• Title, Summary, Keyword: Kathmandu Valley

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Integrated Environment Impact Assessment of Brick Kiln using Environmental Performance Scores

  • Pokhrel, Rajib;Lee, Heekwan
    • Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.15-24
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    • 2014
  • The capital city of Himalayan Country Nepal, Kathmandu Valley is surrounded by consecutive high mountains, which limits the air distribution and mixing effects significantly. It in turn generates steady air flow pattern over a year except in monsoon season. The air shed in the Valley is easily trapped by the surrounded mountains and the inversion layer formulated as the cap. The $PM_{10}$ concentration was noticeably higher than the standard level (120 ${\mu}g/m^3$) in urban and suburban area of Kathmandu valley for all seasons except monsoon period. The Valley area experiences similar wind patterns (W, WWS, and S) for a year but the Easterly wind prevails only during the monsoon period. There was low and calm wind blows during the winter season. Because of this air flow structure, the air emission from various sources is accumulated within the valley air, high level of air pollution is frequently recorded with other air polluted cities over the world. In this Valley area, brick kilns are recognized as the major air pollution source followed by vehicles. Mostly Bull Trench Kiln (BKT), Hoffman Kiln and Vertical Shaft Brick Kiln (VSBK) are in operation for brick firing in Kathmandu valley where the fuels such as crushed coal, saw dust, and natural gas are used for processing bricks in this study. Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and Other Environmental Impacts (TRACI) was used for screening and quantifying the potential impacts of air emission from firing fuels. The total Environmental Performance Score (EPS) was estimated and the EPS of coal was approximately 2.5 times higher than those of natural gas and saw dust. It is concluded that the crushed coal has more negative impact to the environment and human health than other fuel sources. Concerning the human health and environment point of view, alternative environment friendly firing fuel need to be used for brick industry in the kiln and the air pollution control devices also need to be applied for minimizing the air emissions from the kilns.

Site effects and associated structural damage analysis in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

  • Gautam, Dipendra;Forte, Giovanni;Rodrigues, Hugo
    • Earthquakes and Structures
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    • v.10 no.5
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    • pp.1013-1032
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    • 2016
  • Several historical earthquakes demonstrated that local amplification and soil nonlinearity are responsible for the uneven damage pattern of the structures and lifelines. On April $25^{th}$ 2015 the Mw7.8 Gorkha earthquake stroke Nepal and neighboring countries, and caused extensive damages throughout Kathmandu valley. In this paper, comparative studies between equivalent-linear and nonlinear seismic site response analyses in five affected strategic locations are performed in order to relate the soil behavior with the observed structural damage. The acceleration response spectra and soil amplification are compared in both approaches and found that the nonlinear analysis better represented the observed damage scenario. Higher values of peak ground acceleration (PGA) and higher spectral acceleration have characterized the intense damage in three study sites and the lower values have also shown agreement with less to insignificant damages in the other two sites. In equivalent linear analysis PGA varies between 0.29 to 0.47 g, meanwhile in case of nonlinear analysis it ranges from 0.17 to 0.46 g. It is verified from both analyses that the PGA map provided by the USGS for the southern part of Kathmandu valley is not properly representative, in contrary of the northern part. Similarly, the peak spectral amplification in case of equivalent linear analysis is estimated to be varying between 2.3 to 3.8, however in case of nonlinear analysis, the variation is observed in between 8.9 to 18.2. Both the equivalent linear and nonlinear analysis have depicted the soil fundamental period as 0.4 and 0.5 sec for the studied locations and subsequent analysis for seismic demands are correlated.

Notes on Cordyceps species Collected from the Central Region of Nepal

  • Shrestha, Bhushan;Sung, Jae-Mo
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.235-239
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    • 2005
  • The present study was carried out to explore the Cordyceps species and other entomopathogenic fungal flora around Kathmandu Valley and a few high altitude locations of Nepal. In this paper, we report eight Cordyceps species as new to Nepal: C. gracilis, C. ishikariensis, C. liangshanensis, C. martialis, C. militaris, C. pruinosa, C. sphecocephala and C. tricentri. We also mention a few allied genera such as Beauveria, Hirsutella and Paecilomyces from Nepal. Further collections from different ecological regions of Nepal will show the richness of entomopathogenic fungal floral diversity of Nepal.

Seismic response of current RC buildings in Kathmandu Valley

  • Chaulagain, Hemchandra;Rodrigues, Hugo;Spacone, Enrico;Varum, Humberto
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.53 no.4
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    • pp.791-818
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    • 2015
  • RC buildings constitute the prevailing type of construction in earthquake-prone region like Kathmandu Valley. Most of these building constructions were based on conventional methods. In this context, the present paper studied the seismic behaviour of existing RC buildings in Kathmandu Valley. For this, four representative building structures with different design and construction, namely a building: (a) representing the non-engineered construction (RC1 and RC2) and (b) engineered construction (RC3 and RC4) has been selected for analysis. The dynamic properties of the case study building models are analyzed and the corresponding interaction with seismic action is studied by means of non-linear analyses. The structural response measures such as capacity curve, inter-storey drift and the effect of geometric non-linearities are evaluated for the two orthogonal directions. The effect of plan and vertical irregularity on the performance of the structures was studied by comparing the results of two engineered buildings. This was achieved through non-linear dynamic analysis with a synthetic earthquake subjected to X, Y and $45^{\circ}$ loading directions. The nature of the capacity curve represents the strong impact of the P-delta effect, leading to a reduction of the global lateral stiffness and reducing the strength of the structure. The non-engineered structures experience inter-storey drift demands higher than the engineered building models. Moreover, these buildings have very low lateral resistant, lesser the stiffness and limited ductility. Finally, a seismic safety assessment is performed based on the proposed drift limits. Result indicates that most of the existing buildings in Nepal exhibit inadequate seismic performance.

Cycling: An Efficient Solution to Rising Transportation Problems in Kathmandu

  • Yang, In Tae;Acharya, Tri Dev;Shin, Moon Seung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography
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    • v.32 no.6
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    • pp.617-623
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    • 2014
  • The rapid urbanization in developing countries has caused trasportation problems that need to be solved. For that reason, the study evaluates the potential of cycling in the densely populated part of Kathmandu valley. Slopes and existing roads have been applied as the input cost rasters for finding the shortest cost routes between stations. By taking the average cycling velocity, time to travel from station to destination were compared with the average commuting time in the public transportation. The result comes out as similar time with the public transportation. Although the cycling seems potential replacement for public transportation commuters, in fact, there are some setbacks needed to be supported by the government to make it reality in future.

Impact of Various Tumor Markers in Prognosis of Gastric Cancer -A Hospital Based Study from Tertiary Care Hospital of Kathmandu Valley

  • Mittal, Ankush;Gupta, Satrudhan Pd.;Jha, Dipendra Kumar;Sathian, Brijesh;Poudel, Bibek
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.1965-1967
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    • 2013
  • Background: To obtain the maximum additional information about the prognosis of gastric cancer, we compared CA-50 with other previously defined markers. Materials and Methods: This hospital based study was carried out in the Department of Biochemistry of Nepalese Army Institute of Health Sciences between $1^{st}$ July 2012 and $31^{st}$ December 2012. The variables collected were age, gender, AFP, CEA, CA19-9, and CA50, assayed with ELISA reader for all cases. The cut off values for serum AFP, CEA, CA19-9, and CA-50 were 10 ${\mu}g/l$, 10 ${\mu}g/l$, 37 U/ml, and 20 U/ml, respectively according to the manufacturer's instructions. Approval for the study was obtained from the institutional research ethical committee. Results: Of the 40 examined patients, 13 patients had tumors located in the upper third of the stomach, 6 patients had tumors in the middle third, 16 patients had tumors in the lower third, and 5 patients had tumors occupying two-thirds of the stomach or more. The distribution of lymph node staging of the patients was as follows: 7 patients belonged to N0, 9 patients to N1 stage, 10 patients to N2 stage, and 14 patients to N3 stage. The statistical method of Cox proportional hazards using multivariate analysis also illustrated that tumor markers including CEA (2.802), CA19-9 (2.690), CA50 (2.101), were independent prognostic factors, as tumor size (1.603), and lymph node stage (1.614). Conclusions: The tumour markers now available, like CEA, CA 19-9 and CA 50, chiefly perceive advanced gastric cancer. The preoperative rise in those tumour marker level have a prognostic significance and may be clinically helpful in choosing patients for adjuvant management.

Diabetes Mellitus and Renal Cell Carcinoma - A Hospital Based Study from Kathmandu Valley

  • Gupta, Satrudhan Pd.;Mittal, Ankush;Jha, Dipendra Kumar;Pandeya, Dipendra Raj;Sathian, Brijesh
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.10
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    • pp.4963-4965
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    • 2012
  • Objective: To diagnose renal cell carcinoma at early stages and for better prognosis, the main objective of our current study was to understand any association with diabetes with relation to age, gender, history of disease, diabetic laboratory parameters, tumor size and grade. Materials and Methods: This hospital based study was carried out using data retrieved from the register maintained in the Department of Biochemistry of Nepalese Army Institute of Health Sciences between $1^{st}$ December, 2011 and $31^{st}$ May, 2012. The variables collected were age, gender, HbA1c, serum creatinine, fasting blood glucose. One way ANOVA was applied to examine statistical significance of differences between groups. The LSD post hoc test was used for the comparison of means of case groups. Results: Of the total 140 cases of renal cell carcinoma, 79 patients were also suffering from diabetes mellitus. The number of females (47) was more in diabetic RCC patients when compared to males (32). Significance was observed in levels of serum creatinine for tumor size >10cm ($0.0001^*$). The highest value of glycated hemoglobin (8.9%) and fasting blood sugar(148.3mg/dl)in cases of renal cell carcinoma along with diabetes mellitus was found in tumour size of 1-5cm. Conclusion: Diabetes mellitus has independent prognostic significance in RCC in relation to tumour size and grade.

Role of Hyperinsulinemia in Increased Risk of Prostate Cancer: A Case Control Study from Kathmandu Valley

  • Pandeya, Dipendra Raj;Mittal, Ankush;Sathian, Brijesh;Bhatta, Bibek
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.1031-1033
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    • 2014
  • Aim: To investigate the effect of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia on prostate cancer risk. Materials and Methods: This hospital based study was carried out using data retrieved from the register maintained in the Department of Biochemistry of a tertiary care hospital of Kathmandu, Nepal between $31^{st}$ December, 2011 and $31^{st}$ October, 2013. The variables collected were age, serum cholesterol, serum calcium, PSA, fasting blood glucose, serum insulin. Analysis was performed by descriptive statistics and testing of hypothesis using Excel 2003, R 2.8.0, Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) for Windows Version 16.0 (SPSS Inc; Chicago, IL, USA) and the EPI Info 3.5.1 Windows Version. Results: Of the total 125 subjects enrolled in our present study, 25 cases were of PCa and 100 were healthy controls. The mean value of fasting plasma glucose was 95.5 mg/dl in cases of prostatic carcinoma and the mean value of fasting plasma insulin was $5.78{\mu}U/ml$ (p value: 0.0001*). The fasting insulin levels ${\mu}U/ml$ were categorized into the different ranges starting from ${\leq}2.75$, >2.75 to ${\leq}4.10$, >4.10 to ${\leq}6.10$, > $6.10{\mu}U/ml$. The maximum number of cases of prostatic carcinoma of fasting insulin levels falls in range of > $6.10{\mu}U/ml$. The highest insulin levels (> $6.10{\mu}U/ml$) were seen to be associated with an 2.55 fold risk of prostatic carcinoma when compared with fasting insulin levels of (< $2.75{\mu}U/ml$). Conclusions: Elevated fasting levels of serum insulin appear to be associated with a higher risk of prostate cancer.

Estimation of Carbon Stock in the Chir Pine (Pinus roxburghii Sarg.) Plantation Forest of Kathmandu Valley, Central Nepal

  • Sharma, Krishna Prasad;Bhatta, Suresh Prashad;Khatri, Ganga Bahadur;Pajiyar, Avinash;Joshi, Daya Krishna
    • Journal of Forest and Environmental Science
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.37-46
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    • 2020
  • Vegetation carbon sequestration and regeneration are the two major parameters of forest research. In this study, we analyzed the vegetation carbon stock and regeneration of community-managed pine plantation of Kathmandu, central Nepal. Vegetation data were collected from 40 circular plots of 10 m radius (for the tree) and 1m radius (for seedling) applying a stratified random sampling and nested quadrat method. The carbon stock was estimated by Chave allometric model and estimated carbon stock was converted into CO2 equivalents. Density-diameter (d-d) curve was also prepared to check the regeneration status and stability of the plantation. A d-d curve indicates the good regeneration status of the forest with a stable population in each size class. Diversity of trees was very low, only two tree species Pinus roxburghii and Eucalyptus citriodora occurred in the sample plots. Pine was the dominant tree in terms of density, basal area, biomass, carbon stock and CO2 stock than the eucalyptus. The basal area, carbon stock and CO2 stock of forest was 33±1.0 ㎡ ha-1, 108±5.0 Mg ha-1 and 394±18 Mg ha-1, respectively. Seedling and tree density of the plantation was 4,965 ha-1 and 339 ha-1 respectively. The forest carbon stock showed a positive relationship with biomass, tree diameter, height and basal area but no relationship with tree density. Canopy cover and tree diameter have a negative effect on seedling density and regeneration. In conclusion, the community forest has a stable population in each size class, sequestering a significant amount of carbon and CO2 emitted from densely populated Kathmandu metro city as the forest biomass hence have a potentiality to mitigate the global climate change.