• Title, Summary, Keyword: Japanese Quail

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TRANSMISSION OF C-BAND VARIANTS IN JAPANESE QUAIL

  • Sohn, S.H.;Fechheimer, N.S.;Nestor, K.E.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.171-174
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    • 1995
  • Heteromorphisms of chromosome banding patterns can be useful markers for gene mapping and other kinds of genetic studies. In Japanese quail, the centromere region of chromosome No. 4 is the site of a heteromorphism. One form of the C-band at this region is relatively small ("a" form); an alternative form is much larger ("b" form). To identify the transmission patterns, all possible matings were made between birds with karyotype a/a, a/b, and b/b. The outcome from all crosses are entirely consistent with the expectation from simple Mendelian transmission. No evidence was found for segregation distortion or gametic selection. This dimorphism, therefore, is a reliable marker.

Diphasic Analysis of Growth in Japanese Quail

  • Ozkan, Muhip
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.9
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    • pp.1281-1285
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    • 2004
  • A line of Japanese quail selected for increased body weight for 15 generations (C) and an unselected control line (K) were used to examine the impact of selection for body weight on the growth curve of Japanese quail. In addition, the effect of sex on the growth curve in each line was also studied, namely females of C (CF), males of C (CM), females of K (KF) and males of K (KM). The monophasic and diphasic growth models were studied for adequacy in describing growth curves of quail in both sexes of the C and K lines. The monophasic function provided almost the same growth rate for both sexes in both lines. However, the growth rates calculated by means of the diphasic function differed between sexes for both lines, except for those calculated for C during the second growth phase. While there were 2-3 days difference between sexes in age at maximum gain in both lines with a monophasic model, the difference between sexes in the age at maximum gain in both lines became greater according to the diphasic model. There were 5 and 7 days difference between sexes in the age at maximum gain in line C for the first and second growth phases, respectively. A difference between sexes of 18 and 11 days in the age at maximum gain for the first and second phases, respectively, was estimated for line K when the diphasic function was fitted. The use of diphasic functions provides more detailed information on growth patterns. The results showed that the use of the diphasic function was better because it provided greater insights into understanding the biology of growth.

Effect of Hempseed (Cannabis sativa sp.) Inclusion to the Diet on Performance, Carcass and Antioxidative Activity in Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)

  • Konca, Yusuf;Cimen, Behzat;Yalcin, Hasan;Kaliber, Mahmut;Beyzi, Selma Buyukkilic
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.141-150
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    • 2014
  • This study was conducted to determine the effects of hempseed (H) on performance, carcass traits, and antioxidant activity in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). A total of 192 quail with seven-days old were divided into four experimental groups with four replicates. The treatments were; i) Control diet (C, no hempseed); ii) 5% hempseed in diet (H5); iii) 10% hempseed in diet (H10); and iv) 20% hempseed in diet (H20). The body weight (BW) and feed intake (FI) of quail was determined at 7, 21 and 42 d of age. At 42 d of age four quail were slaughtered and the carcass and internal organ traits were determined. Malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), nitric oxide (NO) and total protein were determined in the blood serum end of the experiment. The BW of the groups were not significant at 7 and 21 d, however in the 20% hempseed group BW decreased at 42 d (p<0.05). The FI and feed conversion ratio were not significant among the treatment groups. The carcass, liver, intestine and heart weight and their percentage to carcass were significantly differ in treatment groups (p<0.05). The serum MDA and NO decreased in hempseed addition (p <0.001). The serum SOD, CAT and GSH-Px were increased by hempseed supplementation (p<0.001). In conclusion, hempseed supplementation to quail diets may not improve quail performance traits but increase antioxidant activity in blood.

Effects of Feeding Winged Bean Oil on Cholesterol and Lipid Contents in Egg and Liver, and Fatty Acid Composition of Egg in Japanese Quail

  • Mutia, R.;Uchida, S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.376-380
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    • 1999
  • The purpose of this experiment was to study the effect of feeding winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus) oil on egg cholesterol and fatty acid of Japanese quail. Four groups of 10-week-old Japanese quails (n=10 per group) were fed a basal diet (20% CP, 2890 kcal/kg) supplemented with 5% of either animal tallow, soybean oil, corn oil or winged bean oil over an 8-week period. At the end of the experiment, 7 birds in each treatment were killed by decapitation. Blood samples and livers were collected for cholesterol analyses. There were no significant differences in final body weight, feed intake, egg production, egg and yolk weight due to the different oil treatments. Egg and plasma cholesterol levels obtained with the winged bean oil diet were higher than those obtained with the animal tallow or soybean oil diets, but were not significantly different from those obtained with com oil diet. Egg lipid, liver lipid and liver cholesterol content was lower with the winged bean oil diet than with the animal tallow diet. It may be concluded that the winged bean oil diet did not impair laying performance, but increased egg and plasma cholesterol levels compared with soybean oil or animal tallow diets. Winged bean oil diet produced eggs with a higher oleic content and lower linoleic content compared with the soybean or com oil diet.

Effect of Feeding High Glucosinolate Rapeseed Meal to Laying Japanese Quail

  • Elangovan, A.V.;Verma, S.V.S.;Sastry, V.R.B.;Singh, S.D.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.9
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    • pp.1304-1307
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    • 2001
  • The laying performance of Japanese quails fed graded levels of high glucosinolate ($92.5{\mu}mole/g$) rapeseed meal (RSM) was assessed. One hundred and twenty Japanese quails aged 1 day-old were assigned at random to four dietary treatments consisting of 0, 50, 75 or 100 g/kg RSM in the diet replacing part of the soybean meal and de-oiled rice bran in a standard quail ration. 12 female representative quails from each diet were selected at random and housed in individual cages from 7-20 wk of age. The egg production, feed intake and FCR was comparable among the different dietary groups. The egg quality characteristics, organoleptic evaluation of boiled eggs as well as the haematological (haemoglobin, total erythrocyte count, total leucocyte count) and biochemical (glucose, protein, cholesterol, aspartate amino transferase, alanine amino transferase and alkaline phosphatase) constituents did not differ significantly among the groups. The gross and histopathological studies of vital organs did not reveal any appreciable changes. The feed cost was reduced by the incorporation of RSM in the diet, but only the production cost of quails fed the 75 g/kg RSM was lower in comparison to other groups. In the present study, the laying potential of Japanese quail was well-maintained up to the 100g/kg dietary level of rapeseed meal.

Protective Effect of Modified Glucomannans against Changes in Antioxidant Systems of Quail Egg and Embryo due to Aurofusarin Consumption

  • Dvorska, J.E.;Surai, P.F.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.434-440
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    • 2004
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of modified glucomannan ($Mycosorb^{TM}$) on the antioxidant profile of egg yolk and tissues of newly hatched quail after aurofusarin inclusion in the maternal diet. Fifty-four 45 day-old Japanese quail were divided into three groups and were fed a corn-soya diet balanced in all nutrients ad libitum. The diet of the experimental quail was supplemented with aurofusarin at the level of 26.4 mg/kg feed in the form of Fusarium graminearum culture enriched with aurofusarin or with aurofusarin plus $Mycosorb^{TM}$ at 1 g/kg feed. Eggs obtained after 8 weeks of feeding were analysed and incubated in standard conditions of $37.5^{\circ}C$/55% RH. Samples of quail tissues were collected from newly hatched quail. The main carotenoids, retinol, retinyl esters and malondialdehyde were analysed by HPLC-based methods. Inclusion of aurofusarin in the maternal diet was associated with decreased carotenoid and vitamin A concentrations in egg yolk and liver of newly-hatched quail. Furthermore, lipid peroxidation in quail tissues was enhanced. Inclusion of modified glucomannan ($Mycosorb^{TM}$) in the toxin-contaminated diet provided a significant protective effect against changes in antioxidant composition in the egg yolk and liver. It is suggested that a combination of mycotoxin adsorbents and natural antioxidants could be the next step in counteracting mycotoxins in animal feed.

The effects of high-fat diets composed of different animal and vegetable fat sources on the health status and tissue lipid profiles of male Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)

  • Donaldson, Janine;Madziva, Michael Taurai;Erlwanger, Kennedy Honey
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.5
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    • pp.700-711
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    • 2017
  • Objective: The current study aimed to investigate the impact of high-fat diets composed of different animal and vegetable fat sources on serum metabolic health markers in Japanese quail, as well as the overall lipid content and fatty acid profiles of the edible bird tissues following significantly increased dietary lipid supplementation. Methods: Fifty seven male quail were divided into six groups and fed either a standard diet or a diet enriched with one of five different fats (22% coconut oil, lard, palm oil, soybean oil, or sunflower oil) for 12 weeks. The birds were subjected to an oral glucose tolerance test following the feeding period, after which they were euthanized and blood, liver, breast, and thigh muscle samples collected. Total fat content and fatty acid profiles of the tissue samples, as well as serum uric acid, triglyceride, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, aspartate transaminase, and total bilirubin concentrations were assessed. Results: High-fat diet feeding had no significant effects on the glucose tolerance of the birds. Dietary fatty acid profiles of the added fats were reflected in the lipid profiles of both the liver and breast and thigh muscle tissues, indicating successful transfer of dietary fatty acids to the edible bird tissues. The significantly increased level of lipid inclusion in the diets of the quail used in the present study was unsuccessful in increasing the overall lipid content of the edible bird tissues. Serum metabolic health markers in birds on the high-fat diets were not significantly different from those observed in birds on the standard diet. Conclusion: Thus, despite the various high-fat diets modifying the fatty acid profile of the birds' tissues, unlike in most mammals, the birds maintained a normal health status following consumption of the various high-fat diets.

Immunocytochemistry of serotonin and galanin in the hypothalamus of the Japanese quail

  • Haida, Yuka;Oishi, Tadashi;Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi;Tamotsu, Satoshi
    • Journal of Photoscience
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.258-260
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    • 2002
  • We investigated the interaction of serotonin and galanin (GA) by a double immunostaining method in the Japanese quail. Serotonin-immunoreactive (IR) cells were located in the paraventricular organ (PVO) and infundibular nucleus (IF). The number of the cells under short-day photoperiod (SD) was less in the dark phase than in the light phase. GA-IR cells were found in the PVO, IF and median eminence. The number of GA-IR cells in SD was significantly greater than that in long-day photoperiod (LD). Numerous GA- IR varicose fibers ran along serotonin- IR cell bodies and nerve fibers in the PVO and IF of the same sections. Very few serotonin-IR fibers ran along GA-IR cell bodies and GA-IR nerve fibers in the ventral part of the IF. The present results suggest that the possibility of functional interaction takes place between serotonin- and GA- IR neurons in the PVO and IF.

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EFFECTS OF HYPOPHYSECTOMY ON PROGESTERONE PRODUCTION IN THE FOLLICULAR GRANULOSA CELLS OF THE JAPANESE QUAIL

  • Mori, M.;Kimora, K.;Yamamuro, H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.1 no.3
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    • pp.143-147
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    • 1988
  • In order to investigate the mechanism of regulation of progesterone production, quail were hypophysectomized at various times during the ovulation cycle, and granulose cells were isolated from follicles 4 hr after the operation. They were incubated in vitro at $40^{\circ}C$ with or without LH or dibutyryl cyclic AMP, and the amounts of progesterone produced during 3 hr of incubation were measured by radioimmunoassay. Hypophysectomy at 8 hr or 20 hr before the predicted time of ovulation caused a reduced responsiveness of F1 granulosa cells to exogenous LH or dibutyrul cyclic AMP. Although hypophysectomy at 24 hr before ovulation caused a slight reduction of responsiveness of F1 granulosa cells, the reduction of the progesterone production during the incubation without any stimuli was prominent by the sham operation. These results suggest that the presence of pituitary gland influences the ability of the granulose cells to produce progesterone in response to LH or dibutyryl cyclic AMP.

Effect of Dietary L-ascorbic Acid (L-AA) on Production Performance, Egg Quality Traits and Fertility in Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica) at Low Ambient Temperature

  • Shit, N.;Singh, R.P.;Sastry, K.V.H.;Agarwal, R.;Singh, R.;Pandey, N.K.;Mohan, J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.7
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    • pp.1009-1014
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    • 2012
  • Environmental stress boosts the levels of stress hormones and accelerates energy expenditure which subsequently imbalance the body's homeostasis. L-ascorbic acid (L-AA) has been recognized to mitigate the negative impact of environmental stress on production performances in birds. The present investigation was carried out to elucidate the effect of different dietary levels of L-AA on production performance, egg quality traits and fertility in Japanese quail at low ambient temperature. Sixty matured females (15 wks) were equally divided into three groups (20/group) based on the different dietary levels of L-AA (0, 250 and 500 ppm) and coupled with an equal number of males (1:1) obtained from the same hatch. They were managed in uniform husbandry conditions without restriction of feed and water at 14 h photo-schedule. Except for feed efficiency, body weight change, feed consumption and hen-day egg production were recorded highest in 500 ppm L-AA supplemented groups. Among the all egg quality traits studied, only specific gravity, shell weight and thickness differed significantly (p<0.05) in the present study. Fertility was improved significantly ($p{\leq}0.01$) to a dose dependent manner of L-AA. The findings of the present study concluded that dietary L-AA can be a caring management practice at least in part to alleviate the adverse effect of cold induced stress on production performance in Japanese quail.