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Effect of Sequence Variation in Bovine Mitochondrial DNA D-Ioop Region on ~ilk Production for Hanwoo (한우 산유량에 미치는 Mitochondrial DNA D-loop영역의 염기서열 변이효과)

  • Kong, H.S.;Oh, J.D.;Lim, H.J.;Lee, H.K.;Jeon, G.J.;Yoon, D.H.;Jeon, G.J.;Choi, J.G.;Choi, Y.H.;Cho, B.W.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.46 no.5
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    • pp.729-734
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    • 2004
  • This study was performed to analyze the sequence variations of mtDNA D-loop and their effects on milk in Hanwoo(Korean cattle). The resulting sequences were compared with previously published sequences for other cattle breeds (GenBank JOI394). The Polymerase Chain Reaction was performed to amplify a total of 964 bp between nucleotide 15758 and 383 within D-loop region of mtDNA using specific primers. Twenty polymorphic sites by nucleotide substitution were found in mtDNA D-loop region of Hanwoo. The frequencies of positions at 8, 169, 16042, 16051, 16057, 16093, 16119, 16122, 16209, 16255 and 16302 nt with high levels of sequence polymorphism were 0.150, 0.950, 0.085, 0.138, 0.106, 0.085, 0.138, 0.212, 0.085, 0.148 and 0.180, respectively. The substitution effect at 16119(p<0.1) and 16185(p< 0.05) nt was found significant on milk production. Polymorphism of mtDNA sequence in D-Ioop region could be useful for the analysis of cytoplasmic genetic variation and associations with the other economically important traits and maternal lineage analysis in Hanwoo.

Effect of Sequence Variation in Mitochondrial DNA D-loop Region on Milk and Milk Fat Production in Holstein Cows (Holstein의 유량과 유지방 생산에 미치는 Mitochondrial DNA D-loop 영역의 염기 서열 변이 효과)

  • Oh J. D.;Kong H. S.;Lee H. K.;Jeon G. J.
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.9-13
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    • 2005
  • This study was performed to analyze the sequence variation in mtDNA D-loop and their effects on milk and milk fat production in Holstein cows. The analyzed sequences were compared with previously published sequences from other cattle breeds (GenBank J01394). PCR was performed to amplify a total of 964 bp between nucleotide 15758 and 383 within D-loop region of mtDNA using specific primers. Thirty five polymorphic sites by nucleotide substitution were found in mtDNA. The frequencies of positions at 106, 169, 16057, 16231 and 16255 nt with high levels of sequence polymorphism were 0.090, 0.555, 0.055, 0.090 and 0.050, respectively. The substitution effect at 169 nt was found significant on milk production, and substitution effect at 16118, 16139 and 16302 nt was highly significant (p<0.1) on milk fat production. Polymorphism of mtDNA sequence in D-loop region might be useful for the analysis of cytoplasmic genetic variation and associations with the other economically important traits and maternal lineage analysis in Holstein cows.

Nutrients Intake and Dietary Quality of Korean Parkinson's Disease Patients According to the Duration of Disease (유병기간에 따른 한국인 파킨슨병 환자의 영양소 섭취 상태 및 식사의 질에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Ju-Yeon;An, Tae-Beom;Jeon, Beom-Seok;Kim, Yun-Young;Choue, Ryo-Won
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.582-591
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    • 2008
  • Both genetic and environmental factors play important roles in the pathogenesis of Parkinson Disease(PD). The contribution of many environmental factors including dietary factor remains unproven. The purpose the study was to investigate the dietary habits, nutrient intake and dietary quality of Korean PD patients according to the duration of disease. PD patients were recruited from K and S university hospitals from May 2005 to January 2006. This study was carried out after approval by the Institute Review Board(IRB). British Brain Bank criteria was used to diagnose PD. The subjects were classified into 2 groups based on the duration of PD: <25 months and $\geq$25 months groups. General characteristics, anthropometric measurements, food habits and dietary intakes were investigated. The results of this study were as follows: 1) The mean age of <25 months group($66.9{\pm}8.0$ yr) was significantly higher than that of $\geq$25 months group($62.2{\pm}8.8$ yr)(p<0.05). No significant differences were found for academic background, occupation, living status and social activity, however, numbers of diseases, exercise and family history of PD were significantly different. 2) Anthropometric measurements were not different between the two groups. 3) The frequency of taking snacks was significantly higher in <25 months group and the amounts of alcohol consumption were significantly higher in $\geq$25 months group. 4) Daily intakes of most nutrients were very low compared with DRI. 5) The MAR score was significantly lower in <25 months group(p<0.05;) however, the scores of DVS, DDS and DQI were not significantly different. As a conclusion an overall nutrient intake and dietary quality of the Parkinson's Disease patients need to be improved regardless of duration of the disease and a well-balanced diet should be emphasized.

Effects of Plant Extracts on Microbial Population, Methane Emission and Ruminal Fermentation Characteristics in In vitro

  • Kim, E.T.;Kim, C.H.;Min, K.S.;Lee, S.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.6
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    • pp.806-811
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    • 2012
  • This study was conducted to evaluate effects of plant extracts on methanogenesis and rumen microbial diversity in in vitro. Plant extracts (Artemisia princeps var. Orientalis; Wormwood, Allium sativum for. Pekinense; Garlic, Allium cepa; Onion, Zingiber officinale; Ginger, Citrus unshiu; Mandarin orange, Lonicera japonica; Honeysuckle) were obtained from the Plant Extract Bank at Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology. The rumen fluid was collected before morning feeding from a fistulated Holstein cow fed timothy and commercial concentrate (TDN; 73.5%, crude protein; 19%, crude fat; 3%, crude fiber; 12%, crude ash; 10%, Ca; 0.8%, P; 1.2%) in the ratio of 3 to 2. The 30 ml of mixture, comprising McDougall buffer and rumen liquor in the ratio of 4 to 1, was dispensed anaerobically into serum bottles containing 0.3 g of timothy substrate and plant extracts (1% of total volume, respectively) filled with $O_2$-free $N_2$ gas and capped with a rubber stopper. The serum bottles were held in a shaking incubator at $39^{\circ}C$ for 24 h. Total gas production in all plant extracts was higher (p<0.05) than that of the control, and total gas production of ginger extract was highest (p<0.05). The methane emission was highest (p<0.05) at control, but lowest (p<0.05) at garlic extract which was reduced to about 20% of methane emission (40.2 vs 32.5 ml/g DM). Other plant extracts also resulted in a decrease in methane emissions (wormwood; 8%, onion; 16%, ginger; 16.7%, mandarin orange; 12%, honeysuckle; 12.2%). Total VFAs concentration and pH were not influenced by the addition of plant extracts. Acetate to propionate ratios from garlic and ginger extracts addition samples were lower (p<0.05, 3.36 and 3.38 vs 3.53) than that of the control. Real-time PCR indicted that the ciliate-associated methanogen population in all added plant extracts decreased more than that of the control, while the fibrolytic bacteria population increased. In particular, the F. succinogens community in added wormwood, garlic, mandarin orange and honeysuckle extracts increased more than that of the others. The addition of onion extract increased R. albus diversity, while other extracts did not influence the R. albus community. The R. flavefaciens population in added wormwood and garlic extracts decreased, while other extracts increased its abundance compared to the control. In conclusion, the results indicated that the plant extracts used in the experiment could be promising feed additives to decrease methane gas emission from ruminant animals while improving ruminal fermentation.

TaqMan probe real-time PCR for quantitative detection of bovine adenovirus type 1 during the manufacture of biologics and medical devices using bovine-derived raw materials (소유래 성분 원재료 사용 생물의약품과 의료기기 제조 공정에서 bovine adenovirus type 1 정량 검출을 위한 TaqMan probe real-time PCR)

  • Ko, Woon Young;Noh, Na Gyeong;Kim, In Seop
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.51 no.3
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    • pp.199-208
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    • 2015
  • Biologics and medical devices manufactured with bovine-derived raw materials have the risk of viral contamination. Therefore, viral validation study is essential to ensure the safety of the products. Bovine adenovirus type-1 (BAdV-1) is one of the common bovine viral pathogens. For quantitative detection of BAdV-1 during the manufacture of biologics and medical devices, a TaqMan probe real-time PCR method was developed. Specific primers and TaqMan probe for amplifying and detecting BAdV-1 DNA were designed. Specificity, limit of detection (LOD), and robustness of the method was validated according to international guideline on the validation of nucleic acid amplification tests for the pathogen detection. The sensitivity of the assay was found to be $7.44{\times}10^1\;TCID_{50}/ml$. The real-time PCR method was reproducible, very specific to BAdV-1, and robust. Moreover, the method was successfully applied to the validation of Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO)-K1 cells artificially infected with BAdV-1, a commercial CHO master bank, and bovine type 1 collagen. The overall results indicate that this rapid, specific, sensitive, and robust assay can be reliably used for quantitative detection of BAdV-1 contamination during the manufacture of biologics and medical devices using bovine-derived raw materials.

Sequence and Genetic Variation of Mitochondrial DNA D-loop Region in Korean Cattle (한우 Mitochondrial DNA D-loop 영역의 염기서열 및 유전변이)

  • Chung, E.R.;Kim, W.T.;Kim, Y.S.;Lee, J.K.;Han, S.K.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.181-190
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    • 2002
  • This study was performed to determine sequences of the mt DNA D-loop region, including $tRNA^{Pro}$ and $tRNA^{Pre}$ and to analysis sequence variation polymorphism in Korean cattle. The resulting sequencies were compared with previously published sequences for other cattle breeds(GenBank J01394). The PCR was used to amplify an 1142bp between nucleotides 15061 and 404 within the D-loop region of mt DNA using specific primers. Korean cattle showed 24 polymorphic sites by nucleotide substitutions and insertions of single base pairs. About 50% of polymorphic sites were found in positions 16042 to 16122 with the most variable region. Among these polymorphic sites, variations at 16055, 16230 and 16260 bp were detected as new sequence variants in Korean cattle. These specific polymorphic sites have not been reported in the Japanese black cattle and European cattle. Therefore, mt DNA variants in the D-loop region may be used as genetic markers for specifying Korean cattle. The frequencies of positions 169, 16302, 16093, 16042, 16119 with a high level of sequence polymorphism were 0.81, 0.56, 0.56, 0.50 and 0.43, respectively. In comparison of genetic distances, Korean cattle showed the more closely to European cattle as Bos taurus than Bos indicus such as African and India breeds. In conclusion, these mt DNA sequence polymorphisms in the D-loop region for Korean cattle may be useful for the analysis of cytoplasmic genetic variation and associations with economic important traits and genetic analysis of maternal lineage.

Economic Analysis of the Livestock Manure Treatment System Using Life-Cycle Cost Technique (LCC 기법을 통한 가축분뇨처리시설의 경제성 분석)

  • Kim, J.H.;Cho, S.H.;Kwag, J.H.;Choi, D.Y.;Jeong, K.H.;Chung, U.S.;Chung, M.S.;Park, S.K.
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.17 no.sup
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    • pp.61-68
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    • 2011
  • To assess the total cost with all stages of facilities, the feasibility of Life Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis was examined in this study to estimate the livestock manure treatment system and optimal decision making process. For the economic evaluation, the plant/equipment investment and annual operation cost of four Public Livestock Recycling Facilities, whose treatment capacity is 100 ton piggery manure per day, was compared. The initial cost was in the range of 2,699 million won to 3,202 million won, where T and E methods were highest and lowest, respectively. The annual operation cost was in the level of 378 million to 498 million won, which decreased in the following order : T method > J method > E method > B method. For the LCC analysis, 4.7% of interest rate, 3.13% of inflation rate, and 1.52% of net discount rate was considered by the data received from Bank of Korea and Statics Korea in the period of 2000 to 2009. Also, for the calculation of present value factor, the durable years of civil engineering & construction, machinery and electric instrument was 30 years, 10 years and 15 years, respectively. Based on these consideration, operation cost was in the range of 17,570 won/ton to 20,661 won/ton, and E method (17,570 won/ton) was economical and B method (20,661 won/ton) was non-economical. Though initial cost of T method was higher than that of B method, LCC analysis of T method was lower than that of T method due to the lower operation cost. Therefore, LCC analysis, which considers both initial cost and operation cost, is more reasonable evaluation method than either initial cost or annual operation cost. For the change of LCC analysis according to the uncertainty, the sensitivity analysis was carried out using fluctuation magnitude of discount rate in the period of 2000 to 2009. As a result, LCC analysis evaluated by discount rate was stable for the uncertain factors since the cost leadership did not change even though the sensitivity analysis varied. In summary, the economic evaluation using LCC analysis could be an efficient reference to choose the suitable livestock manure treatment plants. Furthermore, standardization of statement calculation for the actual cost analysis should be conducted and more detailed study is necessary to validate this summary. Therefore, the application of comprehensive technology evaluation, which considers LCC analysis, should contribute in obtaining objectivity and enhancing reliability for the 'Evaluation of Livestock Manure Treatment System and its Technology'.

Clonal Variation in Female Flowering of Larix leptolepis (낙엽송 클론의 암꽃 개화량 변이)

  • Kim, In-Sik;Kim, Jong-Han;Kang, Jin-Taek;Lee, Byung-Sil
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.1-4
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    • 2008
  • The clonal variation in female flowering was studied in Larix leptolepis clone bank, consisting of 116 clones, for three years. The between-year variation was large; i.e. the percentage of flowering grafts and average number of flowering per graft were $28.4{\sim}67.2$ and $9{\sim}176$, respectively. Differences in flowering abundance among clones were large and statistically significant in all the years studied. The variance of flowering abundance among clones was increased when flowering was poor. The average of broad-sense heritability of flowering abundance was 0.52. The genetic gain(%G) was estimated at 57.4% when the upper 30% clones were selected. The clonal stability of flowering abundance was compared using average number of flowering and coefficient of variance value of each clone. The clones such as Gyeonggi 9(29), Kangwon 37(137), Chungnam 6(46), Chungnam 14(414), R11, R8 showed abundant flowering and high stability.