• Title, Summary, Keyword: Japanese Quail

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Genetic Parameters Estimated for Sexual Maturity and Weekly Live Weights of Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)

  • Sezer, Metin
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.19-24
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    • 2007
  • Covariance components and genetic parameters of weekly live body weight from hatching to six weeks of age and age of sexual maturation were estimated in a laying type Japanese quail line. The univariate and bivariate animal model analysis included hatching group and sex as fixed effects. Each trait was analysed with animal as random effect to fit the additive direct effect. Additional random effects incorporated in the models were changed according to the trait examined. The best model for a trait was chosen based on a likelihood ratio test, comparing the models with and without maternal additive genetic and maternal permanent environmental effects. Heritability estimates of live-weight at hatch and one to six weeks of age with their standard errors were 0.22${\pm}$0.088, 0.39${\pm}$0.099, 0.31${\pm}$0.086, 0.38${\pm}$0.056, 0.46${\pm}$0.055, 0.50${\pm}$0.059, and 0.56${\pm}$0.062, respectively. Direct heritability value of age of sexual maturation was moderate (0.24${\pm}$0.055). The variances due to permanent environmental effect of dam after one week of age and maternal genetic effect after two weeks of age were not important sources of variation. The correlations between direct and maternal genetic effects were negative and ranged from high to moderate values (-0.21 to -0.83). Among the weekly live weights, genetic correlations were generally high between not only successive but also early and late weightings. It suggests that selection for final weight may be based on early weight records. Genetic correlations between age of sexual maturation and live weights were low, favourable but had high standard errors. These results indicate that selection for high weight will potentially result in lower age of sexual maturation only with accurate determination of breeding values.

Pathological lesions and antigen localization in chicken, ducks and Japanese quail naturally infected by novel highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N6), Korea, 2016

  • Bae, Youchan;Joh, Seongjoon;Park, Seokchan;Kwon, Hyukman;Lee, Younjeong;Lee, Eunkyoung;Song, Byungmin;Lee, Yuna;Heo, Gyeongbeom;Lee, Heesoo;Kwon, Yongkuk;Lee, Kyunghyun;Kim, Jihyeon
    • Journal of Preventive Veterinary Medicine
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.91-98
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    • 2018
  • Epizootic HPAIV, H5N6, and H5N8 infections produced severe loss in poultry and wild birds in the Republic of Korea from 2016 to 2017. But pathological lesions and antigen distribution of the novel HPAIV H5N6 clade 2.3.4.4 in natural cases have been rarely reported. Herein, we describe the pathological lesions and antigen localization in chickens (layer and Korean native), ducks, and Japanese quail naturally infected by HPAIV H5N6. Grossly, severe reddening, swelling, and some necrotic foci, which were similar to septicemia or viremia, were observed in skin and many visceral organs including trachea, lung, liver, spleen, and pancreas. Histopathologically, pulmonary congestion and edema, as well as necrotizing hepatitis, splenitis, pancreatitis, myocarditis, and encephalitis were observed. Immunohistochemically, numerous HPAIV antigens were detected in necrotic parenchymal cells and in blood vessels of the respiratory, lymphoid, digestive, urinary, nervous, and cardiovascular systems. The results indicate that HPAIV H5N6 spread to the entire body via blood and caused severe damage throughout the entire body. The HPAI H5N6 clade 2.3.4.4 virus was isolated from samples of all four cases.

Comparison of Muscle Fiber and Meat Quality Characteristics in Different Japanese Quail Lines

  • Choi, Y.M.;Hwang, S.;Lee, K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.9
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    • pp.1331-1337
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    • 2016
  • The aim of this study was to compare the growth performance, fiber characteristics of the pectoralis major muscle, and meat quality characteristics in the heavy weight (HW) and random bred control (RBC) quail lines and genders. The HW male exhibited more than two times greater body (245.7 vs 96.1 g, p<0.05) and pectoralis major muscle (PMW; 37.1 vs 11.1 g, p<0.05) weights compared to the RBC female. This growth performance in the HW line was associated with a greater muscle fiber area (1,502 vs $663.0{\mu}m^2$, p<0.001) compared to the RBC line. Greater muscle mass of the HW male was accompanied by a higher percentage of type IIB fiber compared to the HW female (64.0% vs 51.0%, p<0.05). However, muscle fiber hyperplasia (increase in fiber number) has had a somewhat limited effect on PMW between the two lines. On the other hand, the HW line harboring a higher proportion of type IIB fiber showed rapid pH decline at the early postmortem period (6.23 vs 6.41, p<0.05) and lighter meat surface (53.5 vs 47.3, p<0.05) compared to the RBC line harboring a lower proportion of type IIB fiber. There were no significant differences observed in the measurement of water-holding capacity including drip loss (2.74% vs 3.07%, p>0.05) and cooking loss (21.9% vs 20.4%, p>0.05) between the HW and RBC lines. Therefore, the HW quail line developed by selection from the RBC quail, was slightly different in the meat quality characteristics compared to the RBC line, and a marked difference was found in growth performance between the two quail lines.

A Cytogenetic Study on Induction of Diploid Spermatozoa in Poultry (가금류 정자 세포의 배수성 유기를 위한 세포 유전학적 연구)

  • 김철욱;손시환;전익수
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 1996
  • In order to produce polyploid quail, the patterns of spermatogenesis and induction of diploid spermatozoa were analyzed by administration of spindle fiber inhibitor agent. Colcemid at the dose level of 37 $\mu\textrm{g}$ /100 g BW was Injected intraperitoneally to 50 Japanese quail males for 3 consecutive days. Five to 20 days after the first colcemid injection, the metaphase spreads from mitotic spermatogonia, primary spermatocyte and secondary spermatocyte were observed. By cytogenetic analysis, 9.4% of spermatogonia and spermatocyte cells in germ cells from the treated males was found to be polyploid cells. As compared with colcemld treated, the males with non-treated colcemid had only 2.3% polyploid cells in germ cells. The induction of diploid germ cells was highest in 10 days after the first colcemid injection and was lowest in 5 days after the first colcemid injection. These results suggested that between 10 to 15 days before maturation of the spermatozoa, the male germ cells were most sensitive to colcemid treatment. Spindle fiber inhibitor agent was also more sensitive to mitotic division of spermatogonia than meiotic division of primary and secondary spermatocyte.

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Effect of Feeding Neem (Azadirachta indica) Kernel Meal on Growth, Nutrient Utilization and Physiology of Japanese Quails (Coturnix cotrnix japonica)

  • Elangovan, A.V.;Verma, S.V.S.;Sastry, V.R.B.;Singh, S.D.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.9
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    • pp.1272-1277
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    • 2000
  • The present study was conducted to investigate the feasibility of feeding neem kernel meal (NKM) containing diet to growing Japanese quails, which was incorporated into a standard quail diet at 0, 50, 75 or 100 g/kg in place of soyabean meal and deoiled rice bran. Each diet was offered to 30 quail chicks housed in battery cages from day one to five weeks of age. The chicks fed NKM diets gained 123.3, 122.6 and 121.6 g mean body weight, respectively, and which were significantly (p<0.05) lower than that of 129.9 g gained by those of birds fed the control diets. The feed intake and feed conversion ratio of birds in different dietary groups were not significantly altered due to dietary variations. Mean values for retention of dietary energy, N and Ca were found to insignificantly differ (p>0.05) among the treatment groups but P retention was significantly (p<0.01) lower for quails fed 100 g/kg NKM than those in other groups. Blood biochemical constituents, carcass characteristics and organoleptic test for meat also were not found to vary significantly (p>0.05) due to dietary treatments. The histopathology of liver and kidney tissues from NKM fed quails revealed mild degenerative changes. It could be concluded that inclusion of NKM in quail diet reduced the growth besides inducing mild pathological changes in liver and kidney tissues.

Chromosomal Polymorphism of Japanese Quail(Coturnix coturnix japonica) (일본산메추리(Coturnix coturnix japonica)의 염색체 다형현상)

  • 손시환
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.275-280
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    • 1990
  • Comosomal polymorphism involving constitutive heterochromatin has been reported in mu, pigs, mouse, horse, chicken and so on. The chromosomal polymorphism of Japanese quail which includes constitutive heterochromatin as well the chromosomes without banding treatment has now been found. Through the use of a general technique that permits visualization of chromosome morphology and heterochromatin, three chromosomal variants have been found among birds ; +/+ homozygous from, +/- heterozygous form and -/- homozygous form in chromosome 4. This variants appear to be common in the randombred population and stably inherited in a Mendelian fashion. These results suggest that the variants would be useful as chromosomal markers for various types of cytogenetic studies.

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The Effects of Restricted Feeding and Feed Form on Growth, Carcass Characteristics and Days to First Egg of Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)

  • Ocak, N.;Erener, G.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.10
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    • pp.1479-1484
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    • 2005
  • A study was conducted to determine the effects of restricted feeding and feed form on the growth performance, characteristics of carcass and digestive tract, and days to first egg of Japanese quail (JQ, Coturnix coturnix japonica). A total of 240 oneweek-old JQ chicks were allocated randomly into 4 experimental groups that consisted of 3 replicates according to a 2${\times}$2 factorial arrangement for two feeding methods (ad libitum, AF and restricted feeding, RF) and two diet forms (mash, MD and crumble, CD). The JQ chicks were placed in a room with floor battery brooders and fed a commercial starter diet from 7 to 14 d of age. According to the experimental design, four treatments (1: ad libitum MD, 2: restricted MD, 3: ad libitum CD, and 4: restricted CD) were applied. Feed restriction was applied by 30% reduction of ad libitum feed intake for both MD and CD from 15 to 28 d of age. All birds were fed ad libitum with treatment diets from 29 d of age until the first laid egg seen (45 d of age). The commercial starter diet, MD and CD were in the same nutrient content (240 g crude protein with 13.4 MJ ME per kg diet). The body weight and overall feed conversion ratio (g feed/g gain) were higher (p<0.05) for the AF quails than the RF at 42 d of age. Carcass weights, dressing percentage and percentage yields of breast and back were similar for AF and RF groups at 42 d of age. The RF delayed (p<0.05) onset of egg production 2 days compared to the AF. Quail fed with the CD showed higher value (p<0.05) for carcass weight and dressing percentage at 42 d of age compared to birds fed with the MD. The interaction effect of feeding method${\times}$feed form on any of the studied parameters was not significant. The results suggest that feed restriction as in the present study can achieve a better feed conversion without reduction in carcass weight, and a significant benefit of feeding the crumble diet over the mash diet was obtained in terms of carcass weight in the JQ.

Growth and Laying Performance of Japanese Quail Fed Graded Levels of Hazelnut Kernel Oil Meal Incorporated into Diets

  • Erener, G.;Ozer, A.;Ocak, N.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.12
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    • pp.1789-1794
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    • 2003
  • Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of substituting different levels of hazelnut kernel oil meal (HKOM) for dehulled soyabean meal (DSBM) in diets for Japanese quail. Five diets in which HKOM was replaced with 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of DSBM protein in a growing diet for a 5 week period using 450 Japanese quails of initial age of 1 week and in a layer diet for a 112 days period using 180 Japanese laying quails of initial age of 7 week were examined in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. Hence, treatment groups were: control (0 HKOM), 0.25 HKOM, 0.50 HKOM, 0.75 HKOM and 1HKOM. In the experiment 1, 1 HKOM decreased BWG compared with the 0 HKOM and 0.25 HKOM, while it increased FCR compared with the 0HKOM at day 21 (p<0.05). Compared with the other groups, 0.75 HKOM and 1 HKOM decreased BWG (p<0.01) at day 28. While the FCR of 1 HKOM was higher (p<0.01) than that of 0 HKOM, 0.25 HKOM and 0.50 HKOM, respectively, that of 0.75 HKOM was higher than that of 0 HKOM and 0.25 HKOM diets at day 28. However, at day 42 of age, BWG, FCR and the feed intake (FI) were not affected (p>0.05) by inclusion of HKOM. Mortality rate, carcase yield and liver, heart and gizzard weight (% of body weight) were not affected (p>0.05) by inclusion of HKOM to the diet. In the experiment 2, egg production was decreased (p<0.05) by the 1 HKOM diet compared with the 0.50 HKOM diet. While FCR increased by the 1 HKOM diet compared with the 0.25 HKOM and 0.50 HKOM diets (p<0.05). Feed intake for quails fed with the 0 HKOM diet was higher (p<0.05) than for quails fed with 0.50 HKOM diet. The egg yolk weight for 0 HKOM diet group was lower (p<0.05) than for quails in 1 HKOM diet group. In conclusion, the results indicate that DSBM can be replaced by HKOM in diets for growing and laying Japanese quails. However 50% HKOM has higher laying performance than 100% HKOM in the laying period.

The Effect of Phytase and Organic Acid on Growth Performance, Carcass Yield and Tibia Ash in Quails Fed Diets with Low Levels of Non-phytate Phosphorus

  • Sacakli, P.;Sehu, A.;Ergun, A.;Genc, B.;Selcuk, Z.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.198-202
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    • 2006
  • An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of phytase, organic acids and their interaction on body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, carcass yield and tibia ash. A total of 680 three-day old Japanese quail chicks (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were assigned to 20 battery brooders, 34 chicks in each. The experimental period lasted 35 days. The treatment groups employed were: 1) a positive control which included 3.5 g available phosphorus (AP)/kg diet and 10 g Ca/kg diet; 2) a negative control which included 2 g AP/kg diet and 8 g Ca/kg diet, 3) negative control diet supplemented with either 300 FTU phytase/kg diet (phytase) or 4) 2.5 g organic acid (lactic acid+formic acid)/kg diet (organic acid); or 5) 300 FTU phytase/kg diet+2.5 g organic acid/kg diet (phytase+organic acid). All birds were fed with the positive control diet for a week and then transferred to the dietary treatments. At the end of the study, there were no differences (p>0.005) among the groups in body weight, weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio and carcass yield. Tibia ash, however, was reduced (p<0.001) for quails fed the negative control diet containing a low-level of AP compared to the positive control diet containing adequate AP. The addition of phytase, organic acid or phytase+organic acid to the diets containing the low-level of AP improved (p<0.001) tibia ash. On the other hand, an extra synergistic effect of phytase and organic acid on tibia ash was not determined. This study demonstrated that it may be possible to reduce supplemental level of inorganic P with phytase and/or organic acid supplementation for quail diets without adverse effect on performance and tibia ash.

Molecular Characterization and Expression of LDHA and LDHB mRNA in Testes of Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica)

  • Singh, R.P.;Sastry, K.V.H.;Pandey, N.K.;Shit, N.G.;Agarwal, R.;Singh, R.;Sharma, S.K.;Saxena, V.K.;Jagmohan, Jagmohan
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.8
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    • pp.1060-1068
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    • 2011
  • The LDH isozymes are key catalysts in the glycolytic pathway of energy metabolism. It is well known that the distribution of the LDH isozymes vary in accordance with the metabolic requirements of different tissues. The substrates required for energy production change noticeably at successive stages of testes development suggesting a significant flexibility in the expression of glycolytic enzymes. Therefore, expression of LHDA and LDHB mRNAs was examined in adult and prepubertal quail testis. The mRNA of both LDHA and LDHB were expressed and no significant difference was observed in prepubertal testes. The mRNA levels of LDHB significantly increased during testicular development. In the adult testis, LDHA mRNA was not expressed. Expression studies revealed the presence of different LDH isozymes during testicular development. In contrast, electrophoresis of both testicular samples revealed only single band at a position indicative of an extreme type of LDH isozyme in quail testes. Furthermore, nucleotide and amino acid sequence analysis revealed significant similarity to chicken, duck and rock pigeon. These sequence results confirmed the similarity of LDHA and LDHB subunit protein in different avian species.