• Title, Summary, Keyword: Joseon Government-General

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Control of Records by the Residency-General and Japanese Invasion of Joseon (통감부의 기록장악과 조선침략)

  • Lee, Young-hak
    • The Korean Journal of Archival Studies
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    • no.41
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    • pp.213-260
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    • 2014
  • This paper illustrates the process of Japanese invasion of Joseon. In the December of 1905, specifically, Japan established the Residency-General in order to reform systems of government and to control records. Japan founded the Residency-General to reinforce the internal affairs of Joseon. Then, they reorganized systems of government using Joseon's bureaucracy system. The reorganization facilitated control of current and non-current records. After all, this helped Japan to know the actual circumstances of Joseon and the invasion of Joseon. To be specific, Japan organized the records at the Kyujanggak, an imperial library of the Joseon Dynasty, for understanding historical records and dominated Joseon government's current records for comprehending vulnerability of Joseon. On the other hand, Japan invaded Joseon by justifying their actions as 'administration improvement' and 'reformation'. Here are the actual examples. First, the Residency-General dominated the Kyujanggak and reorganized historical records which were stored there. It lasted for two years and let Japan comprehend the course of Joseon history. Second, the Residency-General collected and arranged current records of Joseon. It was buckled down in the August of 1910, when the Great Han Empire collapsed. After the fall of the Great Han Empire, the Residency-General transferred government records from the Japanese Government-General of Korea in order to understand the state of Joseon. Last, the Residency-General arranged records on both governmental and the Imperial property, then most of them reverted to national property.

The Classification System and its Code on Archives of the Government-general Museum of Joseon in the National Museum of Korea (조선총독부박물관 문서의 분류 체계에 대한 시론)

  • Oh, Youngchan
    • MISULJARYO - National Museum of Korea Art Journal
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    • v.96
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    • pp.181-208
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    • 2019
  • This paper presents a new classification and code system on the Archives of the Government-general Museum of Joseon in the National Museum of Korea. Three points were noted that since the Museum belonged to the Government-general of Joseon, the classification system of the Archives should be established to comply with the Archives system of the Government-general of Joseon; based on the concept of the functional provenance, it is necessary to establish a classification system in accordance with the organization structure of the Government-general Museum of Joseon; a systematic and simple classification codes should be given based on the classification system to improve the convenience of searching and using the official document. The classification system and its code are proposed in the order of major function, medium function, small function, and detailed function. The major function of the Archives is 'A-Educational affairs', medium function 'Museum.' The small function may be divided into General affairs (01), Temple (02), Scenic Spot and Natural Monument (03), Historical Site (04), and Museum (05). The detailed function and detailed sub-functions are categorized by the various work assignments in each work units. I hope that this new classification system will make a contribution to organizing and utilizing the Archives of the Government-general Museum of Joseon in the National Museum of Korea.

Study of Regulations on Police Uniforms of the Government-General of Joseon (조선총독부 경찰복제도 연구)

  • Nomura, Michiyo;Lee, Kyung-Mee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Costume
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    • v.66 no.3
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    • pp.32-50
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this study is to reveal the process of enactment and revision, the contents of the police uniform system by the Government-General of Joseon, and to examine the relationship between the uniform system and the ruling policies of Imperialist Japan. The research methodology involved document research of official gazettes that published legislation on the police uniform system. Political background was referenced from various preceding studies. The research results are as follows. The Japanese invasion of Korea, in regards to the police, appeared as infiltrations through the three routes of consular police, temporary military police, and inside the Korean police. Each organization had different uniform systems, and after the installation of the Japanese police in 1907, the uniform system of high level officers of the Korea police was changed to the Japanese-style. After the installation of the Government-General of Joseon in 1910, a police uniform system was not enacted until 1918, with the exception being made for police officers due to the military police system. The 'Police Officer Uniform System of the Government-General of Joseon' enacted in 1918 stood out for its golden insignia on solidly colored fabric, which effectively indicated rank, as well as the Japanese flag pattern and the cherry blossom pattern, which symbolized imperialist Japan, on the cap badge and insignia. The 1918 uniform system had many differences from the Japanese system of the time in terms of design, perhaps due to the political autonomy of the governor-general. The 1918 uniform system was completely revised in 1932. This uniform system was modified in various ways. The system was almost identical to the Japanese system at that time. This is the result of Japan's intent to dominate Korea, which involved assimilating Korea into Japan with the purpose of conducting a full-fledged invasion of the continent after the Manchurian Incident.

The Context of Enactment and the Application to the Design of in 1916 (1916년 <조선총독부건축표준>의 제정 배경과 계획적 적용)

  • Joo, Sang-Hun
    • Journal of architectural history
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.67-76
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    • 2019
  • The purpose of this study is to identify the context of enactment and the application to the design of in 1916. The characteristics of the composition are as follows; First, One-third are general rules of common application, Second, regulations related to cold resistance are set up separately, last, each of the 21 articles was equally divided for schools, hospitals and prisons. The standard reflect the times of the mid-1910s. The Trend of using of the Western Building System in the 1910s, The need for building construction against cold weather, and Actual conditions of renovation, extension and new plans by facility. Furthermore, the fact that various regulations concerning standard design were enacted and used in various Japanese institutions around the 1910s may have influenced the establishment of the standard. Meanwhile, after checking the status of the reflection of the standard on the planning drawings of the government facilities around 1916, it was also found that the plan was carried out in compliance with the provisions of the standard, and that the items already applied before the enactment had been organized into architectural standards.

A Study on the Supply System of Iron Materials and the Tools in Government Constructions in the Late of Joseon Dynasty (조선후기 관영건축공사에 있어서 철물과 철제 연장의 공급체계에 관한 연구 -영건의궤(營建儀軌) 기록을 중심으로-)

  • Lee, Kweon-Yeong;Kim, Wang-Jik
    • Journal of architectural history
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.95-114
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    • 2007
  • Since the 17th century, the society of Joseon dynasty belongs to a period of rapid transition in many fields. As the building is a result to be produced on the basis of a society and economy, the general transition in a society is to be reflected into a process of building construction. Especially, a study on the material supply system of economic base in a process of building construction is one of vely important factors in an understanding or estimate of a building. On the premise, this paper is to examine the supply system of iron materials and the tools in the construction of the government managed buildings in the late of Joseon dynasty on a viewpoint of productivity. Construction reports and other documents in those days are examined for the study. Following conclusions have been reached through the study. 1) The general supply method of iron materials for a large-scale government construction was based on 'byulgong', that is, a kind of tribute. 2) Various methods were selected in the supply method of iron materials for government use in the late of Joseon dynasty. The priority order of choice in its government policy was put on an easiness of amount security, on a minimum of expenditure, and on an efficiency of construction execution. 3) The manufacturing technique of weaponry was used in the production method of iron materials and the tools for government use. The cooperation of the official, the army, and the merchant had improved the manufacturing technique of building construction.

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A Study on Characteristics of the Survey for Architectures by Joseon Government-General through its List of Architectural Heritages in North Korea (일제강점기 북한지역 고건축물 목록을 통해 본 조선총독부 학무국 고건축 조사의 성격)

  • Seo, Hyowon
    • Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea Planning & Design
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    • v.35 no.5
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    • pp.95-106
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    • 2019
  • The purpose of this study was to analyze the "朝鮮古建築物", the list of architectural heritages in Korea during the early Japanese colonial period. The list included architectural heritage of the region of North Korea in the colonial era. A process of listing was showing the meaning of an architectural heritage for the Japanese General Government through the criteria of selecting buildings registered on the list. This study revealed the process of a survey for making list and explored the criteria of the list. The result of this effort will contribute to determining the historical background of North Korea's architectural heritage in the early days.

The Field Operation and Policies of Repair Works for Architectural Treasures in Late Japanese Colonial era based on Repair Works of Hwaumsa Kakhwangjeon (화엄사 각황전 수리공사를 통해 본 「보존령」 제정 이후 일제강점기 보물 건조물 수리공사의 현장운영과 수리방침)

  • Seo, Hyo-Won;Jeon, Bong-Hee
    • Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea Planning & Design
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.41-52
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    • 2018
  • The purpose of this study is to examine the circumstances of repair works after enacting "Low for Conservation of Joseon Treasure, Historic Site, Scenic Beauty & Natural Monument (朝鮮寶物古跡名勝天然記念物保存令)". For this purpose, the official documents produced by the Government-general Museum of Joseon were analyzed. They included the contents of repair works of Hwaumsa Kakhwangjeon(華嚴寺 覺皇 殿). As a result, this study reveals that the repair work of Hwaumsa Kakhwangjeon had become a momentum of introducing specific guidelines such as "Guidelines for Architectural Treasure's Repair 寶物建造物修理施行準則", "Regulations for administration of Hwaumsa Kakhwangjeon's repair work 華嚴寺覺皇殿修理工事取扱手續)". The guidelines and regulations systematized the planning phase of the repair works and provided to organize the field office formed by experts. In spite of these positive changes, the repair works were controlled by the central government to the certain extent, and the Japanese repair techniques were mingled with traditional techniques recklessly.

A Study on History of Criminal Policy in Korea (한국(韓國)의 형사정책(刑事政策)에 관한 역사적(歷事的) 고찰(考察))

  • Kim, Hyeong-Cheong
    • Korean Security Journal
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    • no.6
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    • pp.1-46
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    • 2003
  • During the ancient times, there was no separative judicial system and administrative , legislative and judiciary functions were ultimately concentrated in the all-powerful monarch. And the three states developed state organization , adopting hieratical structures and placing at the pinnacle . State Codes were promulgated to initiate a legal system to rule the people, these codes instituted under influence of China codes. The people tradition sees crime control as the preservation of the authority of hereditary rulers. In the period of the Koryeo dynasty, government accepted a serious of detailed penal code from Tang dynasty . Legal response to crime stressed preservation of the dynasty rather than making citizen behave according to certain rules. In the period of Early Joseon , the compilation of Grand Code for state administration was initiated, the Kyeongkuk Taejeon ,became comer stone of the dynastic administration and provided the monarchial system with a sort of constitutional law in written form. This national code was in portant means of criminal policy at that time, Late Joseon , the impact of Western culture entering through China gave further impetus to pragmatic studies which called for socio-economic reforms and readjustment. Approach to criminal justice policy emphasized more equitable operation of the criminal justice system ,rehabilitation and crime control. Korea-Japanese Treaty concluded on 22 August ,1910 and proclaim a week later ,Japan gave the coup de grace to the Korea Empire and changed the office of the Resident - General into the Government - General . Thus korean criminal policy were lost during a dark ages ,which lasted for 36 years after fall of Joseon Dynasty (the colnial period,1910${\sim}$1945). After 1945 Korea's liberation from Japanese colonial rule, the occupation of devided Korea by the United States and Soviet Union frustrated the efforts of Koreans to establish an independent government, and the transplantation of two conflicting political ideologies to south and the north of the 38th parallel further intensified the national split. U.S. military government office occupied the south of the 38 the parallel and placed emphasis on democracy of criminal policy. ln 1948, the U.S. military government handed over to the ROK government its administrative authority.

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Study on the Formulation of the Cultural Property Policy during the Japanese Colonial Period -with the Focus on the Composition of the Committee and Changes in the Listing of Cultural Properties- (일제강점기 문화재 정책 형성과정 연구 -위원회 구성과 목록 변화를 중심으로-)

  • Oh, Chun-Young
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.51 no.1
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    • pp.100-125
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    • 2018
  • The Japanese colonial authority investigated and institutionalized Korea's cultural properties for the purpose of governance. This process was conducted by Japanese officials and scholars, and systematized after making some changes. The Reservation Rule (1916) and the cultural properties designated in 1934 were actually the starting point for Korea's current cultural property policy. In the view of lineup of 'committee' that consider all of cultural property and changing of 'cultural property list', this study discusses the cultural property policy implemented by Joseon's Government-General, which can be summarized as follows. First, Joseon's Government-General formed a committee (Preservation Society) to formulate the cultural property policy, and had the policy implemented by appointing Governor officials who accounted for more than half the total number of officials of the institution. Although some Koreans were concerned about this, they had no influence on the matter. Second, the cultural properties listed by Joseon's Government-General are divided into three periods according to the lists. The compilation of the first list was led by Sekino Tadashi, who represented the grading system (1909~1916); while that of the second list (1917~1933) was led by Guroita Gatsumi, who represented listing (1917~1933). Guroita Gatsumi tried to erase Sekino Tadashi's list by formulating the cultural property policy and the list - a situation that was revealed in the system and the actual contents of the list. The third list was made as a list of designated cultural properties in 1934. This list also reflected the results of Sekino Tadashi investigation of the important cultural properties at existing temples that had been excluded from the previous regulations (1934~1945). In this way, a basic framework for the listing of Korean cultural properties was established in 1934.

The status, classification and data characteristics of Seonsaengan(先生案, The predecessor's lists) in Jangseogak(藏書閣, Joseon dynasty royal library) (장서각 소장 선생안(先生案)의 현황과 사료적 가치)

  • Yi, Nam-ok
    • (The)Study of the Eastern Classic
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    • no.69
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    • pp.9-44
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    • 2017
  • Seonsaengan(先生案) is the predecessor's lists. The list includes the names of the predecessor, the date of the appointment, the date of return, the previous job, and the next job. Therefore, previous studies on the local recruitment and Jungin (中人) that can not be found in general personnel information of the Joseon dynasty were conducted. However, the status and classification of the list has not been achieved yet. So this study aims to clarify the status, classification and data characteristics of the list. 176 books, are the Joseon dynasty lists of predecessors, remain to this day. These lists are in Jangseogak(47 cases), Kyujanggak(80 cases), the National Library of Korea(24 cases) and other collections(25 cases). Jangseogak has lists of royal government officials, Kyujanggak has lists of central government officials, and the National Library of Korea and other collections have lists of local government officials. However, this paper focuses on accessible Jangseogak list of 47 cases. As I mentioned earlier, the Jangsaegak lists are generally related to the royal government officails. This classification includes 18 central government officials, 5 local government officials, and 24 royal government officails. If the list is classified as contents, it can be classified into six rituals and diplomatic officials, 12 royal government officials, 5 local government officials, 14 royal tombs officials, and 10 royal education officials. Through the information on the list, the following six characteristics can be summarized. First, it can be finded the basic personal information about the recorded person. Second, the period of office and reasons for leaving the office and office can be known. Third, changes in the office system can be confirmed. Fourth, it can be looked at one aspect of the personnel administration system of the Joseon Dynasty through the previous workplace and the next job. Fifth, it is possible to know days that are particularly important for each government. Sixth, the contents of work evaluation can be confirmed. This is the reality of the Joseon Dynasty, which is different from the contents recorded in the Code. Through this, it is possible to look at the personnel administration system of the Joseon Dynasty. However, in order to carry out a precise review, it is necessary to make a database for 176 lists. In addition, if data is analyzed in connection with existing genealogy data, it will be possible to establish a basis for understanding the personnel administration system of the Joseon Dynasty.