• Title, Summary, Keyword: K-Ras

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Suppresion of Ras Oncogenic Activity by Farnesyl Transferase Inhibitors, YH3938 and YH3945 (Farnesyl transferase 억제제인 YH3938 및 YH3945에 의한 Ras 발암원성 억제)

  • Oh, Myung-Ju;Kim, Nong-Yeon;Lim, Su-Eun;Chung, Young-Hwa;Jhun, Byung-H.
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.202-207
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    • 2010
  • Ras genes are responsible for up to 30% of human tumor mutations and are composed of three isoforms: H-Ras, K-Ras and N-Ras. The post-translational modification of the CAAX motif of the Ras protein is essential in Ras actions. In the present study, we studied the effects of novel farnesyl transferase inhibitors (FTIs), YH3938 and YH3945, on the actions of oncogenic mutants of H-Ras, K-Ras and N-Ras. YH3938 and YH3945 completely reverted the proliferation and morphology of oncogenic H-Ras-transformed Rat2 cells, but not of oncogenic K-Ras-transformed Rat2 cells. Oncogenic N-Ras-transformed Rat2 cells were slightly affected. Activation of SRE promoters by oncogenic H-Ras and N-Ras, but not by K-Ras, were inhibited by treatment with YH3938 and YH3945. Using bandshift analysis, YH3938 suppressed the processing of oncogenic H-Ras and N-Ras, but not that of oncogenic K-Ras protein. YH3945 only inhibited the processing of H-Ras. From these results, we conclude that YH3938 and YH3945 specifically inhibit actions of oncogenic H-Ras through inhibition of its farnesylation, that YH3938 also inhibits N-Ras activity in a dose-dependent manner, and that these drugs have no effect on oncogenic K-Ras activity.

K-Ras-Activated Cells Can Develop into Lung Tumors When Runx3-Mediated Tumor Suppressor Pathways Are Abrogated

  • Lee, You-Soub;Lee, Ja-Yeol;Song, Soo-Hyun;Kim, Da-Mi;Lee, Jung-Won;Chi, Xin-Zi;Ito, Yoshiaki;Bae, Suk-Chul
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.43 no.10
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    • pp.889-897
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    • 2020
  • K-RAS is frequently mutated in human lung adenocarcinomas (ADCs), and the p53 pathway plays a central role in cellular defense against oncogenic K-RAS mutation. However, in mouse lung cancer models, oncogenic K-Ras mutation alone can induce ADCs without p53 mutation, and loss of p53 does not have a significant impact on early K-Ras-induced lung tumorigenesis. These results raise the question of how K-Ras-activated cells evade oncogene surveillance mechanisms and develop into lung ADCs. RUNX3 plays a key role at the restriction (R)-point, which governs multiple tumor suppressor pathways including the p14ARF-p53 pathway. In this study, we found that K-Ras activation in a very limited number of cells, alone or in combination with p53 inactivation, failed to induce any pathologic lesions for up to 1 year. By contrast, when Runx3 was inactivated and K-Ras was activated by the same targeting method, lung ADCs and other tumors were rapidly induced. In a urethane-induced mouse lung tumor model that recapitulates the features of K-RAS-driven human lung tumors, Runx3 was inactivated in both adenomas (ADs) and ADCs, whereas K-Ras was activated only in ADCs. Together, these results demonstrate that the R-point-associated oncogene surveillance mechanism is abrogated by Runx3 inactivation in AD cells and these cells cannot defend against K-Ras activation, resulting in the transition from AD to ADC. Therefore, K-Ras-activated lung epithelial cells do not evade oncogene surveillance mechanisms; instead, they are selected if they occur in AD cells in which Runx3 has been inactivated.

Somatic Mutations of K-Ras and BRAF in Thai Colorectal Cancer and their Prognostic Value

  • Chaiyapan, Welawee;Duangpakdee, Pongsanae;Boonpipattanapong, Teeranut;Kanngern, Samornmas;Sangkhathat, Surasak
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.329-332
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    • 2013
  • Background: The study aimed to determine the incidence of K-ras and BRAF mutations in colorectal cancers (CRCs) in Thai patients and evaluate association with clinicopathological parameters including treatment outcomes in terms of event free survival (EFS). Materials and Methods: Two-hundred colorectal cancer specimens were collected for studies of K-Ras codon 12, 13 and 61, and BRAF codon 600 by polymerase chain reaction and direct nucleotide sequencing. Results: The overall incidence of K-Ras mutations in our patients was 23%. K-ras mutation frequencies in CRC stages (AJCC) I, II, III and IV were 6.7%, 16.1%, 23.3% and 26.6%, respectively (p-value>0.05). The three most common mutation forms were G12D, G12V and G13D. K-Ras mutation status was associated with poorer EFS in stage I-III CRCs (p-value 0.03). Conclusions: The study found a lower mutation frequency of K-Ras and BRAF compared to reports involving other ethnic groups. However, K-Ras mutations did have a negative prognostic value in early-stage CRCs.

RNAi-induced K-Ras Gene Silencing Suppresses Growth of EC9706 Cells and Enhances Chemotherapy Sensitivity of Esophageal Cancer

  • Wang, Xin-Jie;Zheng, Yu-Ling;Fan, Qing-Xia;Zhang, Xu-Dong
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.12
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    • pp.6517-6521
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    • 2012
  • To analyze the growth, proliferation, apoptosis, invasiveness and chemotherapy sensitivity of EC9706 cells after K-Ras gene silencing, an expression carrier pSilencer-siK-Ras was constructed, and the EC9706 cell line was transfected using a liposome technique. Six groups were established: Control, siRNA NC (transfected with empty vector pSilencer2.1); Ras siRNA (transfected with pSilencer-siK-Ras2); Paclitaxel; Paclitaxel + siRNA NC; and Ras siRNA + Paclitaxel. After the treatment, RT-PCR, Western blotting, MTT assay, flow cytometry and the Transwell technique were used to assess expression of K-Ras mRNA and protein in EC9706 cells, as well as cell growth, proliferation, apoptosis and invasiveness. The effect of Paclitaxel chemotherapy was also tested. pSilencer-siK-Ras2 effectively down-regulated expression of K-Ras mRNA and protein in EC9706 cells, growth being significantly inhibited. Flow cytometry indicated obvious apoptosis of cells in the experimental group, with arrest in the G1 phase; cell migration ability was also reduced. After pSilencer-siK-Ras2 transfection or the addition of Paclitaxel, EC9706 cells were suppressed to different extents; the suppressive effect was strengthened by combined treatment. The results suggested that RNAi-induced K-Ras gene silencing could enhance chemotherapy sensitivity of esophageal cancer.

Activation of Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase(PI3K) is Required for Invasiveness and Motility in H-ras MCE10A Cells

  • Shin, Il-Chung;Aree Moon
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology
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    • pp.103-103
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    • 2001
  • 인간유방상피세포에서 H-ras가 침윤성과 세포 이동성을 유도한다는 것을 이 전연구에서 밝혔다. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase(PI3K)는 세포 이동성에서 중요한 역할을 하는 것으로 보고되고 있다. 본 연구에서 인간유방상피세포인 MCF10A에서 H-ras에 의해 유도된 침윤성에 PI3K가 어떠한 영향을 미치는지 살펴보고자 하였다. PI3K의 활성은 PI3K의 downstream molecule인 Akt의 인산화를 Western blot으로 확인하였다. Akt는 MCF10A, H-ras, N-ras MCF10A 세포에서 같은 정도로 발현되는 반면, 인산화된 Akt는 MCF10A 세포에 비해 H-ras MCF10A 세포와 N-ras MCF10A 세포에서 현저히 높게 나타났다. 이상의 결과로서 H-ras, N-ras 둘 다 PI3K를 활성화시키며, 침윤성과 세포이동성이 없는 N-ras MCF10A 세포에서도 PI3K가 활성화되었으므로, PI3K의 활성은 세포침윤성과 이동성을 유도하는데에 있어서 충분하지는 않음을 말해준다. PI3K의 저해제인 LY294002와 wortmannin을 세포에 처리하였을 때 세포침윤성과 이동성이 유의성 있게 감소되었다. 이상의 결과는 MCF10A 세포의 침윤성과 이동설에 있어서 PI3K의 활성이 충분하지는 않지만 반드시 필요하다는 것을 알 수 있었다.

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INVOLVEMENT OF PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL 3-KINASE (PI3K) PATHWAY IN H-RAS-INDUCED INVASION AND MOTILITY OF HUMAN BREAST EPITHELIAL CELLS

  • Shin, Il-Chung;Aree Moon
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Toxicology Conference
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    • pp.142-142
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    • 2002
  • Many studies have identified the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) as a key regulator for various cellular functions including cell survival, growth and motility. We have previously shown that H-ras, but not N-ras, induces invasiveness and motility in human breast epithelial cells (MCF10A), while both H-ras and N-ras induce transformed phenotype.(omitted)

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ACTIVATION OF PI3K IS NOT SUFFICIENT, BUT REQUIRED FOR H-Ras-INDUCED INVASIVE PHENOTYPE IN MCFIOA CELLS

  • Shin, Il-Chung;Aree Moon
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Toxicology Conference
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    • pp.156-156
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    • 2001
  • We have previously shown that H-ras, but N-ras, induces an invasiveness and cell motility in human breast epithelial cells (MCFl0A), while both H-ras and N-ras induce transformed phenotype. It has been recently shown that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) plays an important role on cell migration. In the present study, we wished to investigate the functional role of PI3K in H-ras-induced invasive phenotype in MCF10A cells.(omitted)

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Oncogenesis and the Clinical Significance of K-ras in Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma

  • Huang, Chun;Wang, Wei-Min;Gong, Jian-Ping;Yang, Kang
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.2699-2701
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    • 2013
  • The RAS family genes encode small GTP-binding cytoplasmic proteins. Activated KRAS engages multiple effector pathways, notably the RAF-mitogen-activated protein kinase, phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) and RalGDS pathways. In the clinical field, K-ras oncogene activation is frequently found in human cancers and thus may serve as a potential diagnostic marker for cancer cells in circulation. This mini-review aims to summarise information on Ras-induced oncogenesis and the clinical significance of K-ras.

High Frequency of Codon 12 but not Codon 13 and 61 K-ras Gene Mutations in Invasive Ductal Carcinoma of Breast in a South Indian Population

  • Sushma, C;Prasad, Shiva;Devi, Rudrama;Murthy, Sudha;Rao, TS;Naidu, CK
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.8
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    • pp.3505-3508
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    • 2015
  • Background: Ras genes are thought to play an important role in human cancer since they have been found to be activated frequently in several types of tumors including breast cancer, where the overall incidence of K-RAS oncogene activation is 0-10%. Evaluation of K-RAS gene not only for mutational frequency but also for mutation types in this downstream signaling gene pathway is necessary to determine the mechanisms of action. The present study was conducted to test the hypothesis that K-RAS activation is involved in breast cancer risk of south Indian population. Materials and Methods: A total of 70 paired pathologically confirmed tumor and non-tumor tissues from the same breast cancer patients were analysed for most common K-RAS mutations of codon 12,13 and 61 by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction digestion and direct nucleotide sequencing method. Results: We found that a high rate of homozygous and heterozygous mutations of codon 12, but not codon 13 and 61, may influence the invasive ductal carcinoma of breast risk in this study. Conclusions: Our study indicated that only codon 12 may be involved in initiating breast carcinogenesis in India.

Mutational Analysis of K-ras and p53 Genes in Human Lung and Pancreatic Carcinoma Cell Lines (사람 폐암과 췌장암 세포주에서 K-ras p53 유전자의 돌연변이에 대한 연구)

  • 정경이;정노팔
    • The Korean Journal of Zoology
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.231-238
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    • 1996
  • Several types of human lung and pancreatic carcinoma cell lines were cultured and their chromosomal DNAs were extracted. These DNAs were then partially amplified by PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) and sequenced to analyze the types and frequency of mutations, and their possible relation in the oncogene, K-ras and suppressor gene, p53. Regardless of the cell line origin, 81% were found to possess at least one mutation. Among the cell lines analyzed, 54.5% of the mutations were found in either K-ras or p53. Except for one nonsense mutation, all mutations were missense with either base insertions or substitutions. Furthermore, besides the p53 codons Known to be mutated simultaneously with' ras to enhance tumor growth, p53 164-165 and 248 were found to be mutated simultaneously with K-ms. Regardless of the site of p53 mutation, all K-ras mutations found in these cases occurred at exon 1, codon 12.

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