• Title, Summary, Keyword: Kashmir valley

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Status of Exotic Flora in Kashmir Valley

  • Wani, Nasir Rashid;Mushtaq, Shah Murtaza
    • Journal of Forest and Environmental Science
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.8-11
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    • 2012
  • The Kashmir Himalaya, known for its indigenous and endemic flora, also provides home to a large number of exotic plants, which exhibit a wide taxonomical and distributional stretch. Although, some preliminary studies have been carried out in the region on some aspects of its exotic flora, the inventorization and documentation of its exotic have received a little or negligible attention. There is a lot of scope of these exotic plant species in Kashmir valley, but lack of authentic identification has been as a big hurdle in their scientific management. It is in this backdrop that the present floristic study was carried out to identify, inventorize, document and characterize the exotic plant species grown in the Valley. The present study has revealed that Kashmir Valley grows 317 exotic plant species, which belong to 209 genera in 85 families. Dicotyledons are the largest group, represented by 252 species in 163 genera and 67 families. Monocotyledons comprise 52 species in 37 genera and 13 families. Gymnosperms are the smallest group, with 13 species distributed in 9 genera and 5 families. Asteraceae is the largest family containing 33 exotic species.

Promoter Methylation Status of DNA Repair Gene (hMLH1) in Gastric Carcinoma Patients of the Kashmir Valley

  • Wani, Majid;Afroze, Dil;Makhdoomi, Muzamil;Hamid, Iqra;Wani, Bilal;Bhat, Gulzar;Wani, Rauf;Wani, Khursheed
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.8
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    • pp.4177-4181
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    • 2012
  • Cancer is a multi-factorial disease and variation in genetic susceptibility, due to inherited differences in the capacity to repair mismatches in the genome, is an important factor in the development of gastric cancer (GC), for example. Epigenetic changes, including aberrant methylation of 5/CpG islands in the promoter regions of mismatch repair (MMR) genes like hMLH1, have been implicated in the development of various types of GC. In the present study we evaluated the role of hMLH1 promoter hypermethylation in Kashmiri GC patients and controls, and assessed correlations with various dietary and lifestyle factors. The study included 70 GC patients (56 males and 14 females; age ($mean{\pm}S.D$) $50{\pm}11.4$ years). Distinction between methylated and unmethylated was achieved with MS-PCR and DNA band patterns. The Chi-square test was applied to assess the risk due to promoter hypermethylation. We found a strikingly high frequency of promoter hypermethylation in GC cases than in normal samples (72.9% (51/70) in GC cases vs 20% (14/70) in normal samples (p=0.0001).We also observed a statistically significant association between methylated hMLH1 gene promoter and smoking, consumption of sundried vegetables and hot salted tea with the risk of GC. This study revealed that hMLH1 hypermethylation is strongly associated with GC and suggested roles for epigenetic changes in stomach cancer causation in the Kashmir valley.

Profile of Lymphadenopathy in Kashmir Valley: a Cytological Study

  • Qadri, Sumyra Khurshid;Hamdani, Nissar Hussain;Shah, Parveen;Lone, Mohammad Iqbal;Baba, Khalil Mohammad
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.8
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    • pp.3621-3625
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    • 2012
  • Lymphadenopathy is one of the commonest and significant manifestations of local as well as systemic ailments, especially malignancies. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) helps in diagnosing the disease itself, in general, but more importantly ruling out malignancy, in particular. Hence it saves much of the cost and use of resources incurred with excision biopsy of such lymph nodes. This prompted us to study the cytologic patterns of lymphadenopathy in our setting and the diagnostic utility of FNAC in the evaluation of lymphadenopathy. In this retrospective observational study, 1,579 patients (953 males and 626 females) with lymphadenopathy who were subjected to FNAC over a period of three years (January 2009 to December 2011) were studied. The cervical region was involved in most of the cases (76%) followed by the axillary region (17.5%). Metastatic malignancy (38.2%) was the commonest cause of lymphadenopathy followed by reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (36.9%), tuberculosis (9.1%) and lymphomas (8.6%). Squamous cell carcinoma (32.2%) followed by adenocarcinoma (21.9%) were the most frequent metastatic tumors. FNAC is a useful diagnostic tool in the management of patients presenting with lymphadenopathy and should be considered before more invasive and costly procedures are performed, particularly in developing countries.

Metastatic Lymphadenopathy in Kashmir Valley: A Clinicopathological Study

  • Qadri, Sumyra Khurshid;Hamdani, Nissar Hussain;Shah, Parveen;Baba, Khalil Mohammad
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.419-422
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    • 2014
  • Background: Lymphadenopathy is a common presentation in both benign and malignant diseases which need to be diagnosed without delay. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) helps us diagnose a disease and follow its course, including the response to therapy. Aim: This study aimed to analyze the clinicopathological features of metastatic lymphadenopathy and the diagnostic utility of FNAC in our setting. Materials and Methods: This two-year prospective study included all the patients with metastatic lymphadenopathy, diagnosed with FNAC. Results: A total of 412 cases (male:female ratio, 1.3:1; age range, 3 to 90 years) were studied. Supraclavicular lymph nodes were involved most commonly (50.5%). The commonest metastatic tumor was squamous cell carcinoma in general (30.1%) and in males (37.6%), and infiltrating ductal carcinoma (25.3%) in females. Lung, with 64 (15.5%) cases followed by esophagus, 60 (14.6%) cases; breast, 49 (11.9%) cases; skin, 32 (7.8%) cases; and stomach, 25 (6.1%) cases were the most common primary sites of malignancy. In 69 patients, excision biopsy was performed. Histopathological findings correlated well with that of cytology in all these cases. Conclusions: FNAC is an important tool in the diagnostic work up of metastatic lymphadenopathy, which in the hands of an experienced and skilful cytopathologist can avoid the need for excision biopsy.

Phospholipase C Epsilon 1 (PLCE1 rs2274223A>G, rs3765524C>T and rs7922612C>T) Polymorphisms and Esophageal Cancer Risk in the Kashmir Valley

  • Malik, Manzoor Ahmad;Umar, Meenakshi;Gupta, Usha;Zargar, Showkat Ali;Mittal, Balraj
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.10
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    • pp.4319-4323
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    • 2014
  • Background: Phospholipase C epsilon 1 (PLCE1) encodes a member of the phospholipase family of proteins that play crucial roles in carcinogenesis and progression of several cancers including esophageal cancer (EC). In two large scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP, rs2274223A>G, rs3765524C>T) in PLCE1 were identified as novel susceptibility loci of esophageal cancer (EC) in China. The aim of the present study was to investigate this finding in Kashmir Valley, a high risk area. Materials and Methods: We determined genotypes of three potentially functional SNPs (rs2274223A>G, rs3765524C>T and rs7922612C>T) of PLCE1 in 135 EC patients, and 195 age and gender matched controls in Kashmiri valley by PCR RFLP method. Risk for developing EC was estimated by binary logistic regression using SPSS. Results: The selected PLCE1 polymorphisms did not show independent association with EC. However, the $G_{2274223}T_{3765524}T_{7922612}$ haplotype was significantly associated with increased risk of EC (OR=2.92; 95% CI=1.30-6.54; p=0.009). Smoking and salted tea proved to be independent risk factors for EC. Conclusions: Genetic variations in PLCE1 modulate risk of EC in the high risk Kashmiri population.

N-Nitrosodimethylamine in the Kashmiri Diet and Possible Roles in the High Incidence of Gastrointestinal Cancers

  • Chikan, Naveed A.;Shabir, Nadeem;Shaffi, Sheikh;Mir, Manzoor R.;Patel, Trupti N.
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.1077-1079
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    • 2012
  • The Kashmiri population is culturally distinct with special dietary features owing to the temperate climatic conditions of Kashmir valley. This has habituated the population to preserve food in smoked, pickled and sundried forms which include considerable amounts of $N$-nitroso compounds (NOCs). These are known to cause cytotoxicity, DNA damage, mutation, unscheduled DNA synthesis and DNA methylation. All of these changes at molecular level are known to contribute to the pathogenesis of cancer. One of the prominent NOCs found in Kashmiri food is $N$-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA). Here we review the occurrence of NDMA in sundried foods, dried fish, kehwa, traditional pickle, $Brassica$ $oleracia$ and $tobbaco$. We also discuss its possible role in the high prevalence of gastrointestinal cancers in Kashmir.

Lack of Association of a Common Polymorphism in the 3'-UTR of Interleukin 8 with Non Small Cell Lung Cancer in Kashmir

  • Bhat, Imtiyaz Ahmad;Pandith, Arshid A.;Bhat, Bashir A.;Naykoo, Niyaz A.;Qasim, Iqbal;Rasool, Roohi;Aziz, Sheik Aejaz;Shah, Zafar Amin
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.7
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    • pp.4403-4408
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    • 2013
  • Background: Chronic inflammation is considered as an important factor in the pathogenesis of lung cancer. The presence of inflammatory cells and higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the tumor microenvironment and their surrounding tissues is gaining much importance in research. Materials and Methods: One hundred ninety NSCLC cases and 200 age, smoking and sex matched controls were evaluated for association of IL-8 -251 (rs4073) and IL-8 -845 (rs2227532) in our population. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) was used followed by direct sequencing for the detection of SNPs. Results: The IL-8 -845 polymorphism was not found in our population. No significant association was observed between the IL-8 -251 AT genotypes and IL-8 -25 AA genotypes and NSCLC (p=0.05) in our population. The IL-8 -251 A allele was also non-significant (p=0.05) in NSCLC patients. Conclusions: In conclusion, this report reveals lack of association between IL-8 - 251 A/T polymorphism and NSCLC in our Kashmir Valley population.

Lack of Influence of MGMT Codon Leu84Phe and Codon Ileu143Val Polymorphisms on Esophageal Cancer Risk in the Kashmir Valley

  • Shah, Mohd A.;Shaffi, Sheikh M.;Lone, Ghulam Nabi;Jan, Syed Mudassar
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.7
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    • pp.3047-3052
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    • 2012
  • The enzyme encoded by the MGMT gene is involved in the repair of alkylated lesions formed in DNA by carcinogenic nitrosamines. Since dietary items consumed by the Kashmiri population contain high concentrations of these agents, it is biologically plausible that MGMT polymorphic variants may be associated with their risk of esophageal cancer. The present study was performed to assess whether non-synonymous SNPS at codon Leu84Phe and codon Ileu143Val of the MGMT gene, close to the active site of the protein, might be linked to predisposition of Kashmiris to esophageal cancer. Genotyping was carried out by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism on 92 cases and 77 healthy controls. Codon 84 and codon 143 SNPs of the MGMT gene were not associated with any increase in risk. While the frequency of the Phe allele at codon 84 in cases was (0.16), slightly higher than controls (0.12), the difference was not statistically significant. Similarly, the frequency of Valine allele in cases at codon 143 (0.08) and controls (0.09) was nearly equal. Moreover, no significant association of MGMT genotypes with the clinicopatholgic variables of esophageal cancer patients was observed. In conclusion, MGMT variants at codon 84 and codon143 may not be involved in the susceptibility of the Kashmiri population to esophageal cancer.

THE BUDDHIST HERITAGE ON THE SILK ROAD: FROM GANDHARA TO KOREA

  • KHAN, M. ASHRAF
    • Acta Via Serica
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.95-104
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    • 2016
  • The Silk Route in ancient times served as a link between the World's greatest civilizations and as a source of knowledge, art, religion and philosophy. This network of ancient caravan paths formed the first bridge between East and West, where two different civilizations came in contact with their respective cultural traditions and religious beliefs, as well as their scientific and technological achievements. One of the main routes of the Great Silk Route passed through the Karakoram, linking Kashgar with Kashmir and the Gandhara regions. The Karakoram Highway connects the Chinese province with Pakistan and follows the ancient Silk Route, which connected the Heartlands of Asia with the Western fringes and further beyond the entire continent of Europe. Evidences of the history of humankind, ranging from Pre-historic times to the spread of Buddhism from South Asia to China and the Far East, is depicted in the rocky cliffs on the waysides and on rough boulders scattered in the upper valley of the Indus River and its tributaries. The ancient trade routes also carried scholars, teachers, missionaries and monks of different beliefs and practices, who met and exchanged ideas. The Buddhists as well as Zoroastrians and other missionaries all followed the Silk Route, leaving permanent footprints of their passage. The ancient greater Gandhara is situated in the North-West of the Indian Sub-continent, with the steep mountain ranges of the Karakoram, the Pamir and the Hindu-Kush bordering it and the dry areas of Central Asia to its rear. A number of races from Central Asia migrated to Gandhara because of its mild climate and plentiful farm products and fruits. This area was an entry point of Western Culture into India and at the same times the exit point of Indian Culture, including Buddhism, to the West. In Gandhara, the diffusion of different cultures developed an art form, during the 1-7th centuries CE commonly known after its geographic name as "Gandhara Art". The Buddhism's route of introduction into China originated in Gandhara, then reached in Korea and Japan and other countries. The fame of Gandhara however, rested on its capital, "Taxila" which was a great centre of learning. From the time of the Achaemenians, down through Muslim period, Gandhara continued to establish and maintain a link between East & West, as shown by material evidences recovered from Taxila and other Buddhist centres of Gandhara during the course of archaeological excavations.