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Gene Expression Biodosimetry: Quantitative Assessment of Radiation Dose with Total Body Exposure of Rats

  • Saberi, Alihossein;Khodamoradi, Ehsan;Birgani, Mohammad Javad Tahmasebi;Makvandi, Manoochehr
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.18
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    • pp.8553-8557
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    • 2016
  • Background: Accurate dose assessment and correct identification of irradiated from non-irradiated people are goals of biological dosimetry in radiation accidents. Objectives: Changes in the FDXR and the RAD51 gene expression (GE) levels were here analyzed in response to total body exposure (TBE) to a 6 MV x-ray beam in rats. We determined the accuracy for absolute quantification of GE to predict the dose at 24 hours. Materials and Methods: For this in vivo experimental study, using simple randomized sampling, peripheral blood samples were collected from a total of 20 Wistar rats at 24 hours following exposure of total body to 6 MV X-ray beam energy with doses (0.2, 0.5, 2 and 4 Gy) for TBE in Linac Varian 2100C/D (Varian, USA) in Golestan Hospital, in Ahvaz, Iran. Also, 9 rats was irradiated with a 6MV X-ray beam at doses of 1, 2, 3 Gy in 6MV energy as a validation group. A sham group was also included. After RNA extraction and DNA synthesis, GE changes were measured by the QRT-PCR technique and an absolute quantification strategy by taqman methodology in peripheral blood from rats. ROC analysis was used to distinguish irradiated from non-irradiated samples (qualitative dose assessment) at a dose of 2 Gy. Results: The best fits for mean of responses were polynomial equations with a R2 of 0.98 and 0.90 (for FDXR and RAD51 dose response curves, respectively). Dose response of the FDXR gene produced a better mean dose estimation of irradiated "validation" samples compared to the RAD51 gene at doses of 1, 2 and 3 Gy. FDXR gene expression separated the irradiated rats from controls with a sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 87.5%, 83.5% and 81.3%, respectively, 24 hours after dose of 2 Gy. These values were significantly (p<0.05) higher than the 75%, 75% and 75%, respectively, obtained using gene expression of RAD51 analysis at a dose of 2 Gy. Conclusions: Collectively, these data suggest that absolute quantification by gel purified quantitative RT-PCR can be used to measure the mRNA copies for GE biodosimetry studies at comparable accuracy to similar methods. In the case of TBE with 6MV energy, FDXR gene expression analysis is more precise than that with RAD51 for quantitative and qualitative dose assessment.

Interleukin-12 and Interleukin-6 Gene Polymorphisms and Risk of Bladder Cancer in the Iranian Population

  • Ebadi, Nader;Jahed, Marzieh;Mivehchi, Mohamad;Majidizadeh, Tayebeh;Asgary, Mojgan;Hosseini, Seyed Ali
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.18
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    • pp.7869-7873
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    • 2014
  • Interleukin-12 (IL-12) as an antitumor and interleukin-6 (IL-6) as an inflammatory cytokine, are immunomodulatory products that play important roles in responses in cancers and inflammation. We tested the association between two polymorphisms of IL-12(1188A>C; rs3212227) and IL-6 (-174 C>G) and the risk of bladder cancer in 261 patients and 251 healthy individuals. We also investigated the possible association of these SNPs in patients with high-risk jobs and smoking habits with the incidence of bladder cancer. The genotype distributions of IL-6 (-174 C/G) genotype were similar between the cases and the control groups; however, among patients with smoking habits, the association between IL-6 gene polymorphism and incidence of bladder cancer was significant. After a control adjustment for age and sex, the following results were recorded: CC genotype (OR= 2.11, 95%CI=1.56-2.87, p=0.007), GC genotype (OR=2.18, 95%CI=1.16-4.12, p=0.014) and GC+CC (OR=2.6, 95%CI=1.43-4.47, p=0.011). A significant risk of bladder cancer was observed for the heterozygous genotype (AC) of IL-12 (OR=1.47, 95%CI=1.01-2.14, p=0.045) in all cases, and among smokers (AC) (OR=3.13, 95%CI=1.82-5.37, p=0.00014), combined AC+CC (OR=3.05, 95%CI=1.8-5.18, p=0.000015). Moreover among high risk job patients, there was more than a 3-fold increased risk of cancer in the carriers of IL-12 beta heterozygous (OR=3.7, 95%CI=2.04-6.57, p=0.000056) and combined AC+CC(OR=3.29, 95%CI=1.58-5.86, p=0.00002) genotypes as compared with the AA genotype with low-risk jobs. As a conclusion, this study suggests that IL-12(3'UTR A>C) and IL-6 (-174 C>G) genotypes are significantly associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer in the Iranian population with smoking habits and/or performing high-risk jobs.

Relationships between Self-Efficacy and Pap Smear Screening in Iranian Women

  • Majdfar, Zahra;Khodadost, Mahmoud;Majlesi, Freshteh;Rahimi, Abbas;Shams, Mohsen;Mohammadi, Gohar
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.sup3
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    • pp.263-268
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    • 2016
  • Cervical cancer is the fourth common cancer among women worldwide. Pap smear screening has resulted in deceasing incidence of cervical cancer in developed countries but low uptake of Pap smear screening among women in developing countries is still a public health challenge. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the relationship between self-efficacy and timely uptake of Pap smear among Iranian women. A total of 580 married women referred to primary health care centers covered administratively by Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in Tehran were administered a questionnaire by trained staff. Data were analyzed with SPSS (version 16) software, using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. The mean age for participants was $33.1{\pm}8.8years$. There was a significant association between self-efficacy and Pap smear screening (P<0.01). There was also a positive correlation between duration of marriage and husband's education with Pap smear uptake (P<0.01). In univariate analysis, there was a significant association between Pap smear uptake and level of selfefficacy (OR = 15.3 for intermediate and OR=7.4 for good level), duration of marriage (OR = 5.7 for 5-14 years and OR=10.4 for more than 15), age (OR =2.7 for 27-34 years and OR=7.4 for more than 35 years) and husband education level (OR=2.3 for more than 12 years of education). In multivariate analysis, significant associations persisted between Pap smear uptake and self-efficacy (OR = 23.8; 95% CI: 8.7, 65.5), duration of marriage (OR = 5.9; 95% CI: 2.8, 12.2), age (OR = 3.9; 95% CI: 1.2, 12.9) and husband's education (OR = 2.5; 95% CI: 2.0, 10.3). Efforts are needed to increase women's knowledge about cervical cancer and improve their self-efficacy and perceptions of the Pap smear screening in order to reduce cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates.

Intravenous caffeine citrate vs. magnesium sulfate for reducing pain in patients with acute migraine headache; a prospective quasi-experimental study

  • Baratloo, Alireza;Mirbaha, Sahar;Kasmaei, Hossein Delavar;Payandemehr, Pooya;Elmaraezy, Ahmed;Negida, Ahmed
    • The Korean Journal of Pain
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.176-182
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    • 2017
  • Background: Current evidence suggests that intravenous magnesium sulfate might be effective for reducing migraine pain. In a recent pilot study, we showed that intravenous caffeine citrate could reduce the severity of migraine headache. The objective of this study is to investigate the efficacy of intravenous caffeine citrate vs. magnesium sulfate for management of acute migraine headache. Methods: We conducted a prospective quasi-experimental study from January until May 2016 in two educational medical centers of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences (Shoahadaye Tajrish Hospital and Imam Hossein Hospital), Tehran, Iran. The study included patients who were referred to the emergency department and met the migraine diagnosis criteria of the International Headache Society. Patients were allocated into 2 groups receiving either 60 mg intravenous caffeine or 2 g intravenous magnesium sulfate. The pain scores, based on the visual analog scale, were recorded on admission, as well as one and two hours after receiving the drug. A Chi-Square test and student t-test were used for analysis of baseline characteristics. A Mann-Whitney U test and Wilcoxon singed rank test were used to analyze differences in the visual analogue scale (VAS) score between and within the groups respectively. Results: In total, 70 patients (35 patients in each group) with the mean age of $33.1{\pm}11.3years$ were included (64.3% female). For the Caffeine citrate group, the median pain score decreased from 9.0 (2.0) to 5.0 (4.0) after one hour and to 3.0 (4.0) after two hours. For the magnesium sulfate group, the pain score decreased from 8.0 (2.0) to 2.0 (2.0) after one hour and to 0.0 (1.0) after two hours. Both intravenous caffeine citrate and intravenous magnesium sulfate reduced pain scores significantly but the magnesium sulfate group showed more improvement than the Caffeine citrate group after one hour (P < 0.001) and after two hours (P < 0.001). Conclusions: It is likely that both intravenous caffeine and intravenous magnesium sulfate can reduce the severity of migraine headache. Moreover, intravenous magnesium sulfate at a dose of 2 g might be superior to intravenous caffeine citrate 60 mg for the short term management of migraine headache in emergency departments.

A Comparative Analysis of Cataloging Records Related to Korea in the National Libraries of the Major Developing Countries: Focused on 10 Asian and African Countries (주요 개발도상국의 국가도서관에 있어 한국관련 목록레코드 비교 분석 - 아시아 및 아프리카지역 10개국을 중심으로 -)

  • Kim, Jeong-Hyen
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Library and Information Science
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    • v.52 no.1
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    • pp.65-86
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    • 2018
  • This study was conducted to analyze the characteristics of records related to Korea shown in the cataloging records of national libraries of the main 10 developing countries in Asia and Africa. The results are as follows. To begin with, Korea-related records in most national libraries are very poor and under 0.1% of the library. Except for National Library of Viet Nam, the figure is under 3,000 volumes and generally 2 times less than Japan related records. Second, except for National Library of Iran and Viet Nam most national libraries romanize Korean materials, there are not marked with the original Korean language and unfeasible Hangeul search. Third, on investigation of the subject distribution in sub criteria of Korea-related records, subject related to history and economy is largely shown in the highest rate. Fifth, among the Korea-related subject heading, Taekwondo is marked with distinction from Karate in most libraries except for 7 national libraries. Dokdo is marked with the geographical name of 'Korea' in 7 national libraries and East Sea (Donghae) already is marked with 'Japan, Sea of' in 7 national libraries. Amnokgang, Dumangang, and Baekdusan-related records did not search at all in most national libraries.

Tamoxifen Resistance and CYP2D6 Copy Numbers in Breast Cancer Patients

  • Motamedi, Sahar;Majidzadeh, Keivan;Mazaheri, Mahta;Anbiaie, Robab;Mortazavizadeh, Seyed Mohammad Reza;Esmaeili, Rezvan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.12
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    • pp.6101-6104
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    • 2012
  • Background: Breast cancer accounts about one million from total annual ten million new diagnosed cases of neoplasia worldwide and is the main cause of death due to cancer in women. Tamoxifen is the most popular selective estrogen receptor modulator used in anti estrogen treatments. Tamoxifen must be converted into its metabolite endoxifen for biologic effects; this conversion process is catalysed by highly polymorphic cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6). This study surveyed copy number variation of the CYP2D6 gene and its possible correlation with Tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer patients. Methods: This case control study was performed on samples taken from 79 patients with breast cancer who used tamoxifen in Yazd and Tehran Cities, Iran. Real time reactions were conducted for 10 healthy samples using the comparative $C_t$ (Cycles threshold) method, each pair of genes being compared and samples with ratios around 1 were taken as control samples. Proliferation reactions were done by Real-Time PCR ABI Prism 7500. All registered data were transformed into SPSS 15 program and analyzed. Results: Efficiency of PCR for both CYP2D6 and ALB genes was 100%. From all 23 drug resistant patients 21.7% had one copy, 47.8% two copies and 30.4% had three copies. Also from all 56 drug sensitive patients, 26.8% had one copy, 51.8% two copies and 21.4% had three copies. The percentage of patients with one and two copies was similar between two groups but patients with three copies were more likely to belong to the drug resistant group more. Odd ratios for one and two copies were 0.759 and 0.853 respectively, indicating possible protective effects while that for three copies was 1.604. Conclusions: Based on our study there is no significant link between CYP2D6 gene copy numbers and tamoxifen resistance in women with breast cancer. But more studies considering other influencing factors appear warranted.

Association of 8q24.21 rs10505477-rs6983267 Haplotype and Age at Diagnosis of Colorectal Cancer

  • Haerian, Monir Sadat;Haerian, Batoul Sadat;Rooki, Hassan;Molanaei, Saadat;Kosari, Farid;Obohhat, Maedeh;Hosseinpour, Parisa;Azimzadeh, Pedram;Mohebbi, Seyed Reza;Akbari, Zahra;Zali, Mohammad Reza
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.369-374
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    • 2014
  • Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the fourth most common cause of cancer death in the world. Genetic variants in 8q24.21 including rs10505477 and rs6983267 have been hypothesized to be involved in susceptibility to CRC. This study aims to investigate the possible association between these loci and their haplotypes with CRC risk in Iranian population. Materials and Methods: Subjects were recruited from two hospitals in Tehran. The rs10505477 and rs6983267 polymorphisms were genotyped by TaqMan real time PCR using subject genomic DNA, extracted either from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue of patients or from blood of the controls by standard methods. Results: A total of 715 subjects (380 CRC patients and 335 matched controls) were genotyped in this study. Allele and genotype analysis of the rs10505477 and rs6983267 polymorphisms by gender, age at diagnosis, tumor location, tumor grade, and tumor node metastasis (TNM) showed no significant association with CRC risk. There was a significant relationship between GG haplotype and susceptibility to age at diagnosis for both <60 and ${\geq}60$ (p=0.0005 and p=0.000004, respectively) and between GT and CRC in the age at diagnosis ${\geq}60$ (Table 3: p=0.031). The GG haplotype was less frequent in CRC patients with the age at diagnosis <60, but was more common in subjects with the age at diagnosis ${\geq}60$. Conclusions: Results of this study suggests that the rs6983267 and rs10505477 polymorphisms alone may not be relevant to CRC risk, but their GG haplotype plays a notable role in age at diagnosis of CRC in the Iranian population.

Inhibitory Effects of β-Cyclodextrin-Helenalin Complexes on H-TERT Gene Expression in the T47D Breast Cancer Cell Line - Results of Real Time Quantitative PCR

  • Ghasemali, Samaneh;Nejati-Koshki, Kazem;Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl;Tafsiri, Elham;Zarghami, Nosratollah;Rahmati-Yamchi, Mohamad;Alizadeh, Effat;Barkhordari, Amin;Tozihi, Majid;Kordi, Shirafkan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.11
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    • pp.6949-6953
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    • 2013
  • Background: Nowadays, the encapsulation of cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents is attracting interest as a method for drug delivery. We hypothesized that the efficiency of helenalin might be maximized by encapsulation in ${\beta}$-cyclodextrin nanoparticles. Helenalin, with a hydrophobic structure obtained from flowers of Arnica chamissonis and Arnica Montana, has anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activity but low water solubility and bioavailability. ${\beta}$-Cyclodextrin (${\beta}$-CD) is a cyclic oligosaccharide comprising seven D-glucopyranoside units, linked through 1,4-glycosidic bonds. Materials and Methods: To test our hypothesis, we prepared ${\beta}$-cyclodextrin-helenalin complexes to determine their inhibitory effects on telomerase gene expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) and cytotoxic effects by colorimetric cell viability (MTT) assay. Results: MTT assay showed that not only ${\beta}$-cyclodextrin has no cytotoxic effect on its own but also it demonstrated that ${\beta}$-cyclodextrin-helenalin complexes inhibited the growth of the T47D breast cancer cell line in a time and dose-dependent manner. Our q-PCR results showed that the expression of telomerase gene was effectively reduced as the concentration of ${\beta}$-cyclodextrin-helenalin complexes increased. Conclusions: ${\beta}$-Cyclodextrin-helenalin complexes exerted cytotoxic effects on T47D cells through down-regulation of telomerase expression and by enhancing Helenalin uptake by cells. Therefore, ${\beta}$-cyclodextrin could be superior carrier for this kind of hydrophobic agent.

Detection of HER2 Status in Breast Cancer: Comparison of Current Methods with MLPA and Real-time RT-PCR

  • Pazhoomand, Reza;Keyhan, Elahe;Banan, Mehdi;Najmabad, Hossein;Karimlou, Masoud;Khodadad, Faranak;Iraniparast, Alireza;Feiz, Farnaz;Majidzadeh, Keivan;Bahman, Ideh;Moghadam, Fatemeh Aghakhani;Sobhani, Atoosa Madadkar;Abedin, Seyedeh Sedigheh;Muhammadnejad, Ahad;Behjat, Farkhondeh
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.12
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    • pp.7621-7628
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    • 2013
  • Human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) status is an important prognostic factor in breast cancer. There is no globally accepted method for determining its status, and which method is most precise is still a matter of debate. We here analyzed HER2 mRNA expression by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) and HER2 DNA amplification using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). In parallel, we performed a routine evaluation of HER2 protein by immunohistochemistry (IHC). To assess the accuracy of the RT-PCR and MLPA techniques, a combination of IHC and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used, substituting FISH when the results of IHC were ambiguous (2+) and for those IHC results that disagreed with MLPA and qRT-PCR, this approach being termed IHC-FISH. The IHC results for four samples were not compatible with the MLPA and qRT-PCR results; the MLPA and qRT-PCR results for these samples were confirmed by FISH. The correlations between IHC-FISH and qRT-PCR or MLPA were 0.945 and 0.973, respectively. The ASCO/CAP guideline IHC/FISH correlation with MLPA was (0.827) and with RT-PCR was (0.854). The correlations between the IHC results (0, 1+ as negative, and 3+ as positive) and qRT-PCR and MLPA techniques were 0.743 and 0.831, respectively. Given the shortcomings of IHC analysis and greater correlations between MLPA, qRT-PCR, and FISH methods than IHC analysis alone with each of these three methods, we propose that MLPA and real-time PCR are good alternatives to IHC. However a suitable cut-off point for qRTPCR is a prerequisite for determining the exact status of HER2.

Translation and Validation of the Activities of Daily Living Scale with Iranian Elderly Cancer Patients Treated in an Oncology Unit

  • Khoei, Mahtab Alizadeh;Akbari, Mohammad Esmail;Sharifi, Farshad;Fakhrzadeh, Hossein;Larijani, Bagher
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.2731-2737
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    • 2013
  • Background: This study evaluated the validity and reliability of applying the Katz's Activities of Daily Living (ADL) scale in an Iranian sample of elderly oncologic patients following initial cancer treatment. Materials and Methods: The scale was translated with the forward-backward procedure to give an Iranian version. The ADL scale was then applied in a random sample of 400 oncologic patients aged 60 and older following initial cancer treatment. Assessment of the scale stability was twice, with a 14-days (two weeks) interval, to 30 (of the 400) eligible elderly cancer patients in March 2012. To measure treatment effects, the index was run with 150 patients in a three month recall, following oncology processing. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis was performed for assessment of construct validity of the Katz's ADL. Reliability was measured with internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha co-efficient), and test/retest (Spearman's r value) of the instrument. Criterion validity was evaluated by comparing the Katz with Physical Function (PF) subscale of SF 36. Known-group validity was approved by comparing of Katz' ADL between quartile groups of PF subscale of SF 36. Results: In our study the ADL demonstrated a high degree of internal homogeneity (Cronbach's alpha 0.923). There was a high correlation between scores of two time measurement of Katz's ADL (p value of two- related- samples test was 0.3). Construct validity showed a correlation coefficient of 0.572 between the ADL and PF scores. In factor analysis, 2 factors were extracted. Evidence for the reliability of the questionnaire was good and known group validity was approved by significant differences of ADL score between quartiles of the PF subscale of SF36. Conclusions: The results suggest that the Iranian version of ADL applied for oncologic older adult patients following initial cancer treatment is a reliable and a valid clinical instrument and comparable to those reported in other studies.