• Title/Summary/Keyword: K-Ras

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RNAi-induced K-Ras Gene Silencing Suppresses Growth of EC9706 Cells and Enhances Chemotherapy Sensitivity of Esophageal Cancer

  • Wang, Xin-Jie;Zheng, Yu-Ling;Fan, Qing-Xia;Zhang, Xu-Dong
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.12
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    • pp.6517-6521
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    • 2012
  • To analyze the growth, proliferation, apoptosis, invasiveness and chemotherapy sensitivity of EC9706 cells after K-Ras gene silencing, an expression carrier pSilencer-siK-Ras was constructed, and the EC9706 cell line was transfected using a liposome technique. Six groups were established: Control, siRNA NC (transfected with empty vector pSilencer2.1); Ras siRNA (transfected with pSilencer-siK-Ras2); Paclitaxel; Paclitaxel + siRNA NC; and Ras siRNA + Paclitaxel. After the treatment, RT-PCR, Western blotting, MTT assay, flow cytometry and the Transwell technique were used to assess expression of K-Ras mRNA and protein in EC9706 cells, as well as cell growth, proliferation, apoptosis and invasiveness. The effect of Paclitaxel chemotherapy was also tested. pSilencer-siK-Ras2 effectively down-regulated expression of K-Ras mRNA and protein in EC9706 cells, growth being significantly inhibited. Flow cytometry indicated obvious apoptosis of cells in the experimental group, with arrest in the G1 phase; cell migration ability was also reduced. After pSilencer-siK-Ras2 transfection or the addition of Paclitaxel, EC9706 cells were suppressed to different extents; the suppressive effect was strengthened by combined treatment. The results suggested that RNAi-induced K-Ras gene silencing could enhance chemotherapy sensitivity of esophageal cancer.

K-Ras-Activated Cells Can Develop into Lung Tumors When Runx3-Mediated Tumor Suppressor Pathways Are Abrogated

  • Lee, You-Soub;Lee, Ja-Yeol;Song, Soo-Hyun;Kim, Da-Mi;Lee, Jung-Won;Chi, Xin-Zi;Ito, Yoshiaki;Bae, Suk-Chul
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.43 no.10
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    • pp.889-897
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    • 2020
  • K-RAS is frequently mutated in human lung adenocarcinomas (ADCs), and the p53 pathway plays a central role in cellular defense against oncogenic K-RAS mutation. However, in mouse lung cancer models, oncogenic K-Ras mutation alone can induce ADCs without p53 mutation, and loss of p53 does not have a significant impact on early K-Ras-induced lung tumorigenesis. These results raise the question of how K-Ras-activated cells evade oncogene surveillance mechanisms and develop into lung ADCs. RUNX3 plays a key role at the restriction (R)-point, which governs multiple tumor suppressor pathways including the p14ARF-p53 pathway. In this study, we found that K-Ras activation in a very limited number of cells, alone or in combination with p53 inactivation, failed to induce any pathologic lesions for up to 1 year. By contrast, when Runx3 was inactivated and K-Ras was activated by the same targeting method, lung ADCs and other tumors were rapidly induced. In a urethane-induced mouse lung tumor model that recapitulates the features of K-RAS-driven human lung tumors, Runx3 was inactivated in both adenomas (ADs) and ADCs, whereas K-Ras was activated only in ADCs. Together, these results demonstrate that the R-point-associated oncogene surveillance mechanism is abrogated by Runx3 inactivation in AD cells and these cells cannot defend against K-Ras activation, resulting in the transition from AD to ADC. Therefore, K-Ras-activated lung epithelial cells do not evade oncogene surveillance mechanisms; instead, they are selected if they occur in AD cells in which Runx3 has been inactivated.

Somatic Mutations of K-Ras and BRAF in Thai Colorectal Cancer and their Prognostic Value

  • Chaiyapan, Welawee;Duangpakdee, Pongsanae;Boonpipattanapong, Teeranut;Kanngern, Samornmas;Sangkhathat, Surasak
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.329-332
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    • 2013
  • Background: The study aimed to determine the incidence of K-ras and BRAF mutations in colorectal cancers (CRCs) in Thai patients and evaluate association with clinicopathological parameters including treatment outcomes in terms of event free survival (EFS). Materials and Methods: Two-hundred colorectal cancer specimens were collected for studies of K-Ras codon 12, 13 and 61, and BRAF codon 600 by polymerase chain reaction and direct nucleotide sequencing. Results: The overall incidence of K-Ras mutations in our patients was 23%. K-ras mutation frequencies in CRC stages (AJCC) I, II, III and IV were 6.7%, 16.1%, 23.3% and 26.6%, respectively (p-value>0.05). The three most common mutation forms were G12D, G12V and G13D. K-Ras mutation status was associated with poorer EFS in stage I-III CRCs (p-value 0.03). Conclusions: The study found a lower mutation frequency of K-Ras and BRAF compared to reports involving other ethnic groups. However, K-Ras mutations did have a negative prognostic value in early-stage CRCs.

High Frequency of Codon 12 but not Codon 13 and 61 K-ras Gene Mutations in Invasive Ductal Carcinoma of Breast in a South Indian Population

  • Sushma, C;Prasad, Shiva;Devi, Rudrama;Murthy, Sudha;Rao, TS;Naidu, CK
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.8
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    • pp.3505-3508
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    • 2015
  • Background: Ras genes are thought to play an important role in human cancer since they have been found to be activated frequently in several types of tumors including breast cancer, where the overall incidence of K-RAS oncogene activation is 0-10%. Evaluation of K-RAS gene not only for mutational frequency but also for mutation types in this downstream signaling gene pathway is necessary to determine the mechanisms of action. The present study was conducted to test the hypothesis that K-RAS activation is involved in breast cancer risk of south Indian population. Materials and Methods: A total of 70 paired pathologically confirmed tumor and non-tumor tissues from the same breast cancer patients were analysed for most common K-RAS mutations of codon 12,13 and 61 by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction digestion and direct nucleotide sequencing method. Results: We found that a high rate of homozygous and heterozygous mutations of codon 12, but not codon 13 and 61, may influence the invasive ductal carcinoma of breast risk in this study. Conclusions: Our study indicated that only codon 12 may be involved in initiating breast carcinogenesis in India.

Urtica Dioica and Lamium Album Decrease Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 beta and Increase K-Ras in Diabetic Rats

  • Abedinzade, Mahmood;Rostampour, Mohammad;Mirzajani, Ebrahim;Khalesi, Zahra Bostani;Pourmirzaee, Tahere;Khanaki, Korosh
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.248-252
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    • 2019
  • Objectives: The aim of the present work is evaluating the special effects of Urtica Dioica and Lamium Album on the serum level of K-Ras and GSK-3 beta in diabetic rats. Methods: In the present experimental study, 32 male Wistar rats randomly divided into 4 groups (Group I: normal control rats; receiving daily PBS, Group 2: diabetic control rats; receiving single dose of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg) and daily PBS, Group 3: Diabetic rats treated with 100 mg/kg of hydroalcoholic extract of the U. dioica, Group 4: Diabetic rats treated with 100 mg/kg of hydroalcoholic extract of L. Album. Diabetes-induced by an intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/ kg). On the 14 th day of treatment, the weight, fasting blood sugar (FBS) and on 28 th day blood glucose, K-Ras and GSK3 beta was measured. Results: In diabetic group blood GSK- 3 beta increase in comparison to control group (P < 0.05), also blood K-Ras decrease in the diabetic group (P < 0.05). Both extracts reduced GSK-3 beta level, however, this reduction was only statistically significant by U.dioica (P < 0.05). Compared to diabetic group, blood K-Ras level increased by both extract (P < 0.05). Also diabetes induction increase blood glucose levels and both extracts decrease its level significantly (P < 0.05).there is no significant differences among both extract effects on blood glucose, and K-Ras. Conclusion: For the first time shown that both extracts by regulating GSK-3 beta and K-Ras improve blood glucose level. More studies are needed to determine all the effects of these herbs.

Impact of Cellular Genetic Make-up on Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines Response to Ellagic Acid: Implications of small interfering RNA

  • Yousef, Amany I;El-Masry, Omar S;Abdel Mohsen, Mohamed A
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.743-748
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    • 2016
  • Background: $K^-Ras$ activation is an early event in colorectal carcinogenesis and associated mutations have been reported in about 40% of colorectal cancer patients. These mutations have always been responsible for enhancing malignancy and silencing them is associated with attenuation of tumorigenicity. Among downstream effectors are the RAF/MEK/ERK and the PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. PI3K/Akt signaling leads to reduction of apoptosis, stimulated cell growth and enhanced proliferation. Ellagic acid (EA), a naturally occurring antioxidant, has recently emerged as a promising anti-cancer agent. Purpose: To evaluate the impact of cellular genetic makeup of two colon cancer cell lines with different genetic backgrounds, HCT-116 ($K^-Ras^-/p53^+$) and Caco-2 ($K^-Ras^+/p53^-$), on response to potential anti-tumour effects of EA. In addition, the influence of $K^-Ras$ silencing in HCT-116 cells was investigated. Materials and Methods: Cellular proliferation, morphology and cell cycle analysis were carried out in addition to Western blotting for detecting total Akt and p-Akt (at Thr308 and Ser473) in the presence and absence of different concentrations of EA. Cell proliferation was also assessed in cells transfected with different concentrations of $K^-Ras$ siRNA or incubated with ellagic acid following transfection. Results: The results of the present study revealed that EA exerts anti-proliferative and dose-dependent pro-apoptotic effects. Cytostatic and cytotoxic effects were also observed. p-Akt (at Thr308 and Ser473) was downregulated. Moreover, EA treatment was found to (i) reduce $K^-Ras$ protein expression; (ii) in cells transfected with siRNA and co-treated with EA, pronounced anti-proliferative effects as well as depletion of p-Akt (at Thr308) were detected. Conclusions: Cellular genetic makeup ($K^-Ras^-/p53^-$) was not likely to impose limitations on targeting EA in treatment of colon cancer. EA had a multi-disciplinary pro-apoptotic anti-proliferative approach, having inhibited Akt phosphorylation, induced cell cycle arrest and showed an anti-proliferative potential in HCT-116 cells (expressing mutant $K^-Ras$).

Oncogenesis and the Clinical Significance of K-ras in Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma

  • Huang, Chun;Wang, Wei-Min;Gong, Jian-Ping;Yang, Kang
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.2699-2701
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    • 2013
  • The RAS family genes encode small GTP-binding cytoplasmic proteins. Activated KRAS engages multiple effector pathways, notably the RAF-mitogen-activated protein kinase, phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) and RalGDS pathways. In the clinical field, K-ras oncogene activation is frequently found in human cancers and thus may serve as a potential diagnostic marker for cancer cells in circulation. This mini-review aims to summarise information on Ras-induced oncogenesis and the clinical significance of K-ras.

Mutational Analysis of K-ras and p53 Genes in Human Lung and Pancreatic Carcinoma Cell Lines (사람 폐암과 췌장암 세포주에서 K-ras p53 유전자의 돌연변이에 대한 연구)

  • 정경이;정노팔
    • The Korean Journal of Zoology
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.231-238
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    • 1996
  • Several types of human lung and pancreatic carcinoma cell lines were cultured and their chromosomal DNAs were extracted. These DNAs were then partially amplified by PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) and sequenced to analyze the types and frequency of mutations, and their possible relation in the oncogene, K-ras and suppressor gene, p53. Regardless of the cell line origin, 81% were found to possess at least one mutation. Among the cell lines analyzed, 54.5% of the mutations were found in either K-ras or p53. Except for one nonsense mutation, all mutations were missense with either base insertions or substitutions. Furthermore, besides the p53 codons Known to be mutated simultaneously with' ras to enhance tumor growth, p53 164-165 and 248 were found to be mutated simultaneously with K-ms. Regardless of the site of p53 mutation, all K-ras mutations found in these cases occurred at exon 1, codon 12.

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Epidermal growth factor receptor overexpression and K-ras mutation detection in the oral squamous cell carcinoma (구강편평상피암종에서 상피성장인자 수용체의 과발현과 K-ras 유전자 변이)

  • Moon, Byeong-Chool;Han, Se-Jin;Jeong, Dong-Jun;Kim, Kyung-Wook
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
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    • v.37 no.5
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    • pp.396-402
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    • 2011
  • Introduction: Epidermal growth factor is a single-chain polypeptide consisting of 53 amino acids with potent mitogenic activity that stimulates the proliferation of a range of normal and neoplastic cells through an interaction with its specific receptor (epidermal growth factor receptor, EGFR). This interaction plays a key role in tumor progression including the induction of tumor cell proliferation. An increased EGFR copy number have been associated with a favorable response to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors therapy. In contrast, K-ras mutations tend to predict a poor response to such therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between the clinicopathological factors and the up-regulation of EGFR expression and Kras mutations in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Materials and Methods: This study examined the immunohistochemical staining of EGFR, K-ras mutation detection with peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-based real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) clamping in 20 specimens from 20 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma. Results: 1. In the immunohistochemical study of poorly differentiated and invasive oral squamous cell carcinoma, a high level of EGFR staining was observed. The correlation between immunohistochemical EGFR expression and histological differentiation, as well as the tumor size of the specimens was significant (Pearson correlation analysis, significance [r] >0.5, P<0.05). 2. In PNA-based real-time PCR clamping analysis, a K-ras mutation was not detected in all specimens. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the up-regulation of the EGFR may play a role in the progression and invasion of oral squamous cell carcinoma that is, independent of a K-ras mutation.

p53 and K-ras Expression in Interstitial Lung Disease (간질성 폐질환에서 p53 및 K-ras 암표지자의 발현)

  • Oh, In-Jae;Kim, You-Il;Kim, Kyu-Sik;Yoo, Young-Kwon;Kim, Soo-Ok;Lee, Eun-Woo;Lim, Sung-Chul;Kim, Young-Chul;Park, Kyung-Ok;Park, Chang-Soo
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.51 no.3
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    • pp.201-210
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    • 2001
  • Background : Approximately 10-13% of patients with interstitial lung disease(ILD) die of lung cancer, and patients with ILD have been reported to have a 7 fold higher incidence of lung cancer compared to the normal population. Recently, overexpression of the p53 and p21 proteins were observed in the epithelial cells from pathologic specimens of ILD. Overexpression of these proteins may result from chronic or recurrent DNA damage by unknown causes of inflammation. However, these proteins may also contribute to oncogenesis if other genetic alterations such as K-ras are superimposed. Methods : Immunohistochemical stains for p53 and K-ras proteins were performed with pathologic specimens from 38 cases with ILD(M/F : 27/11, mean agea : $54{\pm}10$ years) and from 10 control subjects. Results : The p53 protein was expressed in 21.1% (8/38 ILD cases) and K-ras protein expression was observed in 65.8% (25/38 ILD cases). However, neither p53 nor the K-ras protein staining was observed in the control subjects. Conclusion : A significant proportion of cases with ILD expressed the p53 and K-ras proteins in their bronchial epithelial cells. These proteins may be potentially oncogenic with the addition of further genetic alterations. However, to clarify the significance of these findings, further studies looking for correlations with the incidence of lung cancer and other genetic changes are needed.

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