• Title, Summary, Keyword: Korean Mistletoe(KM)

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Effects of the Korean Mistletoe Hot-Water Extract on the Lipid Components and Blood Pressure Level in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (한국산 겨우살이 열수추출액이 본태성 고혈압쥐의 지질성분 및 혈압 저하에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Han-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.169-176
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    • 2006
  • This study was designed to observe the effects of Korean mistletoe(Viscum album L. var. coloratum Ohwi) hot-water extract administration on the improvement on the lipid components, apolipoprotein and blood pressure level in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, Wistar strain, male) fed the experimental diets for 33 days. Concentrations of total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), LDL-cholesterol, free cholesterol and atheroscieotic index in serum were significantly lower in the Korean mistletoe extract administration group [group KM(Korean mistletoe 10.0 g% hot-water extract)] than those in the control group. In the ratio of HDL-cholesterol concentration Korean mistletoe 10.0% hot-water extract administration group were higher percentage than in the control group. However, concentrations of total cholesterol and TG in liver and brain were significantly lower in the group KM than those in the control group. But the components of apolipoprotein (Apo) A-I and Apo A-II in serum were significantly higher in the KM group than in the control group. However, components of Apo C-II, Apo C-III, Apo E and ratio of Apo B to Apo A-I in serum were fairly reduced in the group KM than in the control group. The levels of systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly lower in KM cup than control group. From these results, Korean mistletoe hot-water extract administration were effective on the improvement of the lipid components, coronary heart disease and hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats. And particularly, Korean mistletoe extract administration were more effective as a therapeutic regimen for the control of blood pressure in hypertension.

Studies on the Content of Lectin in Korean Mistletoe according to the Host Tree Species and Characterization for Its Application to the Quality Control (한국산 겨우살이 숙주별 렉틴 함량과 지표물질로서의 특성 조사)

  • Kim, Inbo;Yoon, Taek Joon;Park, Choon Ho;Lee, Woo Kyoung;Lee, So Hee;Kim, Jong Bae
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.1090-1097
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    • 2015
  • Traditionally, mistletoe is known as an effective anti-cancer medicinal plant, and lectin is recognized as a major component with cytotoxic and immuno-stimulant activity in mistletoe. A Korean mistletoe lectin (KML) has specificity to galactose and galactosamine and is distinguish from European mistletoe lectin (EML). When we examined the concentration of lectin in mistletoe originated from five different types of host trees, the result indicate that the lectin concentration is variable depending on the host tree. Noticeably, mistletoe from chestnut tree contains ten folds higher lectins than that of an oak tree. We also tested the concentration of KML and crude extract (KM-110) of Korean mistletoe that shows 90% cytotoxicity in L5178Y-ML25 lymphoma cell. In addition, the cells show 90% and 70% viability by the treatment of two neutralizing antibodies of KML, 9H7-D10 and 8B11-2C5 neutralization effect with two monoclonal antibodies of KML, 9H7-D10 and 8B11-2C5. Therefore, the result expected that the mistletoe contain some other cytotoxic components except lectin. Finally, the production of $TNF-{\alpha}$ and IL-6 by RAW 264.7 cells stimulated with lectin free-crude extract (LFKM-110) following neutralization by 9H7-D10 monoclonal antibody shows higher than that of lectin containing-crude extract (KM-110). These results suggest that the Korean mistletoe lectin ha a great potential to be developed as therapeutic agent of cancer.

In Vivo Toxicity and Anti-Tumor Activity of Korean Mistletoe Extracts (한국산 겨우살이 추출물의 in vivo 독성 및 항종양 효과)

  • Yoon, Taek-Joon;Park, Sung-Min;Yang, Seung-Hoon;Jung, Hoe-Yune;Lee, An-Na;Yoo, Yung-Choon;Kang, Tae-Bong;Kim, Jong-Bae
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.205-212
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    • 2009
  • Antitumor activity of Korean mistletoe extract (KM-110) and European commercial mistletoe preparation (Helixor) was investigated. KM-110 showed the cytotoxic effect that it is high for various tumor cell lines and normal splenocytes in comparison with Helixor. Administration of two mistletoe extracts ($100{\mu}g$) to mice did not show any significant changes on the level of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic-pyruvate transaminase (GTP), blood creatinine (CRE) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in sera. The culture supernatant of macrophages stimulated with KM-110 inhibited effectively tumor growth whereas Helixor had little effect. Administration of KM-110 or Helixor resulted in a effective inhibition of lung metastasis after the i.v. inoculation of colon 26-M3.1 lung carcinoma, B16-BL6 melanoma and L5178Y-ML25 lymphomas. In all cases, the mice treated with KM-110 showed more effective anti-tumor metastatic activity than the mice of Helixor. These results suggest that Korean mistletoe extracts, KM-110 might be used as an alternative methods having antitumor activity like European mistletoe preparation, Helixor.

Korean Mistletoe Viscum album coloratum Induces Specific and Non-Specific Immune Responses in Japanese Eel Anguilla japonica

  • Choi, Sang-Hoon;Rhow, Jin-Goo;Choi, Min-Soon;Park, Sung-Woo;Park, Kwan-Ha;Yoon, Jong-Man;Park, Gyung-Il
    • Journal of Aquaculture
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.56-62
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    • 2009
  • Effects of Korean mistletoe extracts (KM-110), Viscum album coloratum on the specific and non-specific immune responses of Japanese eel Anguilla japonica were examined. The optimal concentration not showing toxicity of KM-110 was determined to $30-40{\mu}g/ml$ in vitro and $100{\mu}g$/100 g of fish in vivo. Even $1000{\mu}g$ of KM-110/100 g of fish did not show any clinical problem in fish though the levels of toxic parameters were slightly increased. In terms of antibody production, KM-110 significantly elicited more antibody production than FCA or $\beta$-glucan. $\beta$-glucan plus KM-110 group synergistically enhanced antibody production. There was no significant difference between KM-110 and KM-110 plus $\beta$-glucan group. The ROI production by head kidney (HK) leucocytes of eel injected with 500 or $1000{\mu}g$ KM-110 was significantly (P<0.05) enhanced than the control and FCA-treated group. Maximum increase in the NBT reduction value was observed in $1000{\mu}g$ KM-110 group but no significant difference was found between 500 and $1000{\mu}g$ KM group. The level of serum lysozyme activity was significantly (P<0.05) higher in the 500 and $1000{\mu}g$ KM-110- or FCA-treated group than in the control and $200{\mu}g$ KM-110 group. The phagocytic activities of HK leucocytes isolated from eel injected with 500 and $1000{\mu}g$ KM-110 were significantly (P<0.05) higher than $200{\mu}g$ KM-110 and PBS-injected control group. Korean mistletoe appeared to be a good activator of the specific and non-specific immune responses of Japanese eel.

In vivo Toxicity and Immunoadjuvant Activity of Korean Mistletoe (Viscum album coloratum) Extract Fermented with Lactobacillus (한국산 겨우살이 유산균 발효 추출물의 독성 및 면역증강 효과)

  • Yoon, Taek-Joon;Yang, Woong-Suk;Park, Sung-Min;Jung, Hoe-Yune;Lee, An-Na;Jung, Jin-Hyuk;Kang, Tae-Bong;Yoo, Yung-Choon;Kim, Jong-Bae
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.41 no.5
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    • pp.560-565
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    • 2009
  • In this study, Korean mistletoe extract (KM-110) was fermented with two strains of Lactobacillus (FKM-110) and then toxicity, lectin content, and immune activities were investigated. The lectin content of FKM-110 was about 53-71% lower than that of KM-110. When mice were subcutaneously administered with KM-110 and FKM-110, the $LD_{50}$ obtained for KM-110 treatment was 50-100 mg/kg as compared to 150-200 mg/mL for FKM-110. Each preparation stimulated macrophages directly and enhanced productivity of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-${\alpha}$ and IL-$1{\beta}$. FKM-110 treatment resulted in lower cytokine production compared to KM-110. When mice were immunized with Keyhol limpet hemocyanin (KLH) antigen along with KM-110 or FKM-110 administration, higher antibody titers to KLH were observed in the KM-110 or FKM-110 groups compared to mice immunized with KLH alone, thereby showing no difference between KM-110 and FKM-110. Therefore, fermentation of Korean mistletoe extract with these Lactobacillus strains decreased toxicity in vivo while the enhancement of immune activity by KM-110 and FKM-110 was similar. These data suggest that KM-110 fermentation tended to decrease lectin content and in vivo toxicity. In addition, other components in the fermented mistletoe extract appear to stimulate immuno-adjuvant activity instead of lectin.

Isolation of epi-Oleanolic Acid from Korean Mistletoe and Its Apoptosis-Inducing Activity in Tumor Cells

  • Jung, Myung-Ju;Yoo, Yung-Choon;Lee, Kyung-Bok;Kim, Jong-Bae;Song, Kyung-Sik
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.27 no.8
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    • pp.840-844
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    • 2004
  • A triterpene was isolated as a cytotoxic principle from the dichloromethane extract of Korean mistletoe (KM; Viscum album colora turn) by repeated silica gel chromatography and recrystalli-zation. In in vitro analysis of cytotoxic activity using various human and murine tumor cell lines, the dichloromethane extract of KM was highly cytotoxic against these cells. We isolated the most active compound, referred to VD-3, from the dichloromethane extract of KM. The VD-3 was shown to be less cytotoxic to normal cells (murine splenocytes). From the identification of the chemical structure of VD-3 by spectral data and chemical synthesis, the compound was proven to be epi-oleanolic acid. Tumor cells treated with VD-3 showed a typical pattern of apo-ptotic cell death, such as apparent morphological changes and DNA fragmentation. These results indicate that epi-oleanolic acid is an important compound responsible for antitumor activity of KM.

Korean Mistletoe (Viscum album var. coloratum) Inhibits Amyloid β Protein (25-35)-induced Cultured Neuronal Cell Damage and Memory Impairment

  • Jang, Ji Yeon;Kim, Se-Yong;Song, Kyung-Sik;Seong, Yeon Hee
    • Natural Product Sciences
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.134-140
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    • 2015
  • The present study aims to investigate the effect of methanol extract of Korean mistletoe (KM; Viscum album var. coloratum), on amyloid $\beta$ protein ($A\beta$) (25-35), a synthetic 25-35 amyloid peptide, -induced neurotoxicity in cultured rat cerebral cortical neurons and memory impairment in mice. Exposure of cultured neurons to $10{\mu}M$ $A\beta$ (25-35) for 24 h induced a neuronal cell death, which was measured by a 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and Hoechst 33342 staining. KM (10, 30 and $50{\mu}g/ml$) significantly inhibited the $A\beta$ (25-35)-induced apoptotic neuronal death. KM ($50{\mu}g/ml$) inhibited 10 μM Aβ (25-35)-induced elevation of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i), which was measured by a fluorescent dye, Fluo-4 AM. Glutamate release into medium and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by $10{\mu}M$ $A\beta$ (25-35) were also inhibited by KM (10, 30 and $50{\mu}g/ml$). These results suggest that KM may mitigate the $A\beta$ (25-35)-induced neurotoxicity by interfering with the increase of [Ca2+]i and then inhibiting glutamate release and generation of ROS in cultured neurons. In addition, orally administered KM (25 and 50 mg/kg, 7 days) significantly prevented memory impairment induced by intracerebroventricular injection of $A\beta$ (25-35) (8 nmol). Taken together, it is suggested that anti-dementia effect of KM is due to its neuroprotective effect against $A\beta$ (25-35)-induced neurotoxicity and that KM may have therapeutic role in prevention of the progression of Alzheimer's disease.

Expression of Recombinant Korean Mistletoe(KM) Lectin and B genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Saccharomyces cerevisae에서 한국산 겨우살이 유래 lectin A 및 B 유전자의 발현)

  • 최윤혁;김종배;양웅석;황철원
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.840-846
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    • 2004
  • A study for expression of Korean Mistletoe (KM) lectin gene (A,B) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was done using transforming system of yeast. In order to overexpress the genes efficiently in yeast, two lectin genes (A,B) were re-cloned and modified including Kozak translation initiation sequence using PCR amplification. The constructed plasmids containing modified lectin A and B genes were transformed to S. cerevisea INVSc (MAT G, his3 $\Delta$1, leu2, trpl-289, ura3-52). The transformed cells were identified by DNA sequencing with ABI3700 system and induced with 2% of galactose for recombinant KM lectin (rKM lectin) protein. The rKM lectin A and B proteins were determinated about 29kDa size of protein by SOS-P AGE and western blotting analysis. The expressed recombinant lectin was determinated 1.24∼1.75 $\mu\textrm{g}$ per 1 mg of cytosolic soluble protein by sandwich ELISA method. Moreover the lectin genes were expressed as maximum level at 36 h after galactose induction and lectin A gene was were repressed after 48 h.

Neuroprotective Effect of Korean Mistletoe Extract against Damage Induced by Hydrogen Peroxide in Cultured Rat Cortical Neurons

  • Lee, Ju-Hyun;Cho, Soon-Ock;Ban, Ju-Yeon;Song, Kyung-Sik;Seong, Yeon-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.105-111
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    • 2007
  • The protective effect of ethanol extract of Korean mistletoe (KM; Viscum album coloratum) on hydrogen peroxide $(H_{2}O_{2})-induced$ neurotoxicity was examined in primary cultured rat cortical neurons. $H_{2}O_{2}$ reduced viability of cortical neurons in a concentration-dependent manner. The addition of KM, over a concentration range of 10 to 100 ${\mu}g/ml$, concentration-dependently prevented the $H_{2}O_{2}(100\;{\mu}M)-induced$ neuronal cell death, as assessed by a 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-di-phenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and Hoechst 33342 staining. KM significantly inhibited $H_{2}O_{2}-induced$ elevation of the cytosolic $Ca^{2+}$ concentration $([Ca^{2+}]_{c})$, which was measured by a fluorescent dye, fluo-4 AM. KM inhibited glutamate release into medium and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by $H_{2}O_{2}$. These results suggest that KM may mitigate the $H_{2}O_{2}-induced$ neurotoxiciy by interfering with the increase of $[Ca^{2+}]_{c}$, and inhibiting glutamate release and generation of ROS in cultured neurons.

NK cell and macrophage activation is associated with anti metastatic effect of Korean mistletoe lectins

  • Yoon, Taek-Joon;Yoo, Yung-Choon;Kang, Tae-Bong;Lee, Kyung-Bok;Kim, Jong-Bae
    • Proceedings of the PSK Conference
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    • pp.148.2-149
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    • 2003
  • The inhibitory effect of the lectins (KML-C) isolated from Korean mistletoe (KM; Viscum album coloratum), on tumor metastases produced by highly metastatic murine tumor cells, B 16-BL6 melanoma, colon 26-M3.1 carcinoma and L5178Y-ML25 lymphoma cells, was investigated in syngeneic mice. (omitted)

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