• Title, Summary, Keyword: Japanese Holstein

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Production of Chimera by Embryos Aggregation Techniques in Bovine - Review-

  • Suzuki, T.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.8
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    • pp.1188-1195
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    • 2001
  • A tetraparental chimeric bull was successfully produced by aggregating bovine IVF embryos of F1 (female Holstein${\times}$male Japanese Black) and F1(female Japanese Brown${\times}$male Limousin) and culturing in vitro without the zona pellucida at Yamaguchi Research Station in Japan. In the microsatellite genotyping, 12% (28/228) microsatellite primer sets ware potentially useful for this parentage analysis in the chimeric bull, 78.6% (22/28) of microsatellite present in the chimeric bull were uniquely contributed from the Japanese Black and 21.4% (6/28) from Limousin. This chimeric bull semen was used in producing IVF embryos. The chromosome preparations were made from peripheral lymphocytes. Based on chromosome analysis the Chimera had apparently normal chromosomes (29 acrocentric pairs, one large sub metacentric X chromosome and one small sub metacentric Y chromosome). The proportion of acrosome reacted spermatozoa after 1 h of incubation was higher (p<0.01) with the Chimera than with the Holstein and in Japanese Brown bulls. But did not differ from Japanese Black and Limousin bull sperm. Fertilization rates observed after 5 h of sperm-oocyte incubation with Chimera sperm were higher (p<0.05) than with Japanese Brown and (p<0.01) than with Holstein sperm, but did not differ from Japanese Black and Limousin sperm. The cleavage rates of IVF oocytes inseminated with Chimera sperm were also higher (p<0.001) compared with Holstein, (p<0.01) Japanese Brown and (p<0.05) Limousin, but did not differ from Japanese Black sperm. The blastocyst rates of IVM oocytes inseminated with sperm were higher (p<0.05) than in Limousin, Japanese Brown and Holstein, but did not differ from Japanese Black. Chimeric cattles were produced by aggregation of parthenogenetic (Japanese Brown) and in vitro fertilized (Holstein) bovine embryos at the Yamaguchi Research Station in Japan and by aggregation of parthenogenetic (Red Angus) and in vitro fertilized (Holstein) embryos at the St. Gabriel Research Station in Louisiana. The aggregation rate of the reconstructed demi-embryos cultured in vitro without agar embedding was significantly lower than with agar embedding. The aggregation was also lower when the aggregation resulted from a whole parthenogenetic and IVF-derieved embryos cultured without agar than when cultured with agar. The development rate to blastocysts, however, was not different among the treatment. To verify parthenogenetic and the cells derieved from the male IVF embryos in blastocyst formation, 51 embryos were karyotyped, resulting in 27 embryos having both XX and XY chromosome plates in the same sample, 14 embryos with XY and 10 embryos with XX. The viability and the percentage of zonafree chimeric embryos at 24 h following cryopreservation in EG plus T with 10% PVP were significantly greater than those cryopreserved without PVP. Pregnancies were diagnosed in both stations after the transfer of chimeric blastocysts. Twin male and single chimeric calves were delivered at the Yamaguchi station, with each having both XX and XY chromosomes detected. Three pregnancies resulted from the transfer of 40 chimeric embryos at the Louisiana station. Two pregnancies were Jost prior to 4 months and one phenotypically chimeric viable male born.

Effect of Proportion of Recorded Cows Inseminated by Young A. I. Bulls on Genetic Improvement in Japanese Holstein Population

  • Terawaki, Y.;Shimizu, H.;Fukui, Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.410-415
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    • 1998
  • The effects of the proprotion of cows inseminated by young A. I. bulls on genetic improvement in the Japanese Holstein population were examined using a simulation technique. The proportion of recorded cows inseminated by young A. I. bulls was assumed to be from 10% to 100% of the total number of recorded cows. The expected total genetic improvement was estimated for all cows and recorded and non recorded cows. The effects of the above were remarkable in the schemes that proven sires were used to produce recorded and non recorded cows for a limited time. Also the increase in the rates for -the expected total genetic improvement was larger when the proportion of recorded cows that were inseminated by young A. I. bulls was about 10% to 40%. When the expected total genetic improvement was estimated for the entire population, we found that the highest values were in a range of about 40 to 60% recorded cows that were inseminated by young A. I. bulls. On the other hand, the expected total genetic improvement that was only estimated in recorded cows dramatically decreased for more than 40% of the recorded cows. The results of this study showed that the optimal proportion of recorded cows inseminated with young A. I. bulls should be about 30% in the Japanese Holstein population.

Breed Discrimination Using DNA Markers Derived from AFLP in Japanese Beef Cattle

  • Sasazaki, S.;Imada, T.;Mutoh, H.;Yoshizawa, K.;Mannen, H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.8
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    • pp.1106-1110
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    • 2006
  • In the meat industry, correct breed information in food labeling is required to assure meat quality. Genetic markers provide corroborating evidence to identify breed. This paper describes the development of DNA markers to discriminate between Japanese Black and F1 (Japanese Black${\times}$Holstein) breeds. The amplified fragment length polymorphism method was employed to detect candidate markers absent in Japanese Black but present in Holstein. The 1,754 primer combinations yielded eleven markers that were converted into single nucleotide polymorphism markers for high-throughput genotyping. The allele frequencies in both breeds were investigated for discrimination ability using PCR-RFLP. The probability of identifying F1 was 0.9168 and probability of misjudgment was 0.0066 using four selected markers. The markers could be useful for discriminating between Japanese Black and F1 and would contribute to the prevention of falsified breed labeling of meat.

Photosensitization due to the ingestion of Japanese millet (Echinochloa crusgalli) in a Holstein calf (피삼에 의한 송아지 광과민증 1례)

  • Jang, Kwang-ho;Lee, Joo-myoung
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.436-440
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    • 1998
  • Photosensitization occurred in a 4-month old Holstein calf soon after going onto the pasture lush with green Japanese millet(Echinochloa crusgalli). Skin lesions were restricted to the unpigmented white area of skin. They were most pronounced on the dorsum of the body, diminishing in degree down the sides and were absent from the ventral part. The demarcation between lesions and normal skin was clearcut. There were edema, exudation and sloughing of affected skin on the left gluteal region, and erythema, edema and scab on right scapular region. Interception of the light, discontinuance of Japanese millet ingestion, and the administration of antihistamine and penicillin made the calf rapid recovery. This disease was considered photosensitization due to chlorphyll in ingested Japanese millet.

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Effect of Imported Young Bulls with Higher Genetic Merit on Genetic Progress of Japanese Holstein Population

  • Terawaki, Y.;Shimizu, H.;Fukui, Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.416-421
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    • 1997
  • The effect of imported young bulls on the genetic progress was examined in the Holstein dairy cattle population in Japan. The effect of the difference of mean genetic merit between imported and domestic young bulls ("genetic difference") was recognized on the genetic progress of the domestic animals in the early stage of selection. On the other hand, the genetic progress of domestic animals were remarkably influenced by the genetic trend of imported young bulls ("genetic trend") in the later stage. Import of young bulls originated from high genetic level of young bulls originated from high genetic level population improved the genetic progress of domestic population. But, the increase of the immigration ratio of imported young bulls ("immigration ratio") did not influence linearly on the progress of the genetic merit of domestic animals. Even if "immigration ratio" was 100%, the genetic merit of domestic animals could not overcome the one of imported young bulls. In the later stage of selection, the genetic merit of domestic animals ran parallel to those of imported young bulls.

EFFECT OF BREEDING LENGTH ON GENETIC IMPROVEMENT IN JAPANESE HOLSTEIN POPULATION

  • Terawaki, Y.;Shimizu, H.;Fukui, Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.363-370
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    • 1996
  • The effect of breeding length of sire on genetic progress was examined in the Holstein dairy cattle population in Japan. Genetic progress was extimated by gene flow method. Breeding length of sires directly influences the replacement rates of sires and the selection intensity of sires because there are a fixed number of progeny tested young bulls per year. As breeding length of sires increased, rate of gene flow decreased and average proportions of genes deriving from selected animals had lower asymptotic values. When breeding length was short, average proportions of genes required a longer period to converge to asymptotic values. Changes of Rcow-sire's(sire to breed recorded cows) and Ncow-sire's(sire to breed non recorded cows) breeding length influenced not only transmission of their genes but also that of genes derived from all other selected animals. Irrespective of whether the discount rate was assumed to be 0 or 6%, longer term (${\geq}$ 20 years) expected total genetic improvement was maximized by a sire breeding length of five years. For shorter term assessment(10 years), genetic improvement was maximized by a sire breeding length of three years. There was a linear increase in the contribution of the sire to bulls pathway to the total genetic improvement, with increase in the term of assessment.

Proteomic Comparison between Japanese Black and Holstein Cattle by Two-dimensional Gel Electrophoresis and Identification of Proteins

  • Ohsaki, H.;Okada, M.;Sasazaki, S.;Hinenoya, T.;Sawa, T.;Iwanaga, S.;Tsuruta, H.;Mukai, F.;Mannen, H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.638-644
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    • 2007
  • Differences of meat qualities between Japanese Black and Holstein have been known in Japan, however, the causative proteins and/or the genetic background have been unclear. The aim of this study was to identify candidate proteins causing differences of the meat qualities between the two breeds. Using technique of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, protein profiling was compared from samples of the longissimus dorsi muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Five protein spots were observed with different expression levels between breeds. By using LC-MS/MS analysis and Mascot program, three of them were identified as ankyrin repeat protein 2, phosphoylated myosin light chain 2 and mimecan protein. Subsequently, we compared the DNA coding sequences of three proteins between breeds to find any nucleotide substitution. However, there was no notable mutation which could affect pI or molecular mass of the proteins. The identified proteins may be responsible for different characteristics of the meat qualities between Japanese Black and Holstein cattle.

Effects of Different Methods for Determining the Number of Transferable Embryos on Genetic Gain and Inbreeding Coefficient in a Japanese Holstein MOET Breeding Population

  • Terawaki, Y.;Asada, Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.597-602
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    • 2001
  • This study was conducted to examine the relationships between the methods used to determine the number of transferable embryos collected per flush and the estimated cumulative genetic improvements in the Japanese Holstein MOET breeding population. Cumulative genetic improvements were predicted by Monte Carlo simulation using three different determination methods (MODEL 1, MODEL 2, and MODEL 3), for calculating the number of embryos collected per flush. Moreover EBVs were estimated including or ignoring coefficients of inbreeding in MME. Inbreeding coefficients were also predicted. The number of transferable embryos was determined using normal, gamma, and Poisson distributions in MODEL 1, gamma and Poisson distributions in MODEL 2, and only the Poisson distribution in MODEL 3. The fitness of MODEL 2 in relation to field data from Hokkaido Japan was the best, and the results for MODEL3 indicated that this model is unsuitable for determining the number of transferable embryos. The largest cumulative genetic improvement (3.11) in the 10th generation was predicted by MODEL 3 and the smallest (2.83) by MODEL 2. Mean coefficients of correlation between the true and estimated breeding values were 0.738, 0.729, and 0.773 in MODELS 1, 2, and 3, respectively. It is suggested that the smallest genetic improvement in MODEL 2 resulted from the smallest correlation coefficient between the true and estimated breeding values. The differences in milk, fat, and protein yields between MODELS 2 and 3 were 182.0, 7.0, and 5.6 kg, respectively, in real units when each trait was independently selected. The inbreeding coefficient was the highest (0.374) in MODEL 2 and the lowest (0.357) in MODEL 3. The effects of different methods for determining the number of transferable embryos per flush on genetic improvements and inbreeding coefficients of the simulated populations were remarkable. The effects of including coefficients of inbreeding in MME, however, were unclear.

Characterization of BLV env gene in Korean Holstein dairy cattle (한국형 홀스타인종 젖소의 BLV env 유전자의 특성분석)

  • Jeong, Hang-Jin;Yu, Seong-Lan;Lee, Jun-Heon;Do, Chang-Hee;Suh, Guk-Hyun;Ryoo, Seung-Heui;Chung, Sang-Il;Sang, Byung-Chan
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.249-255
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    • 2011
  • This study was performed to investigate the characterization of infectious BLV env gene isolated form Korean Holstein Cattle and to determine its incoming origin. Gp51 region of BLV env gene known as having important role in immunological function was characterized using PCR-RFLP sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. BLV env gene was grouped into PCR-RFLP patterns with three restriction endonucleases including Pvu II, BamHI and Hae III, and we identified two new RFLP patterns from nucleotide sequences of each group. Phylogenetic analysis showed that 80% of the Korean Holstein was included in the USA and Japanese group. These results here can provide a valuable information about the character of the BLV env gene and research on infection route of BLV.