• Title, Summary, Keyword: Iran

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Effects of Air Pollution on Public and Private Health Expenditures in Iran: A Time Series Study (1972-2014)

  • Raeissi, Pouran;Harati-Khalilabad, Touraj;Rezapour, Aziz;Hashemi, Seyed Yaser;Mousavi, Abdoreza;Khodabakhshzadeh, Saeed
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.51 no.3
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    • pp.140-147
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    • 2018
  • Objectives: Environmental pollution is a negative consequence of the development process, and many countries are grappling with this phenomenon. As a developing country, Iran is not exempt from this rule, and Iran pays huge expenditures for the consequences of pollution. The aim of this study was to analyze the long- and short-run impact of air pollution, along with other health indicators, on private and public health expenditures. Methods: This study was an applied and developmental study. Autoregressive distributed lag estimating models were used for the period of 1972 to 2014. In order to determine the co-integration between health expenditures and the infant mortality rate, fertility rate, per capita income, and pollution, we used the Wald test in Microfit version 4.1. We then used Eviews version 8 to evaluate the stationarity of the variables and to estimate the long- and short-run relationships. Results: Long-run air pollution had a positive and significant effect on health expenditures, so that a 1.00% increase in the index of carbon dioxide led to an increase of 3.32% and 1.16% in public and private health expenditures, respectively. Air pollution also had a greater impact on health expenditures in the long term than in the short term. Conclusions: The findings of this study indicate that among the factors affecting health expenditures, environmental quality and contaminants played the most important role. Therefore, in order to reduce the financial burden of health expenditures in Iran, it is essential to reduce air pollution by enacting and implementing laws that protect the environment.

Melanoma in Iran: a Retrospective 10-Year Study

  • Ferdosi, Samira;Saffari, Mojtaba;Eskandarieh, Sharareh;Alishahi, Raziyeh;Moghaddam, Mahsa Ghaffari;Ghanadan, Alireza;Shirkoohi, Reza
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.2751-2755
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    • 2016
  • Background: Melanoma, the most life-threatening type of skin cancer, is a malignant tumor initiating in melanocytes that rapidly metastasizes and causes death. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, samples were selected from patients' information files in our Cancer Institute in Tehran with a designed checklist. A total of 322 files were found from 2003 until 2012. Then the raw data were transferred to Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 16 and additional analysis was performed by Students t-test. The important variables were considered according to the available information from history of pathology including age, gender, occupation, stage and location of tumor. Results: Our data showed that incidence of melanoma has been different in the studied 10-year period according to age. Also, incidence of melanoma was higher in men than women. It was more common in lower limbs. More commonly housewives among women and farmers among men were affected by melanoma. Conclusions: Taken together the descriptive data clarified general aspects of this disease for further screening and interventions.

Engineering the Cellular Protein Secretory Pathway for Enhancement of Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator Expression in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells: Effects of CERT and XBP1s Genes

  • Rahimpour, Azam;Vaziri, Behrouz;Moazzami, Reza;Nematollahi, Leila;Barkhordari, Farzaneh;Kokabee, Leila;Adeli, Ahmad;Mahboudi, Fereidoun
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.23 no.8
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    • pp.1116-1122
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    • 2013
  • Cell line development is the most critical and also the most time-consuming step in the production of recombinant therapeutic proteins. In this regard, a variety of vector and cell engineering strategies have been developed for generating high-producing mammalian cells; however, the cell line engineering approach seems to show various results on different recombinant protein producer cells. In order to improve the secretory capacity of a recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA)-producing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line, we developed cell line engineering approaches based on the ceramide transfer protein (CERT) and X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) genes. For this purpose, CERT S132A, a mutant form of CERT that is resistant to phosphorylation, and XBP1s were overexpressed in a recombinant t-PA-producing CHO cell line. Overexpression of CERT S132A increased the specific productivity of t-PA-producing CHO cells up to 35%. In contrast, the heterologous expression of XBP1s did not affect the t-PA expression rate. Our results suggest that CERT-S132A-based secretion engineering could be an effective strategy for enhancing recombinant t-PA production in CHO cells.

Area-to-Area Poisson Kriging and Spatial Bayesian Analysis in Mapping of Gastric Cancer Incidence in Iran

  • Asmarian, Naeimehossadat;Jafari-Koshki, Tohid;Soleimani, Ali;Ayatollahi, Seyyed Mohammad Taghi
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.10
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    • pp.4587-4590
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    • 2016
  • Background: In many countries gastric cancer has the highest incidence among the gastrointestinal cancers and is the second most common cancer in Iran. The aim of this study was to identify and map high risk gastric cancer regions at the county-level in Iran. Methods: In this study we analyzed gastric cancer data for Iran in the years 2003-2010. Area-to-area Poisson kriging and Besag, York and Mollie (BYM) spatial models were applied to smoothing the standardized incidence ratios of gastric cancer for the 373 counties surveyed in this study. The two methods were compared in term of accuracy and precision in identifying high risk regions. Result: The highest smoothed standardized incidence rate (SIR) according to area-to-area Poisson kriging was in Meshkinshahr county in Ardabil province in north-western Iran (2.4,SD=0.05), while the highest smoothed standardized incidence rate (SIR) according to the BYM model was in Ardabil, the capital of that province (2.9,SD=0.09). Conclusion: Both methods of mapping, ATA Poisson kriging and BYM, showed the gastric cancer incidence rate to be highest in north and north-west Iran. However, area-to-area Poisson kriging was more precise than the BYM model and required less smoothing. According to the results obtained, preventive measures and treatment programs should be focused on particular counties of Iran.

Lack of TNF-α Gene Polymorphism (rs1799724) Association with Sustained Virological Response in Iranian Patients with Chronic HCV Infection

  • Larijani, Mona Sadat;Bahiraei, Narges;Nikbin, Mehri;Mohajel, Nasir;Rad, Leila Naghizadeh;Baghbani, Fahimeh;Mapar, Maryam;Sadat, Seyed Mehdi
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.8
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    • pp.3923-3927
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    • 2016
  • Infection with the hepatitis C virus is a major public health concern which can lead to carcinoma and liver failure. It has been shown that single nucleotide polymorphisms can affect the level of gene activity of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) which has an important role, especially in viral infections which can lead to apaptosis of infected hepatocellular cells. We investigated the impact of three possible genotypes for rs1800629 or A/G single nucleotide polymorphism located downstream of $TNF{\alpha}$ gene promoter in groups of control (n=76) and chronic hepatitis C patients (n=89) focusing on the response to treatment among sensitive and resistant groups. Genomic DNA was extracted from $500{\mu}l$ prepheral whole blood and PCR and RFLP were used to amplify the region of interest and genotyping. With statistical analyzes a p-value <0.05 was considered meaningful. There was no significant difference in distribution of possible three genotypes among healthy individuals and patients (P=0.906, OR=1.194, CI=0.063-22.790). However, the frequency of G allele was higher in patients whereas A allele was more common among healthy individuals (p<0.0001). Further studies with more samples seem to be necessary.

Preparation of Immunotoxin Herceptin-Botulinum and Killing Effects on Two Breast Cancer Cell Lines

  • Hajighasemlou, Saieh;Alebouyeh, Mahmoud;Rastegar, Hossein;Manzari, Mojgan Taghizadeh;Mirmoghtadaei, Milad;Moayedi, Behjat;Ahmadzadeh, Maryam;Parvizpour, Farzad;Johari, Behrooz;Naeini, Maria Moslemi;Farajollahi, Mohammad M
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.14
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    • pp.5977-5981
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    • 2015
  • Background: Worldwide, breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed among women and a leading cause of cancer deaths. The age of onset in Iran has become reduced by a decade for unknown reasons. Herceptin, a humanized monoclonal antibody, is a target therapy for breast cancer cells with over expression of HER2-neu receptors, but it is an expensive drug with only 20% beneficial rate of survival. This study introduces a novel approach to enhance the efficacy of this drug through immunoconjugation of the antibody to botulinum toxin. Decreasing the cost and adverse effects of the antibody were secondary goals of this study. Materials and Methods: Botulinum toxin was conjugated with Herceptin using heterobifunctional cross linkers, succinimidyl acetylthiopropionate (SATP) and sulfo-succinimidyl-4-(N-maleimidomethyl) cyclohexane-1-carboxylate (SMCC) according to the supplier's guidelines and tested on two breast cancer cell lines: SK-BR-3 and BT-474. Toxin and Herceptin were also used separately as controls. The cytotoxicity assay was also performed using the new bioconjugate on cultured cells with Alamar blue and a fluorescence plate reader. Results: Herceptin-Toxin bioconjugation significantly improved Herceptin efficacy on both breast cancer cell lines when compared to the control group. Conclusions: Toxin-Herceptin bioconjugation can be a potential candidate with increased efficiency for treating breast cancer patients with over expression of the HER2 receptor.

Cervical Cancer Screening: Recommendations for Muslim Societies

  • Khodakarami, Nahid;Farzaneh, Farah;Yavari, Parvin;Akbari, Mohamad Esmaeil
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.239-247
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    • 2016
  • Background: The overall cervical cancer incidence rate is low in Iran; however, because of a higher risk of death for cervical cancer, a disease that kills women in middle age, a cervical cancer control program is needed. The aim of this study was to provide consensus recommendation for cervical cancer prevention in Iran and other Muslim societies with low incidences of cervical cancer. Materials and Methods: Through a practical guideline development cycle, we developed six questions that were relevant to produce the recommendation. We reviewed 190 full text records of cervical cancer in Iran (1971 to 2013) of which 13 articles were related to the data needed to answer the recommendation questions. We also reviewed World Health Organization, IARC, GLOBOCAN report, Iran Ministry of Health cancer registry report and 8 available foreign countries guidelines. Lastly, we also evaluated the Pap smear results of 825 women who participated in the Iranian HPV survey, of whom 328 were followed-up after a 5-year interval. Results: The obtained data highlighted the burden of HPV and cervical cancer situation in Iran. Experts emphasized the necessity of a cervical cancer screening program for Iranian women, and recommended an organized screening program with a cytological evaluation (Pap smear) that would start at the age of 30 years, repeated every 5 years, and end at the age of 69 years. Meanwhile, there is no need for screening among women with a hysterectomy, and screening should be postponed to post-partum among pregnant women. Conclusions: An organized cervical cancer screening is a necessity for Iran as more than 500-900 women in middle age diagnosed with an invasive cervical cancer every year cannot be ignored. This recommendation should be taken into account by the National Health System of Iran and Muslim countries with shared culture and behavior patterns. CUBA HPV test could be consideration in countries Muslim country with appropriate budget, resources and facility.

Barriers to Health Service Utilization Among Iranian Female Sex Workers: A Qualitative Study

  • Asadi-AliAbadi, Mehran;Abolghasemi, Jamileh;Rimaz, Shahnaz;Majdzadeh, Reza;Rostami-Maskopaee, Fereshteh;Merghati-Khoei, Effat
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.51 no.2
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    • pp.64-70
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    • 2018
  • Objectives: In most countries around the world, sex work is an illegal activity. Female sex workers (FSWs) in Iran hide their identities, and they are known to be a hard-to-reach population. Despite free access to HIV testing, fewer than half of FSWs receive HIV testing. The purpose of this study was to characterize the reasons for which FSWs do not seek testing at drop-in centers (DICs) and voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) centers in Iran. Methods: A qualitative study was conducted in 2016. The participants were 24 FSWs who received services at VCT centers and DICs for vulnerable females in the north of Iran and 9 males who were the clients of FSWs. In this study, we made use of purposive sampling and carried out a thematic analysis. Results: We found 4 major and 6 minor themes. The major themes were: fear of being infected (with HIV), stigma, indifference, and knowledge. Conclusions: Despite the significant efforts made by the government of Iran to establish and expand DICs for vulnerable females, the number of FSWs receiving services at these centers has not been very considerable. Consequently, by introducing and implementing training programs for peer groups, it may be possible to take steps toward establishing strategic programs for the control and prevention of HIV/AIDS.