• Title, Summary, Keyword: Irrigation pond

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Measurement of Irrigation Water Temperature and Preventive Measure against Cold Watter Damage to Paddy Rice (벼의 냉수피해 감소를 위한 관개수온 조사와 대책수립)

  • 정상옥
    • Magazine of the Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.52-59
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    • 1999
  • Paddy rice is semi-tropical crop and requires warmirrigation water. If mean water temperature at the water source during the growing period is below 18$^{\circ}C$, sime kinds of water warming mechanism should be taken. In this study irrigation water temperature is measured and preventive measures to cold water damage on paddy rice are suggested. Field observations were performed at 100ha field area downtream of the Unmoon reservoir during the growing season of 1997. Land use, canal system, water temperature at irrigation canals. reservoir, and paddy fields were observed. In addition, growth and yield of the rice at selected plots were observed. Accordingly to the record, cold water damage occurred in this area due to the cold irrigation water supply in 1996. It did not occur because of the effective irrigation water management practice in 1997. However, several preventive measures such as pontoon intake system, using existing weir and construting a new warming pond, are suggested to prevent cold water damage in the future. If a new warming pond is construted to raise irrigation water temperature by 2 $^{\circ}C$, a pond area of 2.94 ha is required.

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The influence of water characteristics on the aquatic insect and plant assemblage in small irrigation ponds in Civilian Control Zone, Korea (민통선 둠벙의 수서곤충과 식물 군집에 대한 수환경 특성의 영향)

  • Kim, Jae Hyun;Chung, Hyun Yong;Kim, Seoung Ho;Kim, Jae Geun
    • Journal of Wetlands Research
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.331-341
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    • 2016
  • A small irrigation pond for a rice paddy field is a very important refuge for aquatic insects and plants. To reveal environmental factors determining species composition of aquatic insect and plant communities, we analyzed water chemistry and connection between pond and surrounding in five types of irrigation ponds based on water source and connection in CCZ of South Korea: stagnation, exchange-stagnation, spring, stagnation-spring, and exchange-spring types. The stagnation type had the most stable water chemistry among the 16 irrigation ponds studied, and the spring type had the most variable water chemistry. Anion content was highest in the stagnation type, and cation content was highest in the exchange-stagnation type. 228 taxa including 63 wetland plants and 95 aquatic insect taxa were recorded. Six rare plant species and four rare aquatic insect species were identified. The stagnation-spring type had the highest species richness. There was no correlation between size and species richness. Multivariate analyses showed distinctive species assemblages among the irrigation pond types. This would indicate that water chemical change at annual cycle and connection influenced on the species assemblages in irrigation pond. In additional, irrigation pond contributes to regional biodiversity in agricultural areas, as irrigation pond provides heterogeneous communities for the freshwater ecosystem.

Sewage Treatment Using Natural Systems and Effluent Reuse for Crop Irrigation in Small Communities

  • Ham, Jong-Hwa;Yoon, Chun-G.;Jeon, Ji-Hong;Hwang, Ha-Sun
    • Magazine of the Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.45 no.7
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    • pp.70-82
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    • 2003
  • A pilot study was performed from July 1998 to December 2002, including winter performance, to examine seasonal performance of a constructed wetland and subsequent pond system for treatment of sewage in small communities of Korea. Pond was operated as a intermittent-discharge pond during winter period, and continuous flow system during growing season; its effects was evaluated from December 2001 to April 2003. The subsurface flow (SSF) wetland was satisfactory for treating sewage with good removal efficiency even during the winter period. The wetland effluent concentrations of $BOD_5$ and TSS were often higher in winter than in the growing season, but this was explained by the higher loading rates, rather than lower removal efficiency. The relatively poor-quality wetland effluent was further polished during winter in the pond. The upper layer of the pond water column became remarkably clear immediately after ice melt. In the growing season, ponds could be operated as a continuous flow system to remove nutrients and pathogens, and the effluent of pond could be reused as a supplemental irrigation water without risk of infection by sewage-borne pathogens as well as causing adverse effect on growth and yield. Overall, the wetland system was found to be adequate for treating sewage with stable removal efficiency, and the intermittent-discharge pond was found to be effective for further polishing if necessary. Therefore, the combination of a wetland and subsequent pond system and reuse of effluent as crop irrigation water is recommended as a practical alternative to treat sewage in Korean small communities, and partial discharge of pond water in March is suggested.

Characteristics Communities Structure of Benthic Macroinvertebrates at Irrigation Ponds, within Paddy Field (논 생태계 내 둠벙의 저서성 대형무척추동물 군집구조 특성)

  • Choe, Lak-Jung;Han, Min-Su;Kim, Miran;Cho, Kwang-Jin;Kang, Kee-Kyung;Na, Yong-Eun;Kim, Myung-Hyun
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.304-314
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    • 2013
  • BACKGROUND: Ecological functions of irrigation ponds were well known fact that important for biodiversity conservation in agricultural ecosystems. However, many irrigation ponds were destructed with changes of agricultural environment. The objective of this study is to appreciate the importance of ecological functions of irrigation pond. Furthermore, it presented to useful information for restorations of irrigation pond from analyses of correlations between benthic macroinvertebrate communities and locational factors of irrigation ponds. METHODS AND RESULTS: Benthic macroinvertebrate sampling was conducted from 2010 to 2012 at 15 study ponds. Comparisons of benthic macroinvertebrates diversity approached species richness and density, and statistical analyses were performed using independent t-test. A total of 131 species / 137,118 individuals of benthic macroinvertebrates were recorded during study period. Dominant taxa of benthic macroinvertebrates included Coleoptera, Hemiptera, and Odonata. Generally, benthic macroinvertebrate diversity in mountain region and existing ponds were showed higher than open field and created ponds, respectively. DCA ordination showed that benthic macroinvertebrate community was most correlated with locational characteristics of irrigation pond, and it correlated with bank type and age of pond. CONCLUSION(S): In conclusions, in order to restore ecological irrigation pond, it is necessary to consider environmental factors such as locational characteristics and bank types.

Water characteristics and similarity analysis of wetland plant communities in 4 types of small irrigation ponds in western Civilian Control Zone in Korea (서부민간인 통제구역에서 4가지 둠벙 유형에 따른 수환경 특성과 습생식물 군집의 유사성 분석)

  • Kim, Seung-Ho;Kim, Jae-Hyun;Kim, Jae-Geun
    • Journal of Wetlands Research
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.581-591
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    • 2011
  • To reveal the relationship between pond type and chemical water characteristics and wetland flora, we investigated 8 small irrigation ponds in CCZ, which represent 4 types of irrigation ponds. Cation and anion concentrations in water were low at spring type ponds and cation or anion concentrations were high at others. Especially, Kyeongeuisun pond, which is water exchanging type, had high cation and anion concentrations. This indicates that water source of this ponds is surface water. CCA showed that chemical water characteristics and wetland flora were reflected in pond types. However, water exchanging type ponds were not clustered in a group, which comes from the difference in water source and we suggest that water source should be an additional criteria to devide pond type of water exchanging.

Risk assessment of wastewater reuse for Irrigation water (하수처리수의 관개용수 재이용을 위한 위해성 평가)

  • Han, Jung-Yoon;Yoon, Chun-Gyeong;Jung, Kwang-Wook;Jang, Jae-Ho
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers Conference
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    • pp.661-666
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    • 2005
  • Wastewater reuse are exposed public health risk by pathogens. Therefore, this study was examined for microbial risk assessment after irrigation as treated wastewater in paddy rice plots. Five treatments were used: biofilter effluent, UV disinfected water, pond treatment, wetland treatment and conventional irrigation water. Risk assessment was calculated based on the beta-Poisson model by concentration of E. coli from 2003 to 2005. Monte-Carlo simulation (n=10,000) was used to estimate the risk characterization of uncertainty. The risk range was from $10^{-5}$ to $10^{-8}$ except biofilter effluent was $10^{-4}$ in June. The USEPA(1992) has recommended that risk of < $10^{-4}$ is acceptable level of safety for potable waters. In 2005, risk value was lower than 2003, 2004 because of the first irrigation for plowing water is lower E. coli concentration used tap water. It is shown that the first irrigation water quality was important for wastewater irrigation in paddy. UV disinfection and natural treatment used pond and wetland were thought to be an effective for wastewater reuse.

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Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment of Wastewater Reuse for Irrigation in Paddy Field (하수처리수의 논 관개용수 재이용을 위한 미생물 위해성 평가)

  • Yoon Chun-Gyeong;Han Jung-Yoon;Jung Kwang-Wook;Jang Jae-Ho
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.48 no.2
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    • pp.77-87
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    • 2006
  • The reuse of wastewater for agricultural irrigation may cause human health risk as a result of exposure to pathogens. This study conducted the quantitative microbial risk assessment in paddy field irrigated with treated wastewater. Six treatments were used to irrigate the paddy field from Year 2003 to Year 2005: biofilter-effluent, UV-disinfected water (6, 16, 40, 68 $mW s cm^{-2}$), pond-treated water, wetland-treated water, conventional irrigation water and tap water. Total coliforms, fecal coliforms and E. coli were monitored during rice growing period. Beta - Poisson model was employed to calculate the microbial risk of pathogens ingestion that may occur to farmers and neighbor children. Uncertainty of risk was estimated using Monte Carlo simulation. In this study, the microbial risk was higher during initial cultivation (end of May$\sim$June), and it decreased with time. Biofilter effluent (secondary effluent) irrigation showed higher risk values than others (>$10^{-4}$) and irrigation with UV-disinfected water has the lowest risk range ($10^{-6}{\sim}10^{-5}$). The risk value estimated in 2005 was lower than risk value in 2003 and 2004, it is likely due to clean tap water irrigation in initial transplanting stage. It is suggested that irrigation with UV-disinfected water and pond-treated water would reduce the microbial risk associated with wastewater irrigation in paddy field. In addition, the first irrigation water quality significantly affected the subsequent microbial risk.

The Effect of Rainfall, Irrigation and Fertilizer Application on Water Properties of Pond in Golf Course (골프코스에서 강수량, 관추량 및 시비관리가 연못의 수질 변화에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Young-Sun;Ham, Suon-Kyu
    • Asian Journal of Turfgrass Science
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2009
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effect of rainfall, irrigation and fertilizer application on water qualities of pond in golf course from May in 2007 year to November in 2008 year. For survey of water quality, it was sampled at $10{\sim}12$ sites(irrigation site 2, drainage site 3, and hazard site $5{\sim}7$) of SKY72 G.C and evaluated with analysis items such as pH, electrical conductivity(EC), DO, SS, T-N, $PO_4$-P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, SAR, BOD and COD. Results obtained were summarized as follows: The value of pH, EC, DO, T-N, P04-P, K, Ca, Mg, Na and SAR was in dry season, but those of SS, BOD and COD in the rainy season. N and P concentration of pond water showed $1.2{\sim}28.8mg/L$ and $0.005{\sim}0.172mg/L$, respectively, and so it was higher than eutrophication level of lakes and marshes recommended by the Ministry of Environment in Korea. As a reault of correlation analysis, EC in the water was significantly(P<0.01) related items such as K, Ca, Mg, Na, SAR and salinity, and SS significantly(P<0.05) BOD and COD. In comparison with a corelation between respective analysis items and rainfall amount, SAR was significantly(P<0.01) positive but T-N negative(P<0.01). As compared with corelation between respective items and irrigation amount, pH was significantly(P<0.01) positive but T-N(P<0.05) and BOD(P<0.01) negative. When it was applied to N, $P_2O_5$ and $K_2O$ in golf course, N and $K_2O$ significantly affected water qualities of pond(P<0.01). These results suggested that a pond water in golf course was affected by the fertilizer application, rainfall and irrigation and EC was adequate monitoring indicator for the evaluating water quality of pond by chemicals influent.

The Functional Selection for the Assessment of Ecosystem Service at Pond Wetland in Agricultural Landscape (농업경관 내 연못형습지의 생태계서비스 평가를 위한 기능 설정 연구)

  • Son, Jin-Kwan;Shin, Min-Ji;Shin, Ji-Hoon;Kang, Dong-Hyeon;Kang, Banghun
    • Journal of Wetlands Research
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.319-325
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    • 2014
  • A lot of Pond Wetland (Palustrine Wetland) are distributed in agricultural landscapes, Korea. These wetlands are evaluated as important resources for conservation of biodiversity. However, the study of Pond Wetland is rarely conducted except type classification in Korea. In this study, the function of pond wetland as ecosystem services is studied for conservation and utilization of wetland. Research was conducted in three steps; functionality analysis, functionality derivation, and importance analysis. A total of 22 features were derived by analyzing the previous studies. As a result of expert survey, 4 features were selected by each in the field of biological, environmental, and socio-culture among the 22 features. Importance was calculated by conducting a cross-functional features using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). Finally, 10 ecosystem service functions of pond wetland were derived through expert survey; (1) Water Storage & Irrigation, (2) Vegetation Diversity, (3) Amphibian & Reptile Habitat, (4) Water Purification, (5) Aquatic Insect Habitat, (6) Nutriments Control was derived, (7) Groundwater Recharge, (8) Fishery Habitat, (9) Eco-Experience & Education, and (10) Aesthetic landscape. It is expected that this study is able to utilize in evaluation of pond wetlands ecosystem services by further study on analysis of functional importance and economic value index.