• Title, Summary, Keyword: Korean medicine education

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Effects of Lichen Colonization of Dirinaria applanata on the Death of Rhododendron schlippenbachii (철쭉나무(Rhododendron schlippenbachii)에 대한 엽상 지의류 Dirinaria applanata의 병원성 조사)

  • Oh, Soon-Ok;Koh, Young-Jin;Hur, Jae-Seoun
    • Research in Plant Disease
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.34-39
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    • 2007
  • Lichen thalli of Dirinaria applanata heavily colonized on the twigs of dead or dying Rhododendron trees in Solok island, Jeonnam province in Korea. Pathogenesis of the lichen on the trees was investigated to find out the possibility of lichen as a causal agent. Histological examination of the lichen colonized twigs was attempted with differential staining technique. Lichen-forming fungus colonized only on the surface of bark and there was no direct penetration of fungal hyphae into the plant tissues. Symbiotic algae of the lichen was also examined. The isolated algal cells were inoculated on artificially induced wounds of the healthy trees. Histological examination of the inoculated tissues showed that some algal cells were successfully colonized inside the tissues without any pathogenic symptoms, even 2 months later, The extract of the lichen thalli was also examined using 10% of DMSO solution. Treated tissues showed no pathogenic symptoms, even 4 weeks later. The results suggested that the lichen was not directly involved in the death of the trees.

Evaluation of Antimicrobial, Antithrombin, and Antioxidant Activity of Aerial Part of Saxifraga stolonifera (호이초(Saxifraga stolonifera) 지상부의 항균, 항혈전 및 항산화 활성 평가)

  • Sohn, Ho-Yong;Ryu, Hee-Young;Jang, Yu-Jin;Jang, Han-Su;Park, Yu-Mi;Kim, Sa-Youl
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.195-200
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    • 2008
  • Saxifraga stolonifera (Saxifragaceae) is a perennial herbaceous plant growing in Korea, China, Japan and Russia. The aerial part has been used as herbal medicine for treatment of pneumonia, frostbite, inflammation and microbial infection. In this study, fresh juice and methanol extract were prepared from the aerial part of S. stolonifera, and their antimicrobial, antithrombin, and antioxidant activity were evaluated, respectively. The fresh juice showed weak antimicrobial activity against Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Candida albicans with ignorable DPPH scavenging activity. But, the methanol extract showed strong antioxidant activity ($IC_{50}$ of $37.5{\mu}g/mL$) with minor, broad-range antimicrobial activity. Antithrombin activities were not observed in fresh juice and extract, up to 1.5 mg/mL. Sequential organic solvent fractionation of methanol extract showed that $IC_{50}s$ of ethylacetate and the butanol fraction were 6.9 and $7.8{\mu}g/mL$, respectively, that is comparable with vitamin C or butylated hydroxytoluene. Analysis of component in extract and fractionates suggested that the antioxidants in fractions are diverse and the active substances have glycosylated phenolic structure. Our results suggest that the aerial part of S. stolonifera could be used as the natural source of potential antioxidant.

The Effects of Different Types of Tai Chi Exercise on Blood Variable and Physical Fitness in Obese Women (태극권 운동이 중년비만여성의 혈액성분과 체력변인에 미치는 영향)

  • Kwak, Yi-Sub;Kim, Yi-Soon;Kim, Kyung-Chul
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.19 no.11
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    • pp.1575-1580
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    • 2009
  • Tai Chi is a slow and gentle exercise which is suitable for obese women with chronic diseases. Tai Chi can improve the health of a senior without exacerbating existing impairments, including obese patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of different types of Tai Chi exercise on blood variables (glucose, cholesterol, TG, HDL, LDL, cortisol) and physical fitness (muscle strength, flexibility, muscle endurance, agility, balance). Thirty obese women were recruited from a public health center. They were divided into Yang style (YS: n=15) and 12 (12KS: n=15). The Tai Chi exercise group participated in a training program for 12 weeks (3times/week). There was significant improvement in muscle strength, flexibility, and muscle endurance in both groups. Agility was significantly increased in YS, more than in 12KS. However, there was no improvement in balance in both groups. There was significant improvement in cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and cortisol in both groups. However there was no improvement in blood glucose levels in either group. From the results, there was no significant difference in either Tai Chi exercises. The Tai Chi exercise program was effective in improving cholesterol related variables and physical fitness, except balance, in both groups. Further study is needed in this area.

Cut-off Value for Body Mass Index in Predicting Surgical Success in Patients with Lumbar Spinal Canal Stenosis

  • Azimi, Parisa;Yazdanian, Taravat;Shahzadi, Sohrab;Benzel, Edward C.;Azhari, Shirzad;Aghaei, Hossein Nayeb;Montazeri, Ali
    • Asian Spine Journal
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    • v.12 no.6
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    • pp.1085-1091
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    • 2018
  • Study Design: Case-control. Purpose: To determine optimal cut-off value for body mass index (BMI) in predicting surgical success in patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LSCS). Overview of Literature: BMI is an essential variable in the assessment of patients with LSCS. Methods: We conducted a prospective study with obese and non-obese LSCS surgical patients and analyzed data on age, sex, duration of symptoms, walking distance, morphologic grade of stenosis, BMI, postoperative complications, and functional disability. Obesity was defined as BMI of ${\geq}30kg/m^2$. Patients completed the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) questionnaire before surgery and 2 years after surgery. Surgical success was defined as ${\geq}30%$ improvement from the baseline ODI score. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to estimate the optimal cut-off values of BMI to predict surgical success. In addition, correlation was assessed between BMI and stenosis grade based on morphology as defined by Schizas and colleague in total, 189 patients were eligible to enter the study. Results: Mean age of patients was $61.5{\pm}9.6years$. Mean follow-up was $36{\pm}12months$. Most patients (88.4%) were classified with grades C (severe stenosis) and D (extreme stenosis). Post-surgical success was 85.7% at the 2-year follow-up. A weak correlation was observed between morphologic grade of stenosis and BMI. Rates of postoperative complications were similar between patients who were obese and those who were non-obese. Both cohorts had similar degree of improvement in the ODI at the 2-year followup. However, patients who were non-obese presented significantly higher surgical success than those who were obese. In ROC curve analysis, a cut-off value of ${\leq}29.1kg/m^2$ for BMI in patients with LSCS was suggestive of surgical success, with 81.1% sensitivity and 82.2% specificity (area under the curve, 0.857; 95% confidence interval, 0.788-0.927). Conclusion: This study showed that the BMI can be considered a parameter for predicting surgical success in patients with LSCS and can be useful in clinical practice.

Study on snack intakes in obese elementary students in Jeju city (제주시 지역 일부 초등학교 비만아동의 간식 섭취 실태)

  • Ko, Yangsook;Lee, You-Yeong;Chae, Insook;Lee, Yunkyoung;Jekal, Yoonsuk;Park, Hyeung-Keun
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.50 no.1
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    • pp.85-97
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: This study was conducted to investigate dietary habits related to weight reduction and snack intake habits of $4^{th}$ to $5^{th}$ grade elementary students located in Jeju-si, Jeju, South Korea. Methods: The $4^{th}$ and $5^{th}$ grade elementary school students (total n = 234, equally matched numbers of normal weight children and overweight/obese children (n = 117/group)) were surveyed using a questionnaire and a 24-hour dietary recall method in Oct 2015. Results: The percentage of students who experienced reduced food intake to control weight was 26.3% in the normal weight group (NG) and 77.6% in the obese group (OG). Most frequently answered meal for reduced intake was snacks in the NG and dinner in the OG. Percentages of daily calorie intake among subjects were 17.2% for breakfast, 33.8% for lunch, 29.7% for dinner, and 19.3% for snacks. Frequency of snack intake was 2.1 times a week in NG and 1.6 times a week in OG, which showed a statistical difference between body weight groups. Types of snack foods were distinctly different depending on where children consumed them, although no difference was observed between NG and OG. In addition, snack intake level of low energy and nutrient-dense foods was significantly lower in the OG compared to the NG, whereas snack intake level of energy dense and low-nutritive foods was not different between the OG and NG. Conclusion: Taken together, snack intake level with consideration of frequency and amount of snack intake showed that children in the OG consumed significantly less low energy and nutrient-dense foods compared to the NG. Therefore, nutritional education for choosing healthy snack foods for children regardless of body weight status is crucial based on family-school links.

Effects of Shoulder Muscle Strength on Terminal Range by Humeral Head Retroversion (상완골 후경각이 가동역에 따른 견관절 근력에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Si-Young;Lee, Dong-Jun
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.549-554
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    • 2010
  • Increased external rotation and decreased internal rotation have been noted to occur progressively in the throwing shoulders of baseball pitchers. The purpose of this study was to provide descriptive data for terminal range eccentric antagonist/concentric agonist shoulder muscle strength in collegiate baseball pitchers with humeral head retroversion diagnosed through MRI. The dominant and non-dominant shoulders of 9 asymptomatic baseball pitchers were tested through a range of 20 degrees of external rotation to 90 degrees of internal rotation using the Biodex system 3 isokinetic dynamometer at speeds of $90^{\circ}/s$ and $180^{\circ}/s$. Differences between the dominant and non-dominant shoulders were assessed using the paired samples t-test. Total range of motion, measured at $90^{\circ}$ of glenohumeral abduction, was $180.1^{\circ}$ for dominant shoulders and $183.7^{\circ}$ for non-dominant shoulders. Humeral head retroversion measured $47.6{\pm}6.1^{\circ}$ in dominant and $37.8{\pm}5.3^{\circ}$ in non-dominant extremities. The mean internal rotator concentric contraction (IR-Con) showed a significant difference compared to $31.5{\pm}5.1$ (Nm) in dominant and $38.7{\pm}5.2$ (Nm) in non-dominant shoulders at $180^{\circ}/s$ (p<0.05). The mean external rotator eccentric contraction (ER-Ecc) showed a significant difference compared to $20.3{\pm}4.7$ (Nm) in dominant and $25.1{\pm}3.7$ (Nm) in non-dominant shoulders at $90^{\circ}/s$ (p<0.05). There is a pattern of increased external rotation and decreased internal rotation in the dominant extremity that significantly correlates with an increase in humeral retroversion.

The Effect of Sea Tangle Supplementation and Exercise Training on Blood Glucose and Lipid Profile in Rats (다시마 보충과 운동훈련이 흰쥐의 혈당과 혈중지질에 미치는 영향)

  • Hwang, Hye-Jin;Kwak, Yi-Sub;Kim, Hyang-Suk;Choi, Yung-Hyun;Kim, Byung-Woo;Kwon, Hyun-Ju;Yoon, Byung-Kon
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.805-810
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    • 2010
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Sea Tangle supplementation and exercise training on blood glucose and lipid profile in rats. Twenty seven, 4-week old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the control group (C, n=9), sea tangle group (D, n=9) and sea tangle+exercise group (D+T, n=9). Exercise training was performed 5 days a week using a treadmill running program for 6 weeks (5 m/min, 0% grade, 30 min). There was no difference in blood glucose (C: $175.9{\pm}47.5$, D: $173.9{\pm}34.0$, D+T: $165.0{\pm}38.0\;mg/dl$) and triglyceride (C: $251.1{\pm}91.8$, D: $215.0{\pm}90.0$, D+T: $200.0{\pm}89.3\;mg/dl$) among the groups. Total cholesterol value of the D+T group ($81.8{\pm}11.2\;mg/dl$) was significantly lower than that of the C ($103.0{\pm}13.5\;mg/dl$) and D ($102.1{\pm}14.5\;mg/dl$) groups. High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was significantly high in the D+T ($40.9{\pm}9.7\;mg/dl$) group compared with the C ($32.6{\pm}3.8\;mg/dl$) group and D ($31.7{\pm}7.3\;mg/dl$) group. The value of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) for the D ($98.0{\pm}41.0\;mg/dl$) group was statistically lower than the C($114.5{\pm}41.8\;mg/dl$) group, and higher than the D+T ($91.2{\pm}41.7\;mg/dl$) group. In conclusion, sea tangle injection and exercise had a positive effect on blood lipid profiles.

Alterations of Heart Rate Variability upon β3-Adrenergic Receptor Polymorphism and Combined Capsaicin, Sesamin, and L-Carnitine in Humans (복합 캡사이신, 세사인, 그리고 카르니틴과 베타3 유전자 다형에 대한 심박수 변이성의 영향)

  • Shin, Ki-Ok;Kim, Hyun-Jun;Kang, Sung-Hwun
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.291-297
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    • 2008
  • We investigated whether 1) the combined capsaicin (75 mg), sesamin (30 mg), and L-carnitine (900 mg) (CCSC) ingestion enhances autonomic nervous system (ANS) activities including thermogenic sympathetic activity as energy metabolic modulator, 2) ${\beta}_3-AR$ polymorphism of each subject influences with ANS activity. Seven healthy males $(22.0{\pm}0.5\;yr)$ volunteered for this study. The cardiac autonomic nervous activities evaluated by means of heart rate variability of power spectral analysis were continuously measured during 5 min every 30 min for total 120 min resting condition with CCSC or placebo oral administration chosen at random. The results indicated that, there are not $Arp/Arg^{64}$ variants of the ${\beta}_3-AR$ genotypes in our subjects. There were not also significant differences in heart rate during rest between both trials. The difference of ANS activity did not reach the statistical significance between both trials. However, the significant improvement showed TOTAL power, HF component, and the indices of SNS and PNS activities before and at 30 min after CCSC ingestion (p<0.05, respectively). In conclusions, although each component of combined CCSC is associated with lipolysis and/or fat oxidation, the combined CCSC consumption is not influenced in stimulation of thermogenic sympathetic activity as modulator of energy metabolism. In rather, our results suggested that CCSC ingestion improves the balance of both SNS and PNS activities. Therefore, it will be considered many combined nutrient components for ergogenic and/or lipolysis effects as well as genetic variants affecting ANS activity in further studies.

Effects of Fermented Rice Wine by Using Mycelium of Phellinus linteus on the Expression of Inflammation-Related Proteins in Human Hepatoma Cells and Rat Liver (상황버섯 균사체를 이용한 발효주가 인체간암세포와 흰쥐 간의 염증관련 단백질 발현에 미치는 영향)

  • Ahn Seung-Min;Lee Jun-Hyuk;Choi Yung-Hyun;Lee Yong-Tae;Chung Kyung-Tae;Jeong Young-Kee;Jo Un-Bock;Choi Byung-Tae
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.101-107
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    • 2006
  • We have recently discovered that mycelium of Phellinus linteus, popular medical mushrooms in Korea, possess alcohol dehydrogenase and produce alcohol. In the present study, it was examined that the effect of fermented rice wine made by using mycelium of P. linteus (FLMP) on the expression of in-flammation-related proteins in both $HepG_2$ cells and rats. To examine the effect of FLMP on the morphology and expression of inflammatory proteins in $HepG_2$ cells, the cells were incubated with ethanol, and FLMP for 24 hours, and then analyzed by microscopic observation and Western blot and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). While ethanol induced the morphological change accompanied with cell debris formation and scattering on $HepG_2$ cells, FLMP had no effect. The results of Western blot and RT-PCR analyses showed that the level of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 was induced by ethanol, however, FLMP inhibited the expression of these proteins and its mRNAs. In the animal model, the value of flutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase was significantly increased by administration with ethanol. But the group administrated with FLMP showed lower levels on the changes of these markers compared with ethanol-administrated group. Besides, the results of Western blot and RT-PCR analyses showed that the expression of inflammatory proteins such as iNOS, COX-1 and COX-2 was not affected by FLMP administration in rat liver. About histopathological and immunohistochemical observations, inflammatory loci were markedly decreased in the FLMP-administrated rat compared to ethanol-administrated rats and showed weaker COX-2 and iNOS jmmunoreactions. These results suggested that FLMP showed slight changes on the inflammatory proteins expression compared to ethanol and FLMP may be used as a functional alcoholic beverage.

Effect of Treadmill Exercise Training on the Expression of PGC-1α, GLUT-1, Tfam Proteins and Antioxydent Ezymes in Brain of STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats (트레드밀 지구성 운동이 streptozotocin으로 유발된 당뇨 흰쥐의 뇌에서 PGC-1α, GLUT-1, Tfam 단백질 및 항산화 효소(Cu, Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD)의 발현량에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Noh-Hwan;Lee, Jin;Jung, Kook-Hyun;Choi, Bong-Am;Jang, Hyung-Chae;Lee, Suk-In;Lee, Dong-Soo;Cho, Joon-Yong
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.435-443
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    • 2011
  • The purpose of this study is to identify the effects of exercise training [ET, 10~18 m/min (speed), 20~30 min (exercise duration)/a day for 5 day/wk, 6 wk) on PGC-$1{\alpha}$, GLUT-1, Tfam, Cu,Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD proteins in brain of STZ-induced diabetic rats. The male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were single-injected intraperitoneally with 50mg/kg of streptozotocin (STZ) to produce STZ-induced diabetic rats. Rats were divided into 3 experimental groups with 8 rats in each group, as follows: (1) non-STZ group (n=8), (2) STZ-CON group (n=8), (3) STZ-EXE group (n=8). The results of this study suggest that i) serum glucose level was significantly reduced in STZ-EXE group compared with STZ-CON group (p<0.05), ii) PGC-$1{\alpha}$ (p<0.001), mtPGC-$1{\alpha}$ (p<0.001), GLUT-1 (p<0.001), and mtTfam (p<0.001) proteins in brain of STZ-induced diabetic rats were significantly increased in STZ-EXE group compared with STZ-CON group, iii) Cu,Zn-SOD (p<0.001) and Mn-SOD (p<0.01) proteins in the STZ-induced diabetic rats were significantly increased in STZ-EXE group compared with STZ-CON group. In conclusion, the findings of the present study reveal that treadmill exercise training increases brain GLUT-1 protein level possibly through up-regulation of PGC-$1{\alpha}$ and Tfam proteins which represent key regulatory components of stimulation of brain mitochondrial biogenesis. In addition, treadmill exercise training may prevent oxidative stress by up-regulation of Cu,Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD proteins in the STZ-induced diabetic rats.