• Title, Summary, Keyword: Iran

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Challenges to Promoting Population-Based Cancer Registration in Iran: a Workshop Report

  • Hadji, Maryam;Nahvijou, Azin;Seddighi, Zahra;Beiki, Omid;Mohagheghi, Mohammad Ali;Mosavi-Jarrahi, Alireza;Marnani, Ahmad Barati;Zendehdel, Kazem
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.10
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    • pp.6189-6193
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    • 2013
  • In December 2011, the Cancer Research Centre of the Cancer Institute of Iran sponsored a 3-day workshop on "Cancer Registration Principle and Challenges in Iran", which convened cancer registry experts. The objectives of the workshop were: to introduce standard cancer registration, to review the policy and procedure of cancer registration in Iran, and to review the best practices in the cancer registries in Iran. Challenges to cancer registration were discussed and recommendations were developed. The workshop was evaluated by participants for better organization of subsequent workshops. The objective of publication of this report is that based on Cancer in 5 Continents, many low- or middle-income countries do not meet the criteria for a standard population-based cancer registry (PBCR); on the other hand cancer is the most important cause of mortality and the essential part of any cancer control program is the cancer registry. Therefore this report focuses on problems and challenges of PBCR and provides recommendations which might help other developing countries to decrease their PBCR defects.

Spiritual Care for Cancer Patients in Iran

  • Memaryan, Nadereh;Jolfaei, Atefeh Ghanbari;Ghaempanah, Zeinab;Shirvani, Armin;Vand, Hoda Doos Ali;Ghahari, Shahrbanoo;Bolhari, Jafar
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.9
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    • pp.4289-4294
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    • 2016
  • Background: Studies have shown that a return to spirituality is a major coping response in cancer patients so that therapists can adopt a holistic approach by addressing spirituality in their patient care. The present study was conducted to develop a guideline in the spiritual field for healthcare providers who serve cancer patients in Iran. Materials and Methods: Relevant statements were extracted from scientific documents that through study questions were reviewed and modified by a consensus panel. Results: The statements were arranged in six areas, including spiritual needs assessment, spiritual care candidates, the main components of spiritual care, spiritual care providers, the settings of spiritual care and the resources and facilities for spiritual care. Conclusions: In addition to the development and preparation of these guidelines, health policy-makers should also seek to motivate and train health service providers to offer these services and facilitate their provision and help with widespread implementation.

Measuring and Decomposing Socioeconomic Inequality in Catastrophic Healthcare Expenditures in Iran

  • Rezaei, Satar;Hajizadeh, Mohammad
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.52 no.4
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    • pp.214-223
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    • 2019
  • Objectives: Equity in financial protection against healthcare expenditures is one the primary functions of health systems worldwide. This study aimed to quantify socioeconomic inequality in facing catastrophic healthcare expenditures (CHE) and to identify the main factors contributing to socioeconomic inequality in CHE in Iran. Methods: A total of 37 860 households were drawn from the Households Income and Expenditure Survey, conducted by the Statistical Center of Iran in 2017. The prevalence of CHE was measured using a cut-off of spending at least 40% of the capacity to pay on healthcare services. The concentration curve and concentration index (C) were used to illustrate and measure the extent of socioeconomic inequality in CHE among Iranian households. The C was decomposed to identify the main factors explaining the observed socioeconomic inequality in CHE in Iran. Results: The prevalence of CHE among Iranian households in 2017 was 5.26% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.04 to 5.49). The value of C was -0.17 (95% CI, -0.19 to -0.13), suggesting that CHE was mainly concentrated among socioeconomically disadvantaged households in Iran. The decomposition analysis highlighted the household wealth index as explaining 71.7% of the concentration of CHE among the poor in Iran. Conclusions: This study revealed that CHE is disproportionately concentrated among poor households in Iran. Health policies to reduce socioeconomic inequality in facing CHE in Iran should focus on socioeconomically disadvantaged households.

Some Suggestions for Korean Automobile Industry to Branch out into Iran (한국자동차기업의 이란진출을 위한 전략제안)

  • Kim, Hyun-Chul
    • International Area Studies Review
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.163-179
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    • 2017
  • Iran has been focused on FDI by global automobile companies after the economic sanction on Iran was removed except primary sanction. In this paper, some strategies for Korean Automobile Industry to branch out into Iran are suggested. For the purpose, Iran's automobile industry and characteristics are examined. The market situation is analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. In passenger cars sector, Korean automobile companies would be better to wait and see the development of US-Iran relationships while exporting CKD sets of cars to Iran. It can be a good strategy, however, to put parts companies into Iran first because of Iran Government could be displeasing with exporting CKD only. FDI, licensing, and joint venture are all available for the parts companies. Motor companies can clear the regulation of auto-parts localization proportion by the method. The parts companies will be able to do key roles as supply chains after OEM branch out into Iran. It is also advisable to upgrade outpost in Iran into frontline for exporting cars to MENA area. In such a case it will be a prerequisite to develop a role-division model with facilities in East Europe. It could be called Parts first-then cars strategy. In commercial cars sector, it can be suggested to leverage natural gas as a link to branch out into Iran. Iran government wishes to develop natural gas resources. The strategy can be summarized that automobile companies carry out producing CNG buses in Iran while energy companies are drilling and producing natural gas.

Molecular Variation and Distribution of Anopheles fluviatilis (Diptera: Culicidae) Complex in Iran

  • Naddaf, Saied Reza;Razavi, Mohammad Reza;Bahramali, Golnaz
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.48 no.3
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    • pp.231-236
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    • 2010
  • Anopheles fluviatilis James (Oiptera: Culicidae) is one of the known malaria vectors in south and southeastern Iran. Earlier ITS2 sequences analysis of specimens from Iran demonstrated only a single genotype that was identical to species Y in India, which is also the same as species T. We identified 2 haplotypes in the An. fluviatilis populations of Iran based on differences in nucleotide sequences of D3 domain of the 28S locus of ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Comparison of sequence data from 44 Iranian specimens with those publicly available in the Genbank database showed that all of the 288-D3 sequences from Kazeroun and Khesht regions in Fars Province were identical to the database entry representing species U in India. In other regions, all the individuals showed heterozygosity at the single nucleotide position, which identifies species U and T. It is argued that the 2 species may co-occur in some regions and hybridize; however, the heterozygosity in the 288-D3 locus was not reflected in ITS2 sequences and this locus for all individuals was identical to species T. This study shows that in a newly diverged species, like members of An. fluviatilis complex, a single molecular marker may not be sufficiently discriminatory to identify all the taxa over a vast geographical area. In addition, other molecular markers may provide more reliable information for species discrimination.

A novel variant of t-PA resistant to plasminogen activator inhibitor-1; expression in CHO cells based on In Silico experiments

  • Davami, Fatemeh;Sardari, Soroush;Majidzadeh-A, Keivan;Hemayatkar, Mahdi;Barkhordari, Farzaneh;Enayati, Somayeh;Adeli, Ahmad;Mahboudi, Fereidoun
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.34-39
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    • 2011
  • Resistance to PAI-1 is a factor which confers clinical benefits in thrombolytic therapy. The only US FDA approved PAI-1 resistant drug is Tenecteplase$^{(R)}$. Deletion variants of t-PA have the advantage of fewer disulfide bonds in addition to higher plasma half lives. A new variant was developed by deletion of the first three domains in t-PA in addition to substitution of KHRR 128-131 amino acids with AAAA in truncated t-PA. The specific activity of this new variant, $570\;IU/{\mu}g$, was found to be similar to those found in full length t-PA (Alteplase$^{(R)}$), $580\;IU/{\mu}g$. A 65% and 85% residual activity after inhibition by rPAI-1 was observed for full length and truncated-mutant form, respectively. This new variant as the first PAI-1 resistant truncated t-PA may offer more advantages in clinical conditions in which high PAI-1 levels makes the thrombolytic system prone to re-occlusion.