• Title, Summary, Keyword: JNK

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Molecular cloning and characterization of novel human JNK2 (MAPK9) transcript variants that show different stimulation activities on AP-1

  • Wang, Pingzhang;Xiong, Ying;Ma, Chuan;Shi, Taiping;Ma, Dalong
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.43 no.11
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    • pp.738-743
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    • 2010
  • The c-Jun $NH_2$-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway participates in many physiological functions. In the current study we reported the cloning and characterization of five novel JNK2 transcript variants, which were designated as $JNK2\alpha3$, $JNK2\alpha4$, $JNK2\beta3$, $JNK2\gamma1$ and $JNK2\gamma2$, respectively. Among them, $JNK2\alpha4$ and $JNK2\gamma2$ are potential non-coding RNA because they contain pre-mature stop codons. Both $JNK2\alpha3$ and $JNK2\beta3$ contain an intact kinase domain, and both encode a protein product of 46 kDa, the same as those of $JNK2\alpha1$ and $JNK2\beta1$. $JNK2\gamma1$ contains a disrupted kinase domain and it showed a disable function. When over-expressed in mammalian cells, $JNK2\alpha3$ showed higher activity on AP-1 than that of $JNK2\beta3$ and $JNK2\gamma1$. Furthermore, $JNK2\alpha3$ and $JNK2\beta3$ showed different levels of substrate phosphorylation, although they both could promote the proliferation of 293T cells. Our results further demonstrate that JNK2 isoforms preferentially target different substrates and may regulate the expression of various target genes.

Distinct Roles for JNK1 and JNK3 During TNF-α- or Etoposide-Induced Apoptosis in HeLa Cells

  • Ham, Young-Mi;Lim, Jin-Hee;Lee, Seung-Ki
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.509-513
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    • 2009
  • Here, we show that JNK1 and JNK3 have different roles in ${\alpha}-$ or etoposide-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells. Dominant negative JNK1 inhibited $TNF-{\alpha}-$ or etoposide-induced apoptosis, while dominant negative JNK3 promoted $TNF-{\alpha}-$ or etoposide-induced apoptosis. During $TNF-{\alpha}$-induced apoptosis, JNK1 was activated in a biphasic manner, exhibiting both transient and sustained activity, whereas JNK3 was activated early and in a transient manner. The role of JNK3 activation was an anti-apoptotic effect, while the role of JNK1 activation was a pro-apoptotic effect. These results suggest that the anti-apoptotic mechanism of JNK3 in $TNF-{\alpha}$-induced apoptosis originates before the apoptotic machinery is triggered.

c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase Signaling Inhibitors Under Development

  • Han, Sun-Young
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.93-100
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    • 2008
  • Targeting protein kinases has been active area in drug discovery. The c-Jun N-terminal kinases(JNKs) have also been target for development of novel therapy in various diseases, since the roles of JNK signaling in pathological conditions were revealed in studies using jnk-deficient mice. Small molecule inhibitors and peptide inhibitors are identified for therapeutic intervention of JNK signaling pathway. SP-600125, an anthrapyrazole small molecule inhibitor for JNK with high potency and selectivity has been widely used for dissecting JNK signaling pathway. CC-401 is the first JNK inhibitor that went into clinical trial for inflammation and leukemia. Inhibitor for mixed lineage kinase (MLK), CEP-1347 also negatively regulates JNK signaling, and tried for potential use in Parkinson's disease. Cell-permeable peptide inhibitor D-JNKI-1 is being developed for the treatment of hearing loss. The current status of these JNK inhibitors and safety issue is discussed in the minireview.

Discrimination of JNK3 bound small molecules by saturation transfer difference NMR experiments

  • Lim, Jong-Soo;Ahn, Hee-Chul
    • Journal of the Korean Magnetic Resonance Society
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.67-77
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    • 2012
  • The small molecule binding to the c-Jun N-terminal kinase 3 (JNK3) was examined by the measurements of saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR experiments. The STD NMR experiment of ATP added to JNK3 clearly showed the binding of the nucleotide to the kinase. The STD NMR spectrum of dNTPs added to JNK3 discriminated the kinase-bound nucleotide from the unbound ones. After the five-fold addition of ATP to the dNTPs and JNK3 mixture, only signals of the cognate substrate of JNK3, ATP, were observed from the STD NMR experiment. These results signify that by the STD NMR the small molecules bound to JNK3 can be discriminated from the pool of the unbound molecules. Furthermore the binding mode of the small molecule to JNK3 can be determined by the competition experiments with ATP.

The Activity of c-Jun N -terminal Kinase (JNKb) in Patients with UIP (UIP 환자에서 c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) 활성화에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Ki-Up;Lee, Young-Mok;Kim, Do-Jin;Moon, Seung-Hyuk;Uh, Soo-Taek;Kim, Yong-Hoon;Park, Choon-Sik;Kim, Hyun-Jo;Youm, Wook;Hwang, Jung-Hwa
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.51 no.5
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    • pp.437-447
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    • 2001
  • Background: TNF-alpha is related to the generation of lung fibrosis in patients with UIP. The precise mechanism leading to lung fibrosis by TNF-alpha is unknown. However, the activation of a transcription factor like AP-1(down stream of c-jun N-terminal kinase, JNK) by TNF-alpha may be related to the induction of fibrogenic cytokines like PDGF or IGF-I. Furthermore, JNK was reported to be activated in the radiation-induced lung fibrosis model. This study examined JNK activity in patients with UIP. Methods : The expression of phosphorous JNK(p-JNK), macrophage/monocyte specific markers, CD68, and cytokeratin was evaluated by immunohistochemical(IHC) staining of lung tissues from patients with UIP and lung cancer. An in vitro kinase assay was performed with alveolar macrophages obtained by a bronchol-avleolar lavage from patients with UIP and healthy persons as the control. Results : The IHC stain showed that p-JNK is expressed in the almost all of the alveolar macrophages and smooth muscle cells in patients with UIP. In case of the normal areas of the lung from patients with lung cancer, the alveolar macrophages showed little p-JNK expression. Interestingly, increased JNK activity was not found in the in vitro kinase assay of the alveolar macrophages obtained from both patients with UIP and healthy persons as the control. Furthermore, 10 ng/mL of TNF-alpha failed to increase the JNK activity of the alveolar macrophages in both patients with UIP and healthy people. Conclusion : The JNK was activated constitutionally in patients with UIP. However, the role of JNK in the pathogenesis of lung fibrosis needs to be clarified.

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Docking Study of Flavonols and Human c-Jun N-terminal Kinase 1

  • Lee, Jee-Young;Jeong, Ki-Woong;Heo, Yong-Seok;Kim, Yang-Mee
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.31 no.8
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    • pp.2147-2150
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    • 2010
  • c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) is involved in apoptosis, cell differentiation and proliferation. It has been reported that a flavonol, quercetin, induces cell apoptosis and JNK inhibition. In order to understand the interactions of quercetin and JNK1, we performed receptor-oriented pharmacophore based in silico screening and determined a binding model of human JNK1 and quercetin at the ATP binding site of JNK1. 5-OH of A-ring and carbonyl oxygen of C-ring of quercetin participated in hydrogen bonding interactions with backbone of E109 and M111. Additionally, 3'-OH of quercetin formed a hydrogen bond with backbone of I32. One hydrophobic interaction is related on the binding of quercetin to JNK1 with I32, N114, and V158. Based on this model, we conducted a docking study with other 8 flavonols to find possible flavonoids inhibitors of JNK1. We proposed that one flavonols, rhamnetin, can be a potent inhibitor of JNK and 5-OH of A-ring and 3'-OH of B-ring of flavonols are the essential features for JNK1 inhibition.

Acebutolol, a Cardioselective Beta Blocker, Promotes Glucose Uptake in Diabetic Model Cells by Inhibiting JNK-JIP1 Interaction

  • Li, Yi;Jung, Nan-Young;Yoo, Jae Cheal;Kim, Yul;Yi, Gwan-Su
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.458-463
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    • 2018
  • The phosphorylation of JNK is known to induce insulin resistance in insulin target tissues. The inhibition of JNK-JIP1 interaction, which interferes JNK phosphorylation, becomes a potential target for drug development of type 2 diabetes. To discover the inhibitors of JNK-JIP1 interaction, we screened out 30 candidates from 4320 compound library with In Cell Interaction Trap method. The candidates were further confirmed and narrowed down to five compounds using the FRET method in a model cell. Among those five compounds, Acebutolol showed notable inhibition of JNK phosphorylation and elevation of glucose uptake in diabetic models of adipocyte and liver cell. Structural computation showed that the binding affinity of Acebutolol on the JNK-JIP1 interaction site was comparable to the known inhibitor, BI-78D3. Our results suggest that Acebutolol, an FDA-approved beta blocker for hypertension therapy, could have a new repurposed effect on type 2 diabetes elevating glucose uptake process by inhibiting JNK-JIP1 interaction.

c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) are involved in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-induced expression of Leukotactin-1

  • Cho, Jang-Eun;Park, Sang-Jung;Cho, Sang-Nae;Lee, Hye-Young;Kim, Yoon-Suk
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.45 no.10
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    • pp.583-588
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    • 2012
  • Leukotactin(Lkn)-1 is a CC chemokine and is upregulated in macrophages in response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection. We investigated whether mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are involved in MTB-induced expression of Lkn-1. The up-regulation of Lkn-1 by infection with MTB was inhibited in cells treated with inhibitors specific for JNK (SP600125) or p38 MAPK (SB202190). Since the up-regulation of Lkn-1 by MTB has been reported to be mediated by the PI3-K/PDK1/Akt signaling, we examined whether JNK and/or p38 MAPK are also involved in this signal pathway. MTB-induced Akt phosphorylation was blocked by treatment with JNK- or p38 MAPK-specific inhibitors implying that p38 and JNK are upstream of Akt. In addition, treatment with the PI3-K-specific inhibitor inhibited MTB-stimulated activation of JNK or p38 MAPK implying that PI3-K is upstream of JNK and p38 MAPK. These results collectively suggest that JNK and p38 MAPK are involved in the signal pathway responsible for MTB-induced up-regulation of Lkn-1.

Protein Kinase A Functions as a Negative Regulator of c-Jun N-terminal Kinase but not of p38 Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase in PC12 Cells

  • Hur, Kyu-Chung
    • Animal cells and systems
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.173-179
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    • 2005
  • Cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) seems to function as a negative regulator of the c-Jun $NH_2-terminal$ kinase (JNK) signaling pathway. We demonstrate here that the activity of the PKA catalytic subunit (PKAc) is reduced in apoptotic PC12 pheochromocytoma cells. Apoptotic progress was inhibited by dibutyryl cyclic AMP (dbcAMP), an analog of cAMP. The rescue by dbcAMP was attributable to inhibition of the JNK but not of the p38 signaling pathway, due to the induction of PKA activity. JNK was present in immunocomplexes of PKAc, and PKAc phosphorylated JNK in vitro. Presence of p38 kinase, however, was not prominent in immunocomplexes of PKAc. Our data suggest that JNK is a target point of negative regulation by PKAc in the JNK signaling pathway.

β-arrestin Promotes c-Jun N-terminal Kinase Mediated Apoptosis via a GABABR·β-arrestin·JNK Signaling Module

  • Wu, Jin-Xia;Shan, Feng-Xiao;Zheng, Jun-Nian;Pei, Dong-Sheng
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.1041-1046
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    • 2014
  • Evidence is growing that the $GABA_B$ receptor, which belongs to the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily, is involved in tumorigenesis. Recent studies have shown that ${\beta}$-arrestin can serve as a scaffold to recruit signaling protein c-Jun N-terminal knase (JNK) to GPCR. Here we investigated whether ${\beta}$-arrestin recruits JNK to the $GABA_B$ receptor and facilitates its activation to affect the growth of cancer cells. Our results showed that ${\beta}$-arrestin expression is decreased in breast cancer cells in comparison with controls. ${\beta}$-arrestin could enhance interactions of the $GABA_BR{\cdot}{\beta}-arrestin{\cdot}JNK$ signaling module in MCF-7 and T-47D cells. Further studies revealed that increased expression of ${\beta}$-arrestin enhances the phosphorylation of JNK and induces cancer cells apoptosis. Collectively, these results indicate that ${\beta}$-arrestin promotes JNK mediated apoptosis via a $GABA_BR{\cdot}{\beta}-arrestin{\cdot}JNK$ signaling module.