• Title, Summary, Keyword: Keyboard

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Usability Evaluation of Touch Keyboard in Smart Watch Environment

  • Oh, Euitaek;Choi, Jinhae;Cho, Minhaeng;Hong, Jiyoung
    • Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea
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    • v.35 no.6
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    • pp.569-580
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    • 2016
  • Objective: This study aims to identify the most effective keyboard layout in the area of performance for securing usability in a smart watch-using environment and to verify the usability of touch keyboard calibrated by hand. Background: It is necessary to understand the environmental characteristics in using the smart watch and to secure the usability of touch keyboard based on this understanding in order to take account of the users who use the touch screen in the extreme input conditions caused by the small screen of a smart watch. Method: 30 participants in this study were required to input characters using the QWERTY keyboard and 3x4 keypad (Naratgul, Chunjiin), which were familiar with them, in order to grasp the keyboard layout suitable in the smart watch- using environment; the performance (error rate, performance time) of this case was measured. In addition, 30 participants in this study were required to input the characters setting the QWERTY keyboard with calibrated touch area and the one with uncalibrated touch area, based on the characteristics of touch behavior, by finger typing the keyboard, with the performance (error rate and performance time) of this case measured. Results: QWERTY keyboard (93.3sec) is found to be 31.2% faster than Naratgul keyboard, a kind of 3x4 keypad, and 43.6% faster than Chunjiin keyboard, in the area of efficiency, in the results of the usability evaluation regarding the keyboard layout. QWERTY keyboard with calibrated touch area (7.5%) is found to be 23.5% improved compared to the QWERTY keyboard with uncalibrated touch area (9.8%) in the area of accuracy (error rate). The results of the usability evaluation regarding the QWERTY keyboard with touch area calibrated by finger typing the keyboard and QWERTY keyboard with calibrated touch area (80.7sec) is found to be 5.7% improved compared to QWERTY keyboard with uncalibrated touch area (85.6sec) in the area of efficiency (performance time). Conclusion: QWERTY keyboard is found to have an effective layout in the area of efficiency in the smart watch-using environment, and its improved usability is verified in the areas of accuracy and efficiency in the QWERTY keyboard with a touch area calibrated by finger typing the keyboard. Application: The results of this study may be used to set up the basic touch keyboard of the smart watch. The input usability is expected to secure the smart watch-using environment, which is an extreme input condition by applying QWERTY keyboard with touch area calibrated by finger typing the keyboard.

A Three-Set Type Korean Keyboard Model, 38K, with High Compatibility to the KS Computer Keyboard

  • Kim, Kuk
    • Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea
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    • v.33 no.5
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    • pp.355-363
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    • 2014
  • Objective:The purpose of this study is to design a three-set type (Sebulsik) keyboard that is to input Korean text with no shifted keys and also compatible with the standard Korean computer keyboard or ANSI keyboard. Background: The KS computer keyboard is two-set type (Dubulsik). Existing and proposed designs of three-set type of past studies are not compatible with KS or ANSI keyboard and are complex with many redundant letters. Method: The number of Korean letters for 3-set type is analyzed. Then Korean letters are arranged with normality and with spatial compatibility to the KS Korean keyboard, and symbols were arranged to same positions with ANSI keyboard. Results: Initial consonants of 14 numbers and 6 vowels are arranged as exactly same positions of KS keyboard, and other vowels are arranged with spatial compatibility. Symbols are arranged to the same positions with ANSI keyboard, and 10 digits are confirmed and has compatibility to International standard. Conclusion: A 38-key model, 38K, is designed to require minimal keys to input Korean text with no shifted keys, increased the compatibility to the KS Korean computer keyboard. Application: Using the proposed 38-key model, 38K, it can be taken into account for keyboards in industrial production. It is applicable to user group of 3-set type Korean keyboard with more easy than past keyboards.

Research on the Automatic Software Keyboard Based on Database (데이터베이스에 근거한 자동 키보드의 입력 방법)

  • Lee Kye Suk;Yong Hwan Seung
    • Journal of Korea Multimedia Society
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.101-110
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    • 2005
  • Recently software keyboard is widely used in mobile devices where restrictive hardware keyboard is available. In this paper, new software-driven keyboard input method is proposed, which use minimum number of keyboard input with small keyboard space generated after analyzing of database. In this software keyboard is generated dynamically at each input step by analyzing all possible input words. Software keyboard, only possible key buttons are displayed for minimizing keyboard space and preventing mistyping. And it also provide input word completion function when the number of the candidate words is within threshold scope.

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One more many more criteria for a design of ergonomic keyboard-slope angle (Keyboard Frame의 평면경사각과 측면경사각 및 Keypad 평면회전각의 변화가 Typing 수행도에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구)

  • 이면우;전영호;장성록;이도준;최재호;김대철;지철규;박현규
    • Proceedings of the Korean Operations and Management Science Society Conference
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    • pp.151-162
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    • 1990
  • Occupational disease among typists such as Carpal Tunnel Syndrome(CTS) and tendonitis has increased along with rapid expansion of office automation. During typing, the posture can be defined as forearm pronation, ulnar abduction, wrist extension and finger flexion. The CTS results from awkward posture between forearm-wrist-hand and the keyboard arrangement. Therefore, ergonomic principles should be emphasized in keyboard design. The objective of the study is to improve keyboard design by analyzing anatomical posture of forearm and hand during typing. An experimental study was performed to investigate relationships between a keyboard and typing performance. Results showed that typing performance is dependent to angles and slopes of a keyboard. Statistical analysis indicated that the suggested ergonomic keyboard improved typing speed significantly(17%).

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Implementation of a Virtual Keyboard Using Infrared Distance Sensor (적외선 센서를 사용한 가상 키보드의 구현)

  • Jang, Su-Ho;Whang, Whan-Kyu
    • Journal of Industrial Technology
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    • v.29 no.A
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    • pp.77-82
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    • 2009
  • In this paper, we implement a virtual keyboard using infrared distance sensor. A virtual keyboard allows a user to enter characters by selecting keyboard layouts with sensing areas. By projecting infrared light on any flat surface and detection devices we can sense the user's input characters. Unlike a conventional physical keyboard, the virtual keyboard provides convenience in terms of mobility, portability, and space savings.

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An Adaptive, Personalised Chording Keyboard

  • Pham, Tuan;Kim, Kang-Il;McKay, Bob;Nguyen, Xuan Hoai
    • 한국HCI학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.245-252
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    • 2009
  • We present a design for personalisation of a chording keyboard. There are two primary design goals. Firstly, the keyboard layout should be easy to learn, and easy to use, taking into account the background and physical constraints of the user. Secondly, the keyboard layout should be readily extensible, based on the previous behaviour of the keyboard user. The design proposal accomplishes these goals, and can be simply implemented on cost-effective hardware. In addition, we present preliminary experimental results on optimising the initial keyboard layout.

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Investigating Ten-Finger Text Entry on Tablet PCs

  • Choi, Seungho;Park, Kyeongjin;Kim, Kyungdoh
    • Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea
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    • v.36 no.5
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    • pp.355-372
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    • 2017
  • Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the performance and usability of ten-finger text entry on Tablet PCs. Background: Generally a soft keyboard is used on Tablet PCs. However, the soft keyboard's performance is usually worse than physical keyboard's performance. In this study, we proposed a modified keyboard for tablet PCs to improve the performance of ten-finger text entry and evaluated the performance and subjective ratings of the keyboard. Method: The modified soft keyboard that is suggested in this study was compared with current Google and Samsung soft keyboards on Tablet PCs. Results: The three keyboards were not significantly different in terms of typing speed, error rate, and mental workload and showed bad performance. Also, the subjective ratings were not shown positively. Conclusion: Based on our results, ten-finger text entry using soft keyboards on Tablet PCs seems to be very difficult. However, we need to research the possibility continuously since ten-finger text entry can improve typing speed. Application: Our study can be a starting point of research that explores ten-finger text entry on Tablet PCs. The new soft keyboard design can be one of the soft keyboard alternatives. However, the key factors to improve the performance and usability of the soft keyboard will not be 'key size' or 'convenience to typing special characters or numbers', but other factors (e.g., 'tactile feedback').

A Study of Korean Soft-keyboard Layout for One Finger Text Entry (한 손가락 문자 입력을 위한 한글 Soft-keyboard 배열에 관한 연구)

  • Kong, Byung-Don;Hong, Seung-Kweon;Jo, Seong-Sik;Myung, Ro-Hae
    • IE interfaces
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.329-335
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    • 2009
  • Recently, the use of soft-keyboard is widespread and increases, because various handheld devices were developed such as PDA, navigation, mobile phones with enhanced competence of touchscreen. The use of soft-keyboard requires different characteristics compared to traditional hard-keyboard like QWERTY keyboard: no standard character layout, one finger entry, and cognitive processing time. In this study, therefore, the optimal soft-keyboard layout for one finger text entry in touchscreen environment was investigated among 6 keyboard layouts which were developed based on traditional characteristic of Korean text and the usage frequency of both vowels and consonants. As a result, the interface with Korean text invention order like 'ㄱㄴㄷㄹ' or 'ㅏㅑㅓㅕㅕ' was found to be better than the interface with usage frequency-based arrangement. Especially the vowels were most efficient when separated into two parts; located at the right-hand side and at right below the consonants. In conclusion, the keyboard layout with regard to the Korean text characteristic and the invention order was a more effective layout resulted from the minimum cognitive processing time.

Symbol Characters Allocation of a QWERTY Type Keyboard Design for Smartphones

  • Kim, Kuk
    • Industrial Engineering and Management Systems
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.408-413
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    • 2014
  • The QWERTY type keyboard is a classical device that has been used for computers for a long time. The keyboard design of mobile devices like smartphones is an important issue to consider because of the limited space on the touch screen. This paper presents a design for symbol allocation on the QWERTY type soft keyboard. A 27-cell model, including the full stop (.), is proposed in this paper. A QWERTY type keyboard for smartphones is mainly known for its spatial compatibility, whereas the characters of the ANSI keyboard are allocated to the shoulder positions for functional auxiliary input methods such as the long pressing method.

Phonetic Keyboard for International Korean Phonetic Alphabet (국제한글음성문자의 음성학적 자판배열)

  • LEE Hyun Bok;JO Unil
    • MALSORI
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    • no.39
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    • pp.43-51
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    • 2000
  • The aim of this paper is to present a phonetically oriented keyboard array for the International Korean Phonetic Alphabet (IKPA). IKPA is a phonetic alphabet devised on the basis of Hangout (Korean alphabet) (Lee, 1999). Every computer has a keyboard as its input device and the English keyboard array is hewn as 'QWERTY' system, which represents the first six letters of the second line of the keyboard. This array is a traditional one devised to protect the congestion of the keys of the mechanical typewriter. To improve the anay of the keyboard, another system named 'Dvorak' has been devised. Likewise, a serious attempt has been made by the authors to work out an efficient keyboard for IKPA representing the manner of vowel and consonant classification. In the phonetic keyboard, the consonant symbols are arranged in the left hand side according to the Place and mauler of the articulation and the vowel symbols in the right hand side according to the vowel quadrilateral.

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