• Title, Summary, Keyword: Iran counties

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Area-to-Area Poisson Kriging Analysis of Mapping of County-Level Esophageal Cancer Incidence Rates in Iran

  • Asmarian, Naeimeh Sadat;Ruzitalab, Ahmad;Amir, Kavousi;Masoud, Salehi;Mahaki, Behzad
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.11-13
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    • 2013
  • Background: Esophagus cancer, the third most common gastrointestinal cancer overall, demonstrates high incidence in parts of Iran. The counties of Iran vary in size, shape and population size. The aim of this study was to account for spatial support with Area-to-Area (ATA) Poisson Kriging to increase precision of parameter estimates and yield correct variance and create maps of disease rates. Materials and Methods: This study involved application/ecology methodology, illustrated using esophagus cancer data recorded by the Ministry of Health and Medical Education (in the Non-infectious Diseases Management Center) of Iran. The analysis focused on the 336 counties over the years 2003-2007. ATA was used for estimating the parameters of the map with SpaceStat and ArcGIS9.3 software for analysing the data and drawing maps. Results: Northern counties of Iran have high risk estimation. The ATA Poisson Kriging approach yielded variance increase in large sparsely populated counties. So, central counties had the most prediction variance. Conclusions: The ATAPoisson kriging approach is recommended for estimating parameters of disease mapping since this method accounts for spatial support and patterns in irregular spatial areas. The results demonstrate that the counties in provinces Ardebil, Mazandaran and Kordestan have higher risk than other counties.

Spatial Analysis of Common Gastrointestinal Tract Cancers in Counties of Iran

  • Soleimani, Ali;Hassanzadeh, Jafar;Motlagh, Ali Ghanbari;Tabatabaee, Hamidreza;Partovipour, Elham;Keshavarzi, Sareh;Hossein, Mohammad
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.9
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    • pp.4025-4029
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    • 2015
  • Background: Gastrointestinal tract cancers are among the most common cancers in Iran and comprise approximately 38% of all the reported cases of cancer. This study aimed to describe the epidemiology and to investigate spatial clustering of common cancers of the gastrointestinal tract across the counties of Iran using full Bayesian smoothing and Moran I Index statistics. Materials and Methods: The data of the national registry cancer were used in this study. Besides, indirect standardized rates were calculated for 371 counties of Iranand smoothed using Winbug 1.4 software with a full Bayesian method. Global Moran I and local Moran I were also used to investigate clustering. Results: According to the results, 75,644 new cases of cancer were nationally registered in Iran among which 18,019 cases (23.8%) were esophagus, gastric, colorectal, and liver cancers. The results of Global Moran's I test were 0.60 (P=0.001), 0.47 (P=0.001), 0.29 (P=0.001), and 0.40 (P=0.001) for esophagus, gastric, colorectal, and liver cancers, respectively. This shows clustering of the four studied cancers in Iran at the national level. Conclusions: High level clustering of the cases was seen in northern, northwestern, western, and northeastern areas for esophagus, gastric, and colorectal cancers. Considering liver cancer, high clustering was observed in some counties in central, northeastern, and southern areas.

Area-to-Area Poisson Kriging and Spatial Bayesian Analysis in Mapping of Gastric Cancer Incidence in Iran

  • Asmarian, Naeimehossadat;Jafari-Koshki, Tohid;Soleimani, Ali;Ayatollahi, Seyyed Mohammad Taghi
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.10
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    • pp.4587-4590
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    • 2016
  • Background: In many countries gastric cancer has the highest incidence among the gastrointestinal cancers and is the second most common cancer in Iran. The aim of this study was to identify and map high risk gastric cancer regions at the county-level in Iran. Methods: In this study we analyzed gastric cancer data for Iran in the years 2003-2010. Area-to-area Poisson kriging and Besag, York and Mollie (BYM) spatial models were applied to smoothing the standardized incidence ratios of gastric cancer for the 373 counties surveyed in this study. The two methods were compared in term of accuracy and precision in identifying high risk regions. Result: The highest smoothed standardized incidence rate (SIR) according to area-to-area Poisson kriging was in Meshkinshahr county in Ardabil province in north-western Iran (2.4,SD=0.05), while the highest smoothed standardized incidence rate (SIR) according to the BYM model was in Ardabil, the capital of that province (2.9,SD=0.09). Conclusion: Both methods of mapping, ATA Poisson kriging and BYM, showed the gastric cancer incidence rate to be highest in north and north-west Iran. However, area-to-area Poisson kriging was more precise than the BYM model and required less smoothing. According to the results obtained, preventive measures and treatment programs should be focused on particular counties of Iran.