• Title, Summary, Keyword: Kazakhstan

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Spatial Distribution of Economic Growth and Inequality: Kazakhstan's Experience

  • Nurlanova, Nailya K.;Satybaldin, Azimkhan A.;Bekturganova, Makpal A.;Kireyeva, Anel A.
    • The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics, and Business
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    • v.5 no.3
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    • pp.169-178
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    • 2018
  • This study aims is to explore of the theoretical concepts of regional imbalances and spatial inequality, analysis of spatial distribution of economic growth and identifying of "growth poles" for sustainable development in the regions of Kazakhstan. Based on the theoretical views, we conclude that the key direction of regional policy is the search and development of "growth poles", which will distribute their potential equally to backward regions. The authors propose the methodological tools for presenting a standard form of evaluation of spatial distribution and inequality of the regions of Kazakhstan. This study confirms the importance of using of proposed methods and its application for objectively and realistically defines "growth poles" for sustainable development. Further, the obtained results showed the distribution of Kazakhstan's regions by economic growth and specialization with using modified index of KDI. According to the results of this theoretical and empirical study proved that distribution of the regions of Kazakhstan and results of KDI indexes shows that the spatial differentiation of economic development, but its level and dynamics are different in different respects. In addition, according to the conducted survey, we conclude that one of the most important tasks is sustainable growth based on "growth poles" for sustainable development.

Digital Transformation Enablers and Barriers in the Economy of Kazakhstan

  • ALIBEKOVA, Gulnaz;MEDENI, Tunc;PANZABEKOVA, Aksana;MUSSAYEVA, Dinara
    • The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics, and Business
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    • v.7 no.7
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    • pp.565-575
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    • 2020
  • This study aims to analyze the digital performance of Kazakhstan through dynamic analysis of national statistics and international indices as Global Innovation Index and ICT Development Index. The research combines three stages: analysis of digital transformation policies performance, review of ICT industry development, and comparative analysis of the positions of Kazakhstan, Turkey and South Korea as a benchmark in the international indices. This research findings show that despite great efforts of Kazakhstan in digitalization, the ICT industry contribution does not increase, it even falls. The international indices demonstrate that the reason is the weakness of the country in skills, venture capital, and innovation linkages. This leads to low knowledge, technology outputs, and creative outputs. The enablers of digital and overall innovation advancement of economy are identified. According to the international rankings the country has been doing its best in Access and Use areas. Another enablers are good business environment, ease of starting a business, protecting minority investors, and FDI inflows. The findings help to draw recommendations for strategic directions in order to improve the digital performance in Kazakhstan. The main limitation of this study is a lack of dynamic information on positions of Kazakhstan in other international indices related to digitalization.

Risk Factors of Breast Cancer in Kyzylorda Oblast of Kazakhstan: a Case-Control Study

  • Toleutay, Ulpan;Reznik, Vitaly;Kalmatayeva, Zhanna;Smigelskas, Kastytis
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.10
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    • pp.5961-5964
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    • 2013
  • Background: Breast cancer in Kazakhstan and its Kyzylorda oblast is the most prevalent cancer in women and features increasing trends of incidence. The aim of study was to reveal risk factors for breast cancer among women of Kyzylorda oblast of Kazakhstan. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based case-control study was conducted at Kyzylorda oblast Oncology Center, including 114 cases of breast cancer and 196 controls. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed. Results: Social and behavioral risk factors for breast cancer were evaluated, among which unfavorable living conditions, chronic stress, unilateral breastfeeding, breastfeeding less than 3 months and over 2 years, abortions, and hereditary predisposition were found to be related with increased breast cancer risk. Breastfeeding for 6-24 months was found to be protective. Conclusions: The findings may have significant impact on activity planning aimed towards breast cancer reduction among women in Kazakhstan.

Gender Equality and Women Business of Framework 5Ms in Kazakhstan: Analysis and Basic Directions

  • SATPAYEVA, Zaira T.;KIREYEVA, Anel A.;KENZHEGULOVA, Gaukhar;YERMEKBAYEVA, Dinara
    • The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics, and Business
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.253-263
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    • 2020
  • This study aims to analyze of existing concepts of female entrepreneurship, evaluation of women's entrepreneurship in Kazakhstan and development of recommendations for its development in the country. This paper begins by reviewing research on female entrepreneurship. In this research, authors proposed the methodological tools based on systematic approach using economic and statistic methods and 5Ms concept. Analysis algorithm consists of four stages: evaluation of women entrepreneurship scale and business directions, analysis of employment in women's enterprises and business environment in Kazakhstan. The main limitation of this study was the lack of some gender-related indicators on the development of entrepreneurship. Further, the obtained results showed strong and weak points of female entrepreneurship in Kazakhstan. According to the results, there has observed increase in contribution of women in social-economic development of the republic, women's entrepreneurial activity is increasing, and the number of enterprises headed by them is growing. However, the growth of female entrepreneurship occurs while maintaining their insignificance in terms of turnover and number of employees. There is a pronounced industry specificity of female entrepreneurship: the service sector. In accordance with this, there were identified priority areas and there were developed recommendations for the development of female entrepreneurship in Kazakhstan.

Features of Malignancy Prevalence among Children in the Aral Sea Region

  • Mamyrbayev, Arstan;Dyussembayeva, Nailya;Ibrayeva, Lyazzat;Satenova, Zhanna;Tulyayeva, Anara;Kireyeva, Nurgul;Zholmukhamedova, Dinara;Rybalkina, Dina;Yeleuov, Galymzhan;Yeleuov, Almasbek
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.12
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    • pp.5217-5221
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    • 2016
  • Objective: A study of primary cancer morbidity among children and subsequent calculation of average annual incidence were carried out for boys and girls, and young men and women in Kazakhstan. Methods: The investigated population lived in three areas of the Aral Sea region: designated catastrophe (Aral, Kazalt, Shalkar regions), crisis (Zhalagash, Karmakshy, Shiely regions), pre-crisis (Irgiz, Arys, Ulytau regions). Zhanaarka region of Karaganda oblast was applied as a control. Parameters were retrospective analyzed for the 10 years from 2004 to 2013. Result: The results indicate that indices of children cancer morbidity were slightly higher in the Aral Sea region than in the control district, but they were comparable with similar data from studies in other regions. In all areas of the Aral Sea region, except for Ulytau, primary cancer morbidity exceeded the control level by 1.3-2.7 times (4.7%000). Hematological malignancies, including solid tumors - tumors of musculoskeletal system and skin, digestive system, brain and central nervous system predominated. Stress levels in zones of the Aral Sea region were slightly higher in the crisis zone than in the catastrophe zone that can be explained by the phenomenon of wave-like dynamics of disease growth risk. Gender differences in characteristics of malignancy formation were not more pronounced in the studied region. Conclusion: Indices of children cancer are slightly higher in the Aral Sea region than in the control area of Kazakhstan, but they are comparable to results for other regions.

Morbidity, Disability and Death Rates of The Population Due to Malignant Neoplasms in Uralsk City in The Republic of Kazakhstan

  • Umarova, Gulmira;Mamyrbayev, Arstan;Bermagambetova, Saule;Baspakova, Akmaral;Satybaldieva, Umyt;Sabyrakhmetova, Valentina;Abilov, Talgar;Sultanova, Gulnar;Uraz, Raisa
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.12
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    • pp.5159-5164
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    • 2016
  • Objective: The dynamics of morbidity, disability and death rates due to malignant neoplasms in the population in Uralsk city of the Republic of Kazakhstan were studied for 2011-2015, with a focus on age and sex, as well as tumor location. Methods: Statistics for total morbidity, primary disability and mortality from cancer in the adult population of the city of Uralsk for 2011-2015 were calculated per 100 thousand. Estimation of morbidity was based on data from form - $N{\underline{o}}12$ ${\ll}$Report on the number of diseases registered in patients living in the area of health care organizations and patient population under medical observation". Evaluation of primary disability was based on form $N{\underline{o}}7$ ${\ll}$The distribution of newly recognized disabled by disease class, age, sex and disability groups" for 2011-2015 in Ural city and analysis of cancer was carried out using annual form 7 "Report on the sick, and diseases of malignant neoplasms". Result: The most common localizations of cancer were the trachea, bronchi, lungs, stomach and mammary glands. High death rates were noted for patients with cancer of the trachea, bronchi, lung, as compared to stomach and esophagus. Conclusion: The results of our investigation and data in the literature indicate that regional characteristics influence the impact of risk factors associated with cancer. An unfavorable environmental background contributes to ill health of urban populations, contributing to development of cancer. Moreover behavioral risk factors are very important, such as smoking, alcohol drinking, and an unhealthy diet. All these factors require urgent adoption of a package of measures for prevention, early detection and timely treatment. Detailed study of cancer is necessary to develop national programs and activities for prevention and control.

A Study on the Korea's Export Competitiveness to Kazakhstan (한국의 대(對)카자흐스탄 수출경쟁력 강화 방안에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Sung Kuk
    • The Korean Research Institute of International Commerce and Law
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    • v.63
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    • pp.261-282
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    • 2014
  • A Silk Road was connecting East and West with trade route. The role From the ancient, Silk Road is situated in the Central Asia such as Kazakhstan, thus logistics sector was important more than others. This theme is the study of the Export Competitiveness of Korea-Kazakhstan trade. This paper analyses between Korea and Kazakhstan's trade used by TSI(trade specification index), IITI(intra-industry trade index) and CTBI(contribution to trade balance index). The World Bank is already addressing Kazakhstan's logistics inefficiencies is the lowest tier. Thus, Kazakhstan governments should encourage efficiency in Logistic parts. And more Korea is supporting to decrease Logistic cost.

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Epidemiological Assessment of Leukemia in Kazakhstan, 2003-2012

  • Igissinov, Nurbek;Kulmirzayeva, Dariyana;Moore, Malcolm A.;Igissinov, Saginbek;Baidosova, Gulnara;Akpolatova, Gulnur;Bukeyeva, Zhanar;Omralina, Yelvira
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.16
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    • pp.6969-6972
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    • 2014
  • Cancer is a major health problem facing the entire world, and Kazakhstan is not the exception. The aim of this study was to present an epidemiological assessment of leukemia in the population of Kazakhstan during 2003-2012. This descriptive and retrospective study was based on data obtained from all oncological organizations of the whole country. Age standardized incidence rates per 100,000 population for leukemia were calculated. Totally, 6,741 new cases of leukemia were registered in Kazakhstan during the 10 year period. The mean age of patients with leukemia was 48.5. The ASRs for leukemia among men and women were 5.3 and 3.6, respectively (p<0.001). In conclusion, our results showed a high incidence rate of leukemia in Kazakhstan, especially in the north of the country. The incidence of leukemia was significantly higher in males and increased with age. Determining and controlling important risk factors of leukemia may lead to decrease in its burden.

Cancer Incidence and Mortality Data in Aktobe, West Kazakhstan, 2000-2010

  • Bekmukhambetov, Yerbol;Imangazina, Zina;Jarkenov, Timur;Mamyrbayev, Arstan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.6
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    • pp.2379-2383
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    • 2015
  • The article provides an assessment of the dynamics of cancer incidence and mortality in the territory of Aktobe city for the period 2000-2010. The most common cancers were found in the lungs, stomach, esophagus and breast throughout the period, with slight increase in colon cancer and decrease in esophageal cancer being apparent. In an attempt to cast light on effects of environmental pollution, the authors also compared data on total emissions of chemicals into the air. While preliminary, the findings provide a basic picture of cancer burden in this industrialised city in Kazakhstan which should be followed up by more comprehensive monitoring.