• Title, Summary, Keyword: Knowledge-Based Theory

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Knowledge Management Resource, Strategy, and Performance: A Test of Contingency Model (지식경영 자원, 전략, 그리고 성과: 상황모형의 검증)

  • Cheon, Myun Joong;Heo, Myung Sook
    • Knowledge Management Research
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.35-52
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    • 2006
  • Increasing competitive pressure, the constantly accelerating transformation of the economy, and a stronger focus on value creation have initiated the search for sustainable sources of competitive advantage in organizations. In this context, the concept of treating organizational knowledge as a valuable strategic resource has become quite popular recently. Knowledge has become the most critical component in the struggle for sustained competitive advantage and knowledge management (KM) has also been described for its possible role in creating sustainable competitive advantage. In order to examine the contingency between KM resources, KM strategies, and KM performance of organizations, a contingency model of KM, which is based on resource-based theory as well as knowledge-based theory, is developed from the information systems and strategic management literature in order to assess the following questions: (i) What KM resources affect the organization's KM strategies? (ii) Is there a relationship between KM strategies and organizational performance enhanced by KM? A detailed exploratory analysis of survey responses from 79 Korean companies provides the following significant findings: (i) This study found support for the proposed contingency model of KM; (ii) The organization's KM strategies are determined by social resources and its capabilities; (iii) An organization with a culture-based KM strategy is more likely to enhance organizational KM performance than an organization with a technology-based KM strategy.

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The Conceptual Study of Knowledge Adoption based on Resource and Institutionalization Theory for Organizational Knowledge Creation Applied to Knowledge Management Systems (지식 원천 이론과 제도적 이론 관점에서 조직의 지식 수용과 창출에 관한 개념적 연구)

  • Sun, Jong-Hak;Yoon, Jung-Hyeon
    • Management & Information Systems Review
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.119-136
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this study are as follows : First, This study conceptually provide an insight of reasons that organizations seek to create, acquire, store and distribute knowledge at the level of an organization and of process how they can transform or evolve to knowledge based organizations. Second, this study confirms examine what theories can be used to knowledge management, how such theories can be useful to analyse knowledge management and provide a theoretical foundation for knowledge management research. Applied to the theories of knowledge based and resource based view and institutional theory, the essence of knowledge management confirms that the organization finds job-related knowledge and know-how retained by individual of organizational members systematically and shares common knowledge within the organization and explains knowledge creation, multi-dimensional knowledge transition and share in all dimension of individual, group, and organization. As a result of comparative analysis of theory of organizational knowledge creation theory, In knowledge management, building of knowledge-creative culture, transitional process of explicit knowledge and tacit knowledge, knowledge creation and knowledge operation are important. In the basis on these study results, we discussed how the organizational knowledge creation theory can be used to manage knowledge in the organization, and also proposed hypotheses based on some arguments against the universal acceptance of the theory.

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Proactive Personality and Knowledge Sharing: The Contrasting Effects of Leader-Member Exchange Social Comparison (LMXSC) (주도적 성격과 지식 공유: LMXSC의 상반된 조절효과 검증)

  • Park, Jisung;Chae, Heesun
    • Knowledge Management Research
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.119-136
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    • 2017
  • This paper focuses on proactive personality as one of the main personality traits relevant to knowledge sharing and examines how this personal trait influences knowledge sharing behavior. Moreover, in order to consider the interactive effect between proactive personality and a contextual factor, this study utilized the construct of LMXSC which can reveal restoration of resource losses due to knowledge sharing. Because LMXSC can have opposite directions depending on used theories, this study investigates how LMXSC moderates the relationship between proactive personality and knowledge sharing behavior by using conservation of resources theory and trait activation theory. This study tests hypotheses with the data of supervisor-employee dyads in various industries. An empirical results showed that proactive personality increased knowledge sharing behavior and LMXSC strengthened the positive relationship between proactive personality and knowledge sharing behavior as conservation of resources theory predicts. Based on these theoretical arguments and empirical findings, this study suggests theoretical and practical implications, limitations, and the directions of future research.

Interaction Effects among Antecedents of Individual Knowledge Contribution (개인의 지식기여 선행요인 간 상호작용효과)

  • Kang, Minhyung;Lee, Jae-Nam
    • Knowledge Management Research
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.55-69
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    • 2015
  • Employees' knowledge contribution is one of the critical activities that maximize internal capability of the firm and facilitate organizational innovation by sharing scattered internal knowledge. This study integrates antecedents of knowledge contribution based on the theory of planned behavior(TPB). Utilizing TPB as a theoretical framework, expected reciprocity, subjective norm, and self-efficacy's direct effects on knowledge contribution were assessed. Additionally, interaction effects among expected reciprocity, subjective norm, and self-efficacy were explored. As the results of analysis, all the antecedents significantly influenced knowledge contribution. Interestingly, when the knowledge source's self-efficacy was high, the influence of expected reciprocity on knowledge contribution was decreased. Similarly, when the knowledge source's subjective norm for knowledge contribution was high, expected reciprocity's effect was weakened. This implies that when facilitating knowledge contribution, interaction effects among antecedents of knowledge contribution, as well as their direct effects, should be considered.

Assessing the Effects of Knowledge Resource Complementarity on Organizational Performance in Merge and Acquisition (M&A): Focused on Electronic Commerce Industries (인수합병에 있어 지식자원 간 상호보완성이 인수합병성과에 미치는 영향 분석: 전자상거래 산업을 중심으로)

  • Choi, Byounggu
    • Knowledge Management Research
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.95-119
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    • 2013
  • Although merger and acquisition (M&A) has been considered as an important means to improve firm performance, most prior empirical research have failed to prove the relationship between M&A and firm performance. In order to fill this gap, this study attempts to identify the effect of M&A on firm performance based on knowledge resources relatedness and complementarity theory. For this purpose, this study examines complementarity patterns of knowledge resources and their impacts on acquirer's performance using M&A announcements of electronic commerce industry from 2001 to 2007. The results of this study indicate complementarity among knowledge resources are positively related with acquirer's market value. This study contributes to expand knowledge management research by identifying the relationship among knowledge resources and their impacts on firm performance.

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Why Popular Employees Engage in Knowledge Sharing: The Motivational Approach (왜 인기 있는 직원이 지식공유를 하는가: 동기부여 관점에서)

  • Kim, Boyoung;Kim, Yonghyun
    • Knowledge Management Research
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.151-173
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    • 2020
  • The purpose of this study is to identify the antecedents that impact on the individual knowledge sharing based on motivational perspectives. Specifically, the authors investigate the roles of general self-efficacy and popularity on knowledge sharing drawn on costly signaling theory and trait activation theory. Data from 227 pairs of employees and coworkers working in companies located in South Korea supported the model. General self-efficacy was positively related to knowledge sharing and popularity was positively associated to knowledge sharing. Also, by taking an interactional approach, our study demonstrated the moderating effect of popularity on the relationship between general self-efficacy and knowledge sharing. The positive relationship between general self-efficacy and knowledge sharing is significant when popularity is low, but not significant when popularity is high. Our findings suggest that the various motivation types including intrinsic and extrinsic motivations for knowledge sharing of individuals exist simultaneously and these motivations have an interactive effect on knowledge sharing.

An Examination of Knowledge Sourcing Strategies Effects on Corporate Performance in Small Enterprises (소규모 기업에 있어서 지식소싱 전략이 기업성과에 미치는 영향 고찰)

  • Choi, Byoung-Gu
    • Asia pacific journal of information systems
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.57-81
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    • 2008
  • Knowledge is an essential strategic weapon for sustaining competitive advantage and is the key determinant for organizational growth. When knowledge is shared and disseminated throughout the organization, it increases an organization's value by providing the ability to respond to new and unusual situations. The growing importance of knowledge as a critical resource has forced executives to pay attention to their organizational knowledge. Organizations are increasingly undertaking knowledge management initiatives and making significant investments. Knowledge sourcing is considered as the first important step in effective knowledge management. Most firms continue to make an effort to realize the benefits of knowledge management by using various knowledge sources effectively. Appropriate knowledge sourcing strategies enable organizations to create, acquire, and access knowledge in a timely manner by reducing search and transfer costs, which result in better firm performance. In response, the knowledge management literature has devoted substantial attention to the analysis of knowledge sourcing strategies. Many studies have categorized knowledge sourcing strategies into intemal- and external-oriented. Internal-oriented sourcing strategy attempts to increase firm performance by integrating knowledge within the boundary of the firm. On the contrary, external-oriented strategy attempts to bring knowledge in from outside sources via either acquisition or imitation, and then to transfer that knowledge across to the organization. However, the extant literature on knowledge sourcing strategies focuses primarily on large organizations. Although many studies have clearly highlighted major differences between large and small firms and the need to adopt different strategies for different firm sizes, scant attention has been given to analyzing how knowledge sourcing strategies affect firm performance in small firms and what are the differences between small and large firms in the patterns of knowledge sourcing strategies adoption. This study attempts to advance the current literature by examining the impact of knowledge sourcing strategies on small firm performance from a holistic perspective. By drawing on knowledge based theory from organization science and complementarity theory from the economics literature, this paper is motivated by the following questions: (1) what are the adoption patterns of different knowledge sourcing strategies in small firms (i,e., what sourcing strategies should be adopted and which sourcing strategies work well together in small firms)?; and (2) what are the performance implications of these adoption patterns? In order to answer the questions, this study developed three hypotheses. First hypothesis based on knowledge based theory is that internal-oriented knowledge sourcing is positively associated with small firm performance. Second hypothesis developed on the basis of knowledge based theory is that external-oriented knowledge sourcing is positively associated with small firm performance. The third one based on complementarity theory is that pursuing both internal- and external-oriented knowledge sourcing simultaneously is negatively or less positively associated with small firm performance. As a sampling frame, 700 firms were identified from the Annual Corporation Report in Korea. Survey questionnaires were mailed to owners or executives who were most erudite about the firm s knowledge sourcing strategies and performance. A total of 188 companies replied, yielding a response rate of 26.8%. Due to incomplete data, 12 responses were eliminated, leaving 176 responses for the final analysis. Since all independent variables were measured using continuous variables, supermodularity function was used to test the hypotheses based on the cross partial derivative of payoff function. The results indicated no significant impact of internal-oriented sourcing strategies while positive impact of external-oriented sourcing strategy on small firm performance. This intriguing result could be explained on the basis of various resource and capital constraints of small firms. Small firms typically have restricted financial and human resources. They do not have enough assets to always develop knowledge internally. Another possible explanation is competency traps or core rigidities. Building up a knowledge base based on internal knowledge creates core competences, but at the same time, excessive internal focused knowledge exploration leads to behaviors blind to other knowledge. Interestingly, this study found that Internal- and external-oriented knowledge sourcing strategies had a substitutive relationship, which was inconsistent with previous studies that suggested complementary relationship between them. This result might be explained using organizational identification theory. Internal organizational members may perceive external knowledge as a threat, and tend to ignore knowledge from external sources because they prefer to maintain their own knowledge, legitimacy, and homogeneous attitudes. Therefore, integrating knowledge from internal and external sources might not be effective, resulting in failure of improvements of firm performance. Another possible explanation is small firms resource and capital constraints and lack of management expertise and absorptive capacity. Although the integration of different knowledge sources is critical, high levels of knowledge sourcing in many areas are quite expensive and so are often unrealistic for small enterprises. This study provides several implications for research as well as practice. First this study extends the existing knowledge by examining the substitutability (and complementarity) of knowledge sourcing strategies. Most prior studies have tended to investigate the independent effects of these strategies on performance without considering their combined impacts. Furthermore, this study tests complementarity based on the productivity approach that has been considered as a definitive test method for complementarity. Second, this study sheds new light on knowledge management research by identifying the relationship between knowledge sourcing strategies and small firm performance. Most current literature has insisted complementary relationship between knowledge sourcing strategies on the basis of data from large firms. Contrary to the conventional wisdom, this study identifies substitutive relationship between knowledge sourcing strategies using data from small firms. Third, implications for practice highlight that managers of small firms should focus on knowledge sourcing from external-oriented strategies. Moreover, adoption of both sourcing strategies simultaneousiy impedes small firm performance.

The Factors to Promote Internet Knowledge Sharing: Based on Social Capital Theory and Self-Expression Concept (인터넷 지식공유에 영향을 미치는 요인 연구: 사회적 자본 이론과 자기표현욕구를 중심으로)

  • Han, Jin-Woo;Yoo, Chul-Woo;Choe, Young-Chan
    • Journal of Agricultural Extension & Community Development
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.153-180
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    • 2009
  • The previous researches about knowledge sharing were proceeded in terms of KMS (Knowledge Management System) in center. However, knowledge sharing is recently applied to Internet space, which is open to every users, as well as KMS, which is qualified for restricted people. For example, some portal sites, such as Naver, the most popular portal in Korea, have virtual spaces to share users' knowledges and it is common that many users use the spaces. Knowledge sharing online, compared with KMS, will be more advanced to promote intention for knowledge sharing because of the character of Internet space that is open to all users. Nevertheless, there are few researches about knowledge sharing in the Internet. Considering this situation, this study is attempted to figure out the factors to promote Internet knowledge sharing, based on social capital theory and self-expression concept. A survey of experienced Internet user and PLS (Partial Least Square) were utilized for analysis. The test of this study reveals that social capital and self-expression are significant factors to influence knowledge sharing intention, and that also personal innovation and self-efficacy are significantly related to the self-expression. However, personal innovation does not have significant impact on social capital. According to the result, self-expression, as well as trust and system itself, has significantly effect on knowledge sharing intention in order to promote knowledge sharing in the Internet.

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A Study on the Knowledge Creation with KMS Usage : Focusing on the Flow Theory (KMS 활용을 통한 지식창조 기제 연구 : 몰입의 관점을 중심으로)

  • Lee, Ji-Myoun;Bock, Gee-Woo;Moon, Joon-Seo;Kim, Jong-Hyun
    • Journal of Information Technology Applications and Management
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.75-100
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    • 2011
  • For decades, thousands of corporation introduced knowledge management systems to respond knowledge-based society. However, it seems that the systems merely focusing on knowledge accumulation and its sharing have been bounded by many restrictions in terms of new knowledge creation based on the life cycle of knowledge management systems. Moreover, recently, a variety of knowledge management activities regarding organization, systems, and process is emphasized as a strategic asset for a corporation to create core knowledge. Therefore, this study adopted the Csikszentmihalyi's flow theory to investigate the factors affecting knowledge creation and the success factors of knowledge management systems in virtual space. Prior studies argued that flow experience should be a prerequisite for creative knowledge creation. In that vein, this research revealed the causal relationships for flow experience between the determinants of clear goal, immediate feedback, congruence of challenge and skill. Additionally, it empirically examined how flow experience affected the exploratory behavior of knowledge creation.

Internal and External Factors of Knowledge Leakage Intention: From Tacit Knowledge Perspective (지식유출 의도의 내재적 및 외재적 요인에 대한 연구: 암묵적 지식 관점에서)

  • Kim, Yong-Tae;Koo, Yunmo;Lee, Jae-Nam
    • Knowledge Management Research
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.75-97
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    • 2019
  • In the rapidly changing business environment, knowledge has been recognized as a core asset for sustaining an organization's competitive advantage. In addition, knowledge sharing is one of the key elements of knowledge management, emphasizing external knowledge sharing beyond initial internal knowledge sharing. However, while knowledge management research emphasizes knowledge sharing, which is a positive aspect, research on preventing knowledge leakage that can have negative consequences is relatively lacking. Companies have tried to minimize the negative effects of knowledge management but many knowledge leakage accidents are still occurring. Therefore, this study aims to examine the effects of external factors based on deterrence theory and internal factors based on self-determination theory on knowledge leakage intention focusing on tacit knowledge. The results of the empirical analysis of 100 data sets collected through a scenario-based survey show that certainty of sanctions, social disapproval, and competence are found to have a significant effect on reducing tacit knowledge leakage intention. Furthermore, informal sanctions have a greater impact on tacit knowledge leakage intention than formal sanctions and external factors have a greater effect on tacit knowledge leakage intention than internal factors.