• Title, Summary, Keyword: Kenaf

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The Change of Physical Characteristics of Kenaf Fiber by the Chemical Processes (화학처리에 의한 케나프 섬유인 물리적 특성인 변화)

  • Yoo Hye-Ja;Lee Hye-Ja;Kim Jung-Hee;Ahn Chun-Soon;Song Kyung-Hun;Han Young-Sook
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.30 no.7
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    • pp.1025-1033
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    • 2006
  • Kenaf bast can be obtained by decortication of Kenaf stem. Kenaf fibers are much more rough than cotton fiber because they include impurities as pectin, lignin and hemicellulose besides cellulose. The purpose of this research is to investigate the distribution of kenaf fiber length and diameter during the processes of removing impurities. To remove pectin, kenaf bast was retted chemically. A half of the retted kenaf fiber bundle were scoured and bleached. The other half one were treated with $NaClO_2$ solution to remove lignin, and were treated with sodium hydroxide solution to remove hemicellulose. Four kinds of specimens that were obtained for investigating physical characteristics. Length and diameter of 100 fibers on each specimen was measured. The tensile strength of 100 fiber bundles were measured. And also the color values of them were measured with spectrocolorimeter. The length of retted kenaf fiber was 16.97cm. Then it decreased to 11.43cm after bleaching. Kenaf fiber bundles could be finer by chemical processes that remove non-cellulosic materials. The thickness of retted fiber was $132{\mu}m$. And after undergoing the chemical processes to remove non-cellulosic materials, the thickness of kenaf fiber became finer as $73{\mu}m$. Tensile strength of the retted kenaf fiber bundles was 11.37Mpa. The retted kenaf fiber lost their strength as 22.6% by bleaching and as 18.3% by treatment for removing lignin. The retted kenaf fiber showed low whiteness as 56.48 of L*value. After bleaching, the kenaf fibers have creamy white color and their whiteness got 90.02 of L*value. After the treatment for removing hemicellulose, the kenaf fibers also have creamy white color and their whiteness got L* value of 79.02.

Effect of Kenaf Fiber Loading on the Properties of Natural Fiber/Natural Rubber Composites (천연섬유/천연고무 복합재료의 특성에 미치는 Kenaf 섬유함량의 영향)

  • Cho, Yi-Seok;Cho, Dong-Hwan
    • Elastomers and Composites
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.186-194
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    • 2011
  • Natural fiber/natural rubber composites were fabricated by uniformly compounding natural rubber and cellulose- based natural fiber kenaf and then by compression molding. The effect of kenaf fiber content on their vulcanization behavior, hardness, tensile properties, tear strength and static and dynamic properties was investigated. The contents of kenaf fiber in the composites were 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 phr, compared to natural rubber and additives. The result indicated that various properties of natural rubber depended on the kenaf fiber content. With increasing kenaf fiber content, the torque for vulcanization of natural rubber was increased whereas the vulcanization time was reduced as well. The hardness, tensile modulus and tear strength of kenaf/natural rubber composites were gradually decreased with the fiber content whereas the tensile strength and elongation at break were decreased. Also, with increasing the kenaf fiber content the dynamic property of natural rubber was changed more greatly than the static property. The loss factor, which is closely related with the damping or absorption of the energy given to natural rubber, was proportionally increased with the fiber content.

Alkali Treatment Effect of Kenaf Fibers on the Characteristics of Kenaf/PLA Biocomposites (Kenaf 섬유의 알칼리처리가 Kenaf/PLA 바이오복합재료의 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Seo, Jeong Min;Cho, Donghwan;Park, Won Ho
    • Journal of Adhesion and Interface
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2008
  • In the present study, kenaf fibers were treated with sodium hydroxide using soaking and ultrasonic methods prior to biocomposite processing, respectively. The effect of alkali treatment on the kenaf-PLA interfacial adhesion and mechanical and thermal characteristics of kenaf/poly(lactic acid) biocomposites was investigated in terms of their interfacial shear strength, flexural properties, dynamic mechanical properties and thermal stability and also microscopic observations of kenaf fibers and the composite fracture surfaces. As a result, use of both soaking and ultrasonic methods for treating kenaf fiber surfaces played a role in increasing the fiber-matrix adhesion and the mechanical properties of the biocomposites. Their characteristics depended not only on the fiber surface treatment method but also on the treatment condition like alkali concentration and treatment time.

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Phytoremediation Potential of Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.), Mesta (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.), and Jute (Corchorus capsularis L.) in Arsenic-contaminated Soil

  • Uddin Nizam, M.;Wahid-U-Zzaman, M.;Mokhlesur Rahman, M.;Kim, Jang-Eok
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.111-120
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    • 2016
  • BACKGROUND: Arsenic (As)-contaminated groundwater used for long-term irrigation has emerged as a serious problem by adding As to soils. Phytoremediation potential of fiber crops viz., kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.), mesta (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.), and jute (Corchorus capsularis L.) was studied to clean up As-contaminated soil.METHODS AND RESULTS: Varieties of three fiber crops were selected in this study. Seeds of kenaf, mesta, and jute varieties were germinated in As-contaminated soil. Uptake of As by shoot was significantly higher than that by root in the contaminated soil. In As-contaminated soil, kenaf and mesta varieties accumulated more As, than did jute varieties. In the plant parts above ground, mainly the shoots, the highest As absorption was recorded in kenaf cv. HC-3, followed by kenaf cv. HC-95. Kenaf varieties produced more biomass. In terms of higher plant biomass production, and As absorption, kenaf varieties showed considerable potential to remediate As-contaminated soil.CONCLUSION: The overall As absorption and phytoremediation potentiality of plant varieties were in the order of kenaf cv. HC-3 > kenaf cv. HC-95 > mesta cv. Samu-93 > jute cv. CVE-3 > jute cv. BJC-7370. All varieties of kenaf, mesta, and jute could be considered for an appropriate green plant-based remediation technology in As-contaminated soil.

Preparation and Physical Properties of Bio-Composites Using Kenaf Cultivated in Korea (국내 재배 케나프 섬유를 이용한 바이오복합재의 제조와 물리적 특성)

  • Kim, Dae-Sung;Song, Kyung-Hun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.34 no.11
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    • pp.1889-1899
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    • 2010
  • This study examines the preparation and characterization of Kenaf/Starch bio-composites used as filler and a matrix. Kenaf was cultivated in Chung-ju in Korea, and the Kenaf/Starch bio-composites were prepared under various conditions of kenaf fiber length (1-5 centimeters); the content of Kenaf fiber was 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40%, and the number of composite layers (one-four). Depending on the formation conditions of Kenaf/Starch composites, the physical properties such as tensile strength, elongation, and the young modulus of the Kenaf/Starch composites were measured. In addition, we measured the SEM cross-section images in order to investigate the interfacial adhesion properties of fractured surfaces. As a result, the tensile strength and elongation of the Kenaf/Starch composites were highest in the molding conditions of a hot press at $120^{\circ}C$, 3000PSI of pressure, and for 30 minute periods. The result of measuring the physical properties of the composites manufactured by varying the content of Kenaf fiber when the content of Kenaf fiber was 30% as well the physical properties of the Kenaf/Starch composite was found desirable. It was found that the physical properties improved with more overlapped layers in the composites manufactured by varying the number of overlapped layers. Through the measuring of the SEM cross-section images, we found that the interfacial adhesion state between the filler and matrix of Kenaf/Starch composite greatly affects the physical properties.

The Characteristics of Kenaf/Rayon Fabrics (케냐프/레이온 혼방 직물의 특성에 관한 연구)

  • 이혜자;안춘순;김정희;유혜자;한영숙;송경헌
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.28 no.910
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    • pp.1282-1291
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    • 2004
  • Kenaf was cultivated and harvested in large quantity in Cheju Island and Chinju, Kyungsangnamdo. It was chemically rotted with 3% NaOH for 60 minutes at 100$^{\circ}C$, neutralized using 1% acetic acid, washed and dried, and obtained 40kg of dry kenaf fiber. Kenaf 15/rayon 85, flax 15/rayon 85, and rayon 100% yam was spun and the physical characteristics were measured. Plain weave and twill weave fabrics were made using each of the above yarns as the filling yam. Cotton 100% yam was used as the warp yam in all fabrics. Kenaf/rayon blend yarns were higher in tenacity and elongation, lower in yam uniformity, higher in the number of nep than the flax/rayon blended yams. Kenaf/rayon blend fabric had higher tenacity and elongation compared to the flax/rayon blend fabric Kenaf/rayon blend fabric was most stiff in both plain weave and twill weave fabrics whereas drape characteristics was dependent upon the fabric structure of the kenaf/rayon blend and flax/rayon blend. There were little differences between the kenaf/rayon blend fabric and the flax/rayon blend fabric in the Kawabata physical measurements and the PHVs. The only drawback of kenaf fiber was it's surface roughness and it is expected that it can be improved by enzyme retting and mechanical bundle separation.

Preparation of Acrylic Acid-grafted Kenaf Fibers Using E-beam Irradiation and Evaluation of Permeability of Kenaf Fiber-cement Composites (전자선을 이용한 아크릴산 그라프트 케냐프 섬유의 제조 및 이를 이용한 케냐프 섬유보강 시멘트의 투수특성 평가)

  • Kim, Du Yeong;Jeun, Joon Pyo;Kim, Hyun Bin;Oh, Seung Hwan;Kang, Phil Hyun
    • Journal of Radiation Industry
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.53-57
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    • 2014
  • The kenaf is quickly developing as a renewable resource. Kenaf can be grown under a wide range of weather conditions. Modification of kenaf fiber by graft polymerization provides a significant route to alter the chemical properties, including surface hydrophilicity or hydrophobicity. In this study, kenaf fiber surfaces were grafted with acrylic acid as a hydrophilic group using electron beam irradiation. The grafting rate increased with an increase in grafting time. The FT-IR results confirmed that acrylic acid was successfully grafted onto the kenaf fibers. The wettability of the kenaf fiber was increased, accompanied by acylic acid grafting on the fiber surface. According to the permeability test result, it was found that acrylic acid grafted kenaf fiber reinforced cement composite was more reduced than non-grafted kenaf fiber reinforced cement composite.

Utilization of Kenaf Cultivated in Korea (II) - Physical properties of kenaf TMP and KP - (국내산 Kenaf 이용에 관한 연구 (제2보) - Kenaf TMP와 KP의 물리적 성질 -)

  • Lee, Myoung-Ku;Yoon, Seung-Lak
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.45-52
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    • 2007
  • Whole, bast and core fibers of kenaf cultivar Tainung-2 were pulped under different pulping methods, thermomechanical and kraft pulping methods. The physical and optical properties of kenaf TMP(thermomechanical pulp) and KP(kraft pulp) handsheets were investigated and the results from the study are summarized as follows: Yields of TMP and KP were $77{\sim}87%\;and\;43{\sim}52%$, respectively. There was no significant change in apparent density between kenaf KP and USKP(unbleached softwood kraft pulp) but TMP showed a little lower apparent density. Bast pulp had the lowest apparent density regardless of pulping methods. Tensile strength of kenaf KP was higher than that of TMP but similar to that of USKP. Both TMP and KP handsheets of bast fraction showed the highest tear strengths among whole, bast, and core fractions. Core fraction showed the lowest tear strengths under different pulping methods. In general burst strength of kenaf pulp under different pulping methods was lower than that of USKP, and kenaf pulp had better stiffness than USKP. Brightness of kenaf KP and TMP was higher than that of USKP. There was no significant variation in opacity between kenaf pulp and USKP even though kenaf pulp showed a little lower opacity. The main difference in paper quality between the core fiber and bast fiber is derived from the fact that bast fiber is long and thin, whereas core fiber is short and thick.

Research for Kenaf Fiber Production in Korea (국내 재배 케냐프를 이용한 의류 소재 개발 연구)

  • 한영숙;유혜자;이혜자;이전숙;김정희;송경헌;안춘순
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.27 no.7
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    • pp.862-871
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    • 2003
  • Kenaf has been estimated as an economic and environmentally compatible crop. This study purposed to enlarge the use of kenaf as textile materials and to develope high value-added textile fibers. Kenaf has been cultivated successfully and grown fast in Jeju. The height of kenaf stalks was about 220cm at 105 DAP and 400cm at 150 DAP, After harvesting at 105 DAP and seperating the basts from harvested kenaf stalks, decorticated kenaf basts were rotted in water at 15~$25^{\circ}C$ for biological rotting and were treated with 1%, 4% and 7% NaOH at 9$0^{\circ}C$ for chemical retting. The properties of extracted fibers were compared: such as fiber diameter. Transversal and longitudinal views, colors, crystallinities, strengths and elongations etc. The diameter of kenaf bast fibers was 15~25 ${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$. Biologically rotted kenaf bast fibers had well developed lumens which were diminished after chemical retting. The degree of crystallinities of biologically rotted kenaf bast fiber was about 92~96% showed higher than those of chemically rotting. The biologically rotted fibers were bright and had creamy color. Yelloweness increased at chemically rotted fibers. Fiber bundle strengths were from maximum 98076.9 (gf/g) to minimum 63749.5 (gf/g). Fiber bundle strengths of biologically rotted kenaf fibers appeared greater than those of chemically rotted fibers. Alkali treatments of chemical rotting could make strength lower and elongation higher. Rotting method might be one of the most importance factors affecting to final fiber properties.

The Prodoction of Kenaf Hand-Made Paper (케나프를 이용한 수초지 제조에 관한 연구)

  • Lim, Ock;Lee, Hye-Ja;Yoo, Hye-Ja;Han, Young-Sook
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.31 no.8
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    • pp.1286-1296
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    • 2007
  • Hanji, the korean traditional papers were mostly made from mulberry paper. But the production and demand of hanji have decreased rapidly because mulberry paper yields were insufficient and handworked hanji procedures were complicated. Recently, the researches on hanji were carried out to improve the properties of hanji. Kenaf fibers have been interested as a substitute resource of mulberry paper for hanji production. In this research, Kenai pulps were manufactured with removal methods of lignin or hemicellulose from kenaf fibers and paper mulberry pulps with traditional alkali methods. Kenaf papers, paper mulberry, and kenaf/paper mulberry mixed papers were manufactured with their pulps. The crystallinity, fiber length, color of the pulps and tensile strength, tear strength, water absorption of the papers were investigated. The results were as follow: The removal rates of lignin of chemical retted kenaf fibers with sodium chlorite reaction for 40 minutes were 70% and were higher than 40% of double retted fibers. Paper mulberry pulps has less lignin and hemicellulose than kenaf differently. The crystallinity of paper mulberry pulps were very low with 60%, but kenaf pulps were 90%. The chemical retted CR-40-1 pulps were similar with paper mulberry pulps on fiber length & fibrilation of fibers. Tensile strength of paper mulberry were higher than kenaf papers because of fibrilation of paper mulberry, but tear strength were lower. Tensile strength and tear strength were improved on kenaf/paper mulberry 30/70 mixed papers.