• Title, Summary, Keyword: Korean paddy soil

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Comparison of Soil Chemistry and Environmental Characteristics of Organic Paddy and Conventional Paddy Before Basal Fertilizer Application (기비전 유기논과 관행논의 토양 화학 및 환경 특성 비교)

  • Park, Jeong-Soo;Wang, Long;Kang, Ku;Gu, Bon-Wun;Kim, Han-Joong;Hong, Seong-Gu;Hong, Seung-Gil;Park, Seong-Jik
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.57 no.6
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    • pp.47-57
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    • 2015
  • Organic farming system has been considered environmental friendly and sustainable agricultural practice. However, the influence of organic farming on soil quality and environment is not well informed and controversial. We sampled and analyzed 0~15 cm and 15~30 cm depth soils of organic and conventional paddy fields in Yongin and Anseong. The electric conductivity and organic matter content of organic paddy soil were significantly less (p = 0.0097, 0.0067, respectively) than those of conventional paddy soil. Available phosphate and total phosphorus in 0~15 cm depth of organic paddy soil were $211.1{\pm}135.3$, $872.4{\pm}286.3mg/kg$, respectively, less than those of conventional paddy soil. Available phosphate amount in conventional paddy was $358.8{\pm}246.7mg/kg$, which is higher than 300 mg/kg that can cause secondary environmental contamination by runoff. The amount of total nitrogen in organic paddy soil was less than that in conventional paddy while their difference was not significant. The concentration of the heavy metals in organic paddy soil was also lower than that in conventional paddy soil but their difference was not statistically significant. Our findings demonstrate that electric conductivity, organic matter, nutrients, and heavy metals in organic paddy soil were less than those in conventional paddy soil. However, additional monitoring of soil properties for longer period is necessary to certify such a conclusion.

Soil Organic Carbon Dynamics in Korean Paddy Soils (우리나라 논 토양의 토양유기탄소 변동 특성)

  • Jung, Won-Kyo;Kim, Sun-Kwan
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.36-42
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    • 2007
  • Korean paddy soils have long been almost uniformly managed throughout the whole country with flooded, deep tillage, puddlling, transplanting, and uncovering after harvest. Management of soil organic carbon could be more important in the sources of green house gases. However, soil organic carbon dynamics were not been studied for Korean paddy soils. Therefore, we evaluated the changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) of paddy soils between 1999 and 2003 at the same locations nationwide except islands. Soil organic carbon tends to increase in Inceptisols, which is predominant soil order for Korean paddy soils, from 1999 to 2003. Soil organic carbon increases in topographically plain paddy soils was greater than in valley soils, and was considerably high in predominant types of paddy soils (i.e., well adapted paddy soils, sandy paddy soils, and poorly drained paddy soils) but low and stable in the saline paddy soils. We also found that clay paddy soils are greater in soil organic carbon than sandy paddy soils. Through this study, we concluded that a proper management of paddy soils could contribute to soil organic carbon storage, which imply that the Korean paddy soils could help to enhance carbon dioxide sequestration via soil organic matter into the soil.

Characteristics of TN and TP in Runoff from Reclaimed Paddy Field of Fine Sandy Loam

  • Lee, Kyung-Do;Hong, Suk-Young;Kim, Yi-Hyun;Na, Sang-Il;Lee, Kyeong-Bo
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.46 no.6
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    • pp.417-425
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    • 2013
  • This study investigated the runoff from rice paddy located on reclaimed fine sandy loam soil to provide data for the development of policies to protect water quality of estuaries. Total N (TN), Total P (TP) concentrations and runoff loads at outlet were monitored from 2006 to 2008. Soil phosphate adsorptivity was measured and compared with typical paddy soil in watersheds. TP concentration of the paddy water and TP runoff loads were much greater than those of typical paddy field in watershed because phosphate adsoptivity in reclaimed paddy field of fine sandy loam appeared to be a third of those of typical paddy soils by relatively low soil OM and high sand content of the reclaimed soil. Thus, nutrient runoff, particularly phosphate from the reclaimed paddy field needs to be managed more thoroughly to protect estuarine water quality.

Characteristics of Anthropogenic Soil Formed from Paddy near the River

  • Sonn, Yeon-Kyu;Zhang, Yong-Seon;Hyun, Byung-Keun;Kim, Keun-Tae;Lee, Chang-Hoon
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.49 no.5
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    • pp.434-439
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    • 2016
  • Anthropogenic soil in cropland is formed in the process of subsoil reversal and the refill of soil into cropland. However, there was little information on the chemical properties within soil profiles in anthropogenic soil under rice paddy near the river. In this study, we investigated the chemical properties within soil profiles in the anthropogenic soil located at 4 sites in Gumi, Kimhae, Chungju, and Euiseong to compare with the natural paddy soil near the river. Among particle sizes, the sand content decreased under soil profiles but the silt and clay contents increased compared to the natural paddy soil in soil profiles. Organic matter content in topsoil of anthropogenic soil was lower than in that of natural soil, which was shown the contrary tendency within soil profiles. Also, the soil pH, available $P_2O_5$, and exchangeable cations were higher in anthropogenic soil compared to natural paddy soil at topsoil, which was maintained these tendency into soil depth. Nutrients may be equally distributed in anthropogenic soil during the process of refill in paddy soil near the river. This results indicated that anthropogenic soil would contribute to carbon sequestration, the mitigation of compaction, and reduction of fertilizer application in paddy soil. Therefore, characteristics of anthropogenic soil can be used for the soil management in cropland.

논에서의 영양물질 배출량 추정( I ) - 모형의 개발 -

  • Chung, Sang-Ok;Kim, Hyeon-Soo
    • Magazine of the Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.44 no.4
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    • pp.51-61
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    • 2002
  • The objective of this study is to develop GLEANS-PADDY model to predict nutrients loading from paddy-field areas. This model is developed by modifying the GLEANS model which is used for uplands, and composed of hydrology and nutrient submodels. The optimal field size for CLEANS-PADDY model application is about up to 50 ha with mild slope, relatively homogeneous Soils and spatially rainfall, and a single crop farming. The CLEAMS model is modified to handle ponded soil surface condition and saturated soil profile in paddy field. In the hydrology submodel of the CLEAMS-PADDY model. the ponded depth routing method is used to handle the ponded water condition of paddy field. To compute potential evapotranspiration the FAO-24 Corrected Blaney-Criddle method is used for paddy field instead of Penman-Monteith method in the CLEAMS model. In the nutrients submodel of the CLEAMS-PADDY model, the soil was assumed saturated and soil profile in the root zone was divided into oxidized and reduced zones.

Status and Changes in Chemical Properties of Paddy Soil in Gyeonggi Province

  • Roh, Ahn-Sung;Park, Jung-Su;Kim, Yoo-Hak;Kang, Seong-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.48 no.5
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    • pp.436-441
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    • 2015
  • The chemical properties of paddy fields in Gyeonggi province were monitored every 4 years from 1999 to 2015 in order to provide basic information for soil fertility management of paddy fields. In 2015, the soil chemical properties of paddy fields were 5.9 in pH, $23g\;kg^{-1}$ in organic matter (OM), and $84mg\;kg^{-1}$ in available phosphate (Avail. $P_2O_5$). Exchangeable (Exch.) potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) were 0.30, 5.1 and $1.3cmol_ckg^{-1}$, respectively, and available silicate (Avail. $SiO_2$) was $129mg\;kg^{-1}$. In the long-term analysis, the contents of Avail. $SiO_2$, Exch. Ca and pH of paddy soils showed increasing tendency. However, Avail. $P_2O_5$ and Exch. K tended to decrease, and there were no significant changes in the contents of OM and Exch. Mg. Paddy soil within appropriate pH range increased from 44% in 1999 to 76% in 2003, 84% in 2007, 63% in 2011, and 80% in 2015. But soil within appropriate range of Exch. Ca tended to decrease, showing 36% in 1999, 42% in 2003, 38% in 2007, 37% in 2011 and 32% in 2015. In case of Avail. $SiO_2$, soil within appropriate range increased from 14% in 1999 to 17% in 2003, 18% in 2007, 16% in 2011, and 31% in 2015. As a result, paddy fields with less in nutrient level need to be more fertilized based on soil analysis. And the application of silicate fertilizer is strongly recommended to those of paddy fields in need. Also soil management such as the cultivation of green manure crop or application of rice straw will be necessary to increase the organic matter content of paddy soil.

Excessive soil water stress responses of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) and perilla (Perilla frutescens L.) cultivated from paddy fields with different topographic features

  • Ryu, Jongsoo;Baek, Inyeoul;Kwak, Kangsu;Han, Wonyoung;Bae, Jinwoo;Park, Jinki;Chun, Hyen Chung
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.749-760
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    • 2018
  • In Korea, the largest agricultural lands are paddy fields which have poor infiltration and drainage properties. Recently, the Korean government has pursued cultivating upland crops in paddy fields to reduce overproduced rice in Korea. For this policy to succeed, it is critical to understand the topographic information of paddy fields and its effects on upland crops cultivated in the soils of paddy fields. The objective of this study was to characterize the growth properties of sesame and perilla from paddy fields with three soil topographic features and soil water effects which were induced by the topographic features of the sesame and perilla. The crops were planted in paddy fields located in Miryang, Gyeongnam with different topographies: mountain foot slope, local valley and alluvial plain. Soil water contents and groundwater levels were measured every hour during the growing season. The paddy field of the mountain foot slope was significantly effective in alleviating wet injury for the sesame and perilla in the paddy fields. The paddy field of the mountain foot slope had a decreased average soil water content and groundwater level during cultivation. Stress day index (SDI) from the alluvial plain paddy field had the greatest values from both crops and the smallest from the ones from the paddy field of the mountain foot slope. This result means that sesame and perilla had the smallest stress from the soil water content of the paddy field on the mountain foot slope and the greatest stress from the soil water content of the alluvial plain. It is important to consider the topography of paddy fields to reduce wet injury and to increase crop yields.

Comparison of Soil Chemical Properties and Heavy Metal Contents in Organic and Conventional Paddy of Yongin and Anseong (용인과 안성 지역의 유기논 및 관행논에서 토양 화학 특성 및 중금속 함량 비교)

  • Gu, Bon-Wun;Lee, Tae-Gu;Kang, Ku;Hong, Seong-Gu;Hong, Seung-Gil;Jang, Tae-Il;Kim, Jin-Ho;Park, Seong-Jik
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.59 no.3
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2017
  • The aim of this study is to investigate the chemical properties and heavy metal concentration of soils in conventional and organic paddy. We sampled and analyzed topsoil (0~15 cm) and subsoil (15~30 cm) of conventional and organic paddy fields in Yongin and Anseong, South Korea. The statistical significance between groups was determined by Duncan's multiple range test and correlation between soil properties was also analyzed. The results show that organic matter (OM) and T-N of conventional paddy soil were higher than those of organic paddy soil. However, higher T-P concentration was observed in organic paddy soil than conventional paddy soil. As, Pb, and Zn concentration in organic paddy soil were statistically lower than those in conventional paddy soil. The couple of water content (WC) & As, OM & T-N, T-P & $P_2O_5$, T-P & Zn, $P_2O_5$ & Zn, and Cr & Ni had a good positive correlation but the couple of WC & T-P, WC & Zn, T-P & As, and As & Zn had a strong negative correlation. It can be concluded that organic farming is beneficial to soil environment by reducing the amounts of organic matter, T-N, As, Pb, and Zn concentration in paddy soil when compared to conventional farming.

Improved Method of Suitability Classification for Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) Cultivation in Paddy Field Soils

  • Chun, Hyen Chung;Jung, Ki Yuol;Choi, Young Dae;Lee, Sanghun
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.50 no.6
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    • pp.520-529
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    • 2017
  • In Korea, the largest agricultural lands are paddy fields which have poor infiltration and drainage properties. Recently, Korean government pursuits cultivating upland crops in paddy fields to reduce overproduced rice in Korea. In order to succeed this policy, it is critical to set criteria suitability classification for upland crops cultivating in paddy field soils. The objective of this study was developing guideline of suitability classification for sesame cultivation in paddy field soils. Yields of sesame cultivated in paddy field soils and soil properties were investigated at 40 locations at nationwide scale. Soil properties such as topography, soil texture, soil moisture contents, slope, and drainage level were investigated. The guideline of suitability classification for sesame was determined by multi-regression method. As a result, sesame yields had the greatest correlation with topography, soil moisture content, and slope. Since sesame is sensitive to excessive soil moisture content, paddy fields with well drained, slope of 7-15% and mountain foot or hill were best suit for cultivating sesame. Sesame yields were greater with less soil moisture contents. Based on these results, area of best suitable paddy field land for sesame was 161,400 ha, suitable land was 62,600 ha, possible land was 331,600 ha, and low productive land was 1,075,500 ha. Compared to existing suitability classification, the new guideline of classification recommended smaller area of best or suitable areas to cultivate sesame. This result may suggest that sesame cultivation in paddy field can be very susceptible to soil moisture contents.

A Study on the Acidification of Soils (토양의 산성화에 관한 연구)

  • Park,Byeong-Yun;Eo,Yun-U;Yang,So-Yeong;Jang,Sang-Mun;Kim,Jeong-Ho;Lee,Dong-Hun
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.305-310
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    • 2001
  • pH($H_2O$), pH(KCI), CEC(cation exchange capacity), O.M.(organic matter) and exchangeable cations(K, Na, Ca, Mg) of paddy soil, upland soil and forest soil in Kumi city were investigated for the purpose of knowing soil acidification and the correlation between soil acidification and leaching of inorganic salts. The mean pH($H_2O$) values of paddy soil were 5.23(surface soil) and 5.69(subsoil) and 4.74(subsoil). The were 6.37(surface soil) and 6.11(subsoil), and those of forest soil were 4.67(surface soil) and 4.74(subsoil). The mean pH(KCl) values of paddy soil were 4.59(surface soil) and 4.98(subsoil) were 5.48(surface soil) and 5.04(subsoil), and those of forest soil were 3.82(surface soil) and 3.89(subsoil). The acidification of forest soil was more rapid than that of paddy soil and upland soil/ The total mean amounts of exchangeable cations(K, Na, Ca, Mg) in paddy soils were 6.14me/100g(surface soil) and 5.64me/100g(subsoil), and those in upland soils were 6.86me/100g(surface soil) and 6.65me/100g(subsoil), and those in forest soils were 4.06me/100g(surface soil) and 3.34me/100g(subsoil). The contents of inorganic salts in forest soil were much less than those of paddy soil and upland soil. The correlation coefficients(r) between pH($H_2O$) values and the total amounts of exchangeable cations in soils were $0.6635^{**}$(surface soil) and $0.6946^{**}$(subsoil), and those between pH(KCl) values and exchangeable cations in soils were 0.6629(surface soil) and $0.5675^{**}$(subsoil). The correlation between soil acidification and leaching of inorganic salts in soil was positively significant at 1% level.

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