• Title, Summary, Keyword: Japanese colonial period

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'Colonial Public-ness' during the Period of Japanese Forced Occupation ('식민지적 공공설'과 8.15 해방 공간)

  • Won, Yong-Jin
    • Korean journal of communication and information
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    • v.47
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    • pp.50-73
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    • 2009
  • A tendency to ignore the existence of public space in Korea under the Japanese colonial period seems to be driven from nationalist historiography in which all historical events under the colonial power have to be interpreted in terms of militant controls and resistances against them. Historical approach to mass media of that period has lasted to be saturated with the tendency and forced history students to stick to the nationalist guidelines. Struggles against Japanese imperial power by national-capital-operated newspaper have been a main menu of studies on the period's communication. The media were often hailed as fighting the colonial power for nation's independence. The present thesis aims to criticize the nationalist point of view and to reveal that nationalist interpretations may miss a variety of historical information. Even under the severe surveillance of colonial police some journalists tried either to inform officially or to smuggle into informed groups. The colonized society could experienced fields of public-ness throughout the practices of such as media fields, cultural fields, political fields. Those fields, of course, didn't come from the graceful favor of the colonial power but from the construction of the colonized. The public-ness seemed to be born for the easiness of control, but became later a constructed field of public-ness with which the colonized semiotically wrestled the power and grew a modern type of political (un)consciousness. Depicting what happened just before 815 liberation day in Korea the present paper showed that the less nationalist historiography can render help to those seeking political practices of the colonized in a micro-level.

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A Study on the Architectural Meaning of Chosun Bank's Official Residence in the Japanese Colonial Period (일제시대 조선은행사택의 건축적 의미)

  • 김영호;박용환
    • Journal of the Korean housing association
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.101-109
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    • 1999
  • The Japanese style official residence were built by Chosun bank during the Japanese colonial period. The purpose of this study is to find out the architectural meanings of Chosun bank's official residence, its influences on Korean modem dwellings through trace of the original form and actual survey on the residence. We could understand influences of the rationality, also through the process of prototype's transformation and maintenance's change, we can know that the residence's modernizing process don't have the inflow onesidedly but the process of the collision and the assimilation to the differences between the residential sense and one's culture.

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The Characteristics and meanings of the Agricultural Extension Work during the Period of Japanese Rule (일제시대 농촌지도사업의 성격과 의의)

  • Lee, Han-Ki
    • Journal of Agricultural Extension & Community Development
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.231-243
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    • 1997
  • Objective of the study was to investigate characteristics and meanings of the agricultural extension work during the period of Japanese $rule(1906{\sim}1945)$ through historical review on the work. The agricultural extension work during the period of Japanese rule was categorized into six patterns such as agricultural extension work by (1) government agricultural administration system, (2) agricultural experiment/research institute, (3) public school, (4) through the movement of rural development(Nong-chon-Jinheung Undong), (5) pro-government private organization, and (6) pure private organization. In conclusion, the characteristics of the extension work were defined; 1) a tool and/or method for colonial rule, 2) non-democratic and top-down extension work by administration, 3) authoritative and coercive work initiated by governmental system, 4) nation wide work of cooperation with public and private organization, 5) extension work focused on production increasing food and industrial materials, and 6) extension work initiated by government system without participation of pure private organization. The meanings of the extension work were reviewed in two ways. Firstly, in macro point of view, the work has negative meaning that was utilized as a tool and/or method for Japanese colonial rule, since the extension work was implemented under the direction of agricultural policy and was also directly related to the policy of Japanese colonial government. Secondly, in micro point of view, the work has significant meaning either negative or positive such as 1) beginning of modernized extension work based on experiment and research, 2) introduction of forcible agricultural extension work, 3) inducement of distrust tendency to agricultural policy and agricultural extension work, 4) establishment of basis in hardware of agricultural extension work, 5) production of experience in software of agricultural extension work, and 6) improvement of recognition toward scientific farming and improvement of level in agricultural techniques.

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A Research on Housing Plan Competitions Promoted by Daily Cho-Sun Company in Japanese Colonial Period (1939년 조선일보 주최 조선주택설계도안 현상모집에 관한 고찰)

  • Kim, Young-Bum;Park, Yong-Hwan
    • Journal of architectural history
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.27-45
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    • 2008
  • This study examines the details and characteristics of prizewinning plans of Cho-Sun housing plan competition promoted by Daily Cho-Sun Company during Japanese colonial period. The main features of Cho-Sun housing plan competition were that the competition held with an application of popular newspaper readers and a judging committee was composed of only Korean architects, especially Park, Gil-Ryong as the president of the board of examiners. Cho-Sun housing plan competition put ideological factors for the improvement of living as like advancing to the cultured(modem) life, respecting for family life, respecting for privacy of family members and so on. First of all, the competition suggested the direction of the improvement of dwelling spaces which focused on making harmonious home life. This study found common characteristics of prizewinning plans of Cho-Sun housing plan competition as the result. First, Cho-Sun housing plan competition introduced a centralized house plan as a model of the improvement of small-sized houses. Second, architectural orders of western or Japanese style mingled with ones of korean traditional style in prizewinning plans as entrance hall, western style reception room(parlour), maid's room, bathroom for example. And a manner of seating using chairs was brought into the style of living which would be assumed in the prizewinning plans. Third, traditional way of composing dwelling spaces was maintained, receiving the characteristics of dwelling spaces of japanese style simultaneously, which central corridor was put at the heart of house for improving arrangement of rooms and flow lines. Fourth, lavatory and bathroom were placed inside of the house.

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A Study on Relationship between Fishing Rights Conflict and Fisheries Cooperatives Establishment in Tongyeong during the Period of Japanese Colonial Rule (일제강점기의 통영인근지역 어업권 분쟁과 어업·수산업관련 협동조합 설립에 대한 역사적 고찰)

  • Lee, Dong-Ho
    • The Journal of Fisheries Business Administration
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    • v.46 no.1
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    • pp.41-62
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    • 2015
  • Though the debate of the establishment time, place and characteristic of the first fisheries cooperatives in Korea has been existed, it is clear that they had been established in the neighborhood of Tongyeong during the period of Japanese colonial rule. But the objective, motive and historical background of the first fisheries cooperatives are still slightly vague. To explain and explore that of fisheries cooperatives, over 1,000 articles of media, about 100 document of the Japanese government-general of Korea and the annals of the Joseon dynasty, many of research paper and others were included and refined. Through the result of that process, three core factors were founded that affect both the emergence of fisheries cooperatives and relationship of the them. The first one is about the royal family's fishing area where in the neighborhood of Tongyeong. The next one is Kentaro Kashii who was called king or devil of the Korean fisheries industry and the last one is fishermen and their organizations including fisheries cooperatives. Some of the above and the fishing rights conflict that make a guidance for understanding them has not been clearly mentioned. The result of this study shows that the birth of the first fisheries cooperatives were caused by not only the Japanese government-general of Korea but mainly Korean fishermen's voluntary activity and free will against fishing rights conflict between them. And both of the first fisheries cooperatives had somewhat difference in their constitution of organization and their characteristics but it was a tragic irony that the more exploitation and despoliation were conducted by Japanese government-general and Japanese capitalist the more movement and activity of Korean were frequently and severely occurred. Even though the findings and results of this study would be a proof and helpful material for understanding the establishment and their activity of fisheries cooperatives in Tongyeong, more research and contribution would be need by members of fisheries academic and business world.

Transitions of Urban Parks in Busan noticed by the Chosun Planning Ordinance in the Japanese Colonial Period (일제강점기 조선시가지계획령에 고시된 부산 소재 도시공원의 변천)

  • Kim, Yeong-Ha;Yoon, Guk-Bin;Kang, Young-Jo
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.1-15
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    • 2017
  • This study investigated the process of change of 32 urban parks designated during the period of Japanese colonial rule according to growth and development of the city in Busan. Particularly, researching included analyizing books, notification, data, and documents relevant to the history of urban planning published by Busan city. As a result, Daejeong Park, Gokwan Park, and Yongdusan Park had been utilized by Japanese residents under the Japanese colonial rule before planning of urban parks, and 32 parks legally specified in 1944 were planned by considering the prevention against disasters. After emancipation, there were an unauthorized building, housing construction, business district, public office, and school facility in the sites of the parks due to the influence of the Korean War and reorganization of urban planning. The majority of parkways and small parks downtown were eliminated. However, unexecuted parks that the government had designed on the edge of town during the Japanese colonial period have become major parks downtown through the city's growth. Yeonji Park, Yangjeong Park, and Danggok Park have been being building as a business of parks for a comfortable city, forming downtown along with the Green-Busan Policy. Thus, 32 parks designated under the Japanese colonial rule have made or got out of use reflecting on the phases of the times of modern Korean society. It turns out that these parks need an investigation about condition for land possession and purchase of the site of the parks in order for social common capital.

Dress and Ideology during the late $19^{th}$ and early $20^{th}$ centuries Korea, 1876~1945

  • Lee, Min-Jung;Kim, Min-Ja
    • International Journal of Costume and Fashion
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.15-33
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    • 2011
  • The late $19^{th}$ and early $20^{th}$ centuries of Korea were the times when the Confucianism (牲理學) ideology was shaken heavily under the influences of modernism and capitalism by Western and Japanese military and political-economic forces. Under such circumstances, alteration of clothing was much influenced by ideologies than changes in social structure or technological advance. In this study, an ideology was defined as "the force which drives people into a particular social order". Ideologies were postulated as an ongoing process of socialization with dialectic features rather than being a static state. Comparative analyses on conflict structures and different clothing patterns symbolizing the ideologies of the Ruling (支配) and the Opposition (對抗) were conducted. Investigating dresses as representations of ideologies is to reconsider the notion of dichotomous confrontation between the conservatives (守舊派) and the progressives (開化派) and a recognition of Koreans' passively accepting modernity during the Japanese occupation. This may also have contributed to enlightening Koreans about modernization. Here are the results. First, the theoretical review found that ideologies were represented by not only symbols of discourse, but also dresses, and that dresses embodied both physical and conceptual systems presenting differences between ideologies and their natures, Second, during the late 19th century Korea, conflict between conservatives' Hanbok (韓服) and progressives' Western suits (洋服) was found. Moderate progressives showed their identity by "Colored Clothing" (深色衣), and radical progressives by black suits with short hair (黑衣斷髮) or by western suits (洋服). The ultimate goal of both parties was a "Modern Nation". With these efforts, pale jade green coats and traditional hats symbolizing the nobleman class was eliminated within 30 years from 1880 to 1910, and then simple robes and short hair emerged. However, the powerful Japanese army had taken over the hegemony of East Asia, and Korea was sharply divided into modernization and pro-Japanese camps. Third, during the time of Japanese colonial rule, the dress codes having set by the modernization policies during the time of enlightenment were abandoned and colonial uniforms for the colonial system was meticulously introduced. During this period, Western or Japanese-style uniforms were the symbol of the ruling ideology. In the mean time, Hanbok, particularly "White Clothing (白衣)", emerged as a representation of the opposition ideology. However, due to Japan's coercive power and strong zeal for "Great orient (大東亞)", white clothing remained as a mere symbol. Meanwhile, Reformists (實力養成論者) movement toward improving quality of life followed a similar path of the Japanese policies and was eventually incorporated into the ruling ideology. Fourth, dresses as representations of ruling ideologies were enforced by organizational powers, such as organizations and laws, and binding policies, and changes in such dresses were more significant when the ruling ideologies were stronger. Clothing of the opposition ideology was expressed as an aggregation of public consciousness. During the period, the subjects of ruling ideology and the objects who were granted modernization benefits were different although their drives for colored clothing with short hair (色衣斷髮) for modernization were similar.

A Study on Colonial Modernity of Commercial Space in the Case of Commercial Companies in Kyungsung(Seoul) during Japanese Colonial Period (경성(京城) 상업공간의 식민지 근대성: 상업회사를 중심으로)

  • Park Seon-Heui
    • Journal of the Korean Geographical Society
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.301-318
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    • 2006
  • The purpose of this paper is to study on colonial modernity of commercial space in the case of commercial companies in Kyungsung(Seoul) during Japanese colonial period. Commercial companies in Bonjung2jungmok had the greatest growth in the numbers and the scale of company's capital from 1920s to 1930s. Japanese's commercial companies had concentrated in Bonjung1jungmok and the scale of Japanese's capital had been the greatest in Hwanggumjung2jungmok. Korean merchants had tried to change their commercial organization to modern and capitalistic system in the face of infiltration of Japanese merchant capital in Kyungsung. They had established some modern stock companies and had managed a few companies of large capital such as Hwasbinyeonshejum(a multiple shop) in Jongro2jungmok. We may observe the modernity of commercial companies in some modern stock commercial companies and the activities of commercial merchants in Kyungsung. But Korean's commercial companies had been small-scale businesses in comparison with Japanese's commercial companies. Colonialism in commercial space in Kyungsung had been appeared doubly in ethnical segregation of commercial activities and the scale of commercial capital.

Ideal Housing in the Home Exposition Under the Japanese Colonial Rule (일제강점기 가정박람회에 나타난 이상주거)

  • Yang, Se-Hwa;Ryu, Hyun-Joo;Eun, Nan-Soon
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.47 no.1
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    • pp.45-54
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    • 2009
  • The purpose of the study is to examine the characteristics of the ideal housing for the modern family suggested by the Home Exposition (September, 1915) under the Japanese colonial rule in the macroscopic context of social change and the microscopic context of family. Through this research, we expect to have a partial understanding not only of changes in the outward appearance of traditional housing spaces during the civilization period and the early Japanese colonial rule when foreign cultures began to be introduced but also of families'residential lives and the patterns of change in people's consciousness of housing. Major conclusions from the current analysis are as follows. First, there were some changes in family paradigm induced through a home exhibition. Second, the most important factor for an ideal housing was that it must be the source of harmonic and healthy family life. Third, the importance of an appropriate space norm should be emphasized by providing the minimum size of each room. Fourth, the significance of the housing values of the economy, convenience, and hygiene should be emphasized for the ideal housing. Lastly, it was implied that for an ideal housing, the social and psychological aspects of housing must be satisfied along with the physical aspects. The limitation was that the model of ideal family housing presented in the Home Exposition cannot exclude the characteristics of the colonial perspectives in that it was followed by the model for the Japanese families.

A Study on Urban Transformation and Modern Architecture Development of Qingdao in the Colonial Period (항구도시 칭다오의 식민지 시대 도시변천과 근대건축형성에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Han-Seok;Song, Seog-Ki;Kim, Na-Young;Lu, Hongwei
    • Journal of Navigation and Port Research
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    • v.34 no.5
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    • pp.355-365
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    • 2010
  • As a port city, Qingdao had been developed through the 4 stages during the first half of the 20th century. First stage is German Occupation period. In this period, the old downtown of Qingdao was formed and the existing architectural characteristics of Qingdao had been established. Second stage is the First Japanese Occupation period. Japanese transformed Qingdao into Japanese city and expanded city area to north and east. Third stage is Northern Warlords and the National Government period. In this period, Qingdao had been developed as an international city of world trade and vacation. Forth stage is the Second Japanese Occupation period. Japanese tried to change Qingdao as a military base for the invasion of the northern China.