third member of the genus Stylocheiron and the twelfth of the family Euphausiidae identified in Korean waters. Using descriptions of this species, a key to Korean euphausiids is presented.

The Clarification Of Spatial-temporal Patterns of Phytoplankton From Southern Korean Coastal Waters In 2004 (2004년 한국 남해연안 해역에 출현하는 식물플랑크톤의 시.공간적 특성 조사)

  • Cho Eun-Seob;Kim Jeong-Bae;An Kyoung-Ho;Yu Jun;Kwon Jung-No;Jeong Chang-Su
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.539-562
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    • 2006
  • The clarification of spatial-temporal patterns of phytoplankton from southern coastal waters during the period of March to November in 2004 was carried out. Total cell numbers were shown in 5,286 cells $ml^{-1}$ on March and reached to encounter a peak of 27,775 cells $ml^{-1}$ on July. Mean cell number was also shown in maximum of 1,587 cells $ml^{-1}$ on July, which recorded approximately two times higher than on June. The cell number of phytoplankton from southmiddle waters attained an abundance of ${\geq}35%$ regardless of months, which was the highest the abundance of phytoplankton in 2004 than any other waters in this study. Southwestern waters were lower the cell number of 2-5 times than those of southmiddle and southeastern waters. In particular, Prorocentrum occurred in southeastern waters on June and the highest cell number of 8,200 cells $ml^{-1}$ around Tongyeong region on July, which was recorded to occupy the value of 60.9% in southeast waters. The abundance of Skeletonema costatum as a dominant taxa in southwest was shown in ${\geq}60%$ on March, July, September, and October, whereas was also recorded to achieve the abundance of above 80% in southmiddle waters on March, July, and September. The majority of the taxa in southeastern waters was diatom: Eucampia zoodiacus, and Chaetoceros spp.. They occupied above 45%. On November, most of southern waters were abundant to Chaetoceros spp. On the basis of cluster analysis using SPSS ver 10.0, phytoplankton occurring on March showed somewhat no correlation with all of southern waters. In contrast to on March, the relationship between southwestern and southmiddle waters was shown on August and November, indicating a distinction from southeastern waters. However, the distance between southwestern/middle and southeastern waters appeared to be less than 5. Consequently, the abundance of phytoplankton in southern waters showed much fluctuations in temporal and spatial assays. In particular, southwestern and southmiddle waters during the periods of summer and winter appeared to be a similar to environmental characteristics.

A Study on Fluoride Contents in Surface and Ground Waters in Korea. (지표수 및 지하수중 불소 함량에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Sung-Ja;Noh, Pyung-Ui;Bak, Young-Soo
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.9-12
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    • 1976
  • A study was performed to find out the fluoride contents in surface and ground waters from June, 1973 to July, 1974. Water samples were collected from 53 surface and ground water sources. The results are as follows: 1. Out of 53 samples, the ground water of Hwaengsung had the highest fluoride contents (1.6 mg/l) and 13 samples did not. have fluoride at all. 2. The waters from Yoju (ground), Chongnung (ground) Hwaengsung (ground) and Namyang (ground) had optimum fluoride level (0.6~1.7mg/l) for the prevention of dental caries. 3. The ground waters had more fluoride contents than surface waters and the waters of coastal areas had less fluoride contents than those of inland. 4. The waters of Kangwon province had the most fluoride contents (mean 0.57mg/l) and the waters of Cheju do had the least fluoride contents (mean 0.06 mg/l)

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Spectral Distribution and Spectral Absorption of Suspended particulates in Waters of Sanya Bay

  • Yang, Dingtian;Cao, Wenxi
    • Proceedings of the KSRS Conference
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    • v.1
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    • pp.495-498
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    • 2006
  • Optical profile and spectral absorption of suspended solids in waters of Sanya bay was measured on August 8-14, 2003. Optical profile was taken by using MicroPro optical profile. Apparent optical indexes, vertical diffuse attenuation coefficient ($K_d$) and water leaving radiance (Lw), were calculated. $K_d$ at the blue end of the spectrum was greater than that at the red end of the spectrum in waters near Sanya River mouth, however, in waters near open sea, $K_d$ at the blue end of the spectrum was smaller than that at the red end of the spectrum. Distribution of water leaving radiance was relatively higher in waters near Sanya River mouth, but relatively weaker in near open sea water. Spectral absorption of suspended particulates was also measured. Results showed that the spectral absorption of chlorophyll a was greater in waters near Sanya river mouth, but relatively weaker in waters near open sea, which indicated higher concentration of phytoplankton in waters near Sanya river mouth. Except for water at the 5th sampling station, the ratio of spectral absorption of chlorophyll a to total suspended particulates in surface waters was greater than that in bottom waters at all stations.

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Taxonomic study on bryozoans - new additions to the Korean fauna and new species of Petraliella from Seogwipo waters of Jeju Island

  • Chae, Hyun Sook;Kil, Hyun Jong;Seo, Ji Eun
    • Journal of Species Research
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    • v.5 no.3
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    • pp.551-565
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    • 2016
  • This study aims to clarify the diversity of bryozoans which were collected from Seogwipo waters in Jeju Island, Korea. A total of 78 species has been reported from Seogwipo waters so far. In the present study, 63 species were found from nine sites of Seogwipo waters from 2008 to 2012, including six newly added species to the Korean bryozoan fauna and twelve species new to Seogwipo waters. As a result of this study, the bryozoans from Seogwipo waters were turned out to be 96 species, 64 genera, 42 families, three orders and two classes.

Satellite-detected red tide algal blooms in Korean and neighboring waters during 1999-2004

  • Ahn Yu-Hwan;Shanmugam Palanisamy
    • Proceedings of the KSRS Conference
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    • pp.95-100
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    • 2006
  • Measurements of ocean color from space since 1970s provided vital information with reference to physical and biogeochemical properties of the oceanic waters. The utility of these data has been explored in order to map and monitor highly toxic/or harmful algal blooms (HABs) that affected most of coastal waters throughout the world due to accelerated eutrophication from human activities and certain oceanic processes. However, the global atmospheric correction and bio-optical algorithms developed for oceanic waters were found to yield false information about the HABs in coastal waters. The present study aimed to evaluate the potential use of red tide index (RI) method, which has been developed by Ahn and Shanmugam (2005), for mapping of HABs in Korean and neighboring waters. Here we employed the SSMM to remove the atmospheric effect in the SeaWiFS image data and the achieved indices by RI method were found more appropriate in correctly identifying potential areas of the encountered HABs in Korean South Sea (KSS) and Chinese coastal waters during 1999-2004. But the existence of high absorbing and scattering materials greatly interfered with the standard OC4 algorithm which falsely identified red tides in these waters. In comparison with other methods, the RI approach for the early detection of HABs can provide state managers with accurate identification of the extent and location of these blooms as a management tool.

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Estimation of deep reservoir temperature of thermal groundwaters in Bugok and Magumsan areas, South Korea

  • Park, Seong-Sook;Yun, Seong-Taek;So, Chil-Sup
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment Conference
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    • pp.473-476
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    • 2004
  • In this study, hydrochemical studies of thermal waters in the Bugok and Magumsan areas showing geothermal anomalies were carried, and the applicability of ion seothermometers and multiple mineral equilibrium approach was examined to estimate their potential deep reservoir temperatures. Typical thermal waters of the two areas are clearly grouped into two major types, according to water chemistry: Na-Cl type (group A) and Na-SO4 type (group D). Compared to group A, group B and C waters show some modifications in chemistry. Group E waters show the modified chemistry from group D. Geothermal waters from the two areas showed some different chemical characteristics. The thermal waters of group A and B in Magumsan area are typically neutral to alkaline (pH=6.7 to 8.1) and Cl-rich (up to 446.1 mg/L), while the waters of group D and E in Bugok area are alkaline (pH=7.6 to 10.0) and SO$_4$-rich (up to 188.0 mg/L). The group A (Na-Cl type) and group D (Na-SO$_4$ type) waters correspond to mature or partially immature water, whereas the other types are immature water. The genesis of geothermal waters are considered as follows: group A and B waters were formed by seawater infiltration into reservoir rocks along faults and fracture zones and possibly affected by fossil connate waters in lithologic units through which deep hot waters circulate; on the other hand, group D and E waters were formed by the oxidation of sulfide minerals (mainly pyrite) in surrounding sedimentary rocks and/or hydrothermal veins occurring along restricted fracture channels and were possibly affected by the input and subsequent oxidation of S-bearing gases (e.g. H2S) from deep thermal reservoir (probably, cooling pluton). The application of quartz, Na-K, K-Mg geothermometers to the chemistry of representative group A and D waters yielded a reasonable temperature estimate (99-147$^{\circ}C$ and 90-142$^{\circ}C$) for deep geothermal reservoir. Aqueous liquid-rich fluid inclusions in fracture calcites obtained from drillcores in Bugok area have an average homogenization temperature of 128$^{\circ}C$, which corresponds to the results from ion geothermometers. The multiple mineral equilibrium approach yielded a similar temperature estimate (105-135$^{\circ}C$ and 100-14$0^{\circ}C$). We consider that deep reservoir temperatures of thermal waters in the Magumsan and Bugok areas can be estimated by the chemistry of typical Na-Cl and Na-SO$_4$ type waters and possibly approach 105-135$^{\circ}C$ and 100-14$0^{\circ}C$.

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