• Title, Summary, Keyword: Iodine

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Iodine Intake and Tolerable Upper Intake Level of Iodine for Koreans (한국인의 요오드 섭취와 요오드 상한섭취량)

  • Lee, Hyun-Sook;Min, Hye-Sun
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.82-91
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    • 2011
  • The present study reviewed the effects of excess iodine intake on thyroid function and the incidence of thyroid disease and discussed the scientific basis for establishing a tolerable upper intake level (UL) of iodine for Koreans. ULs are defined as "the highest level of daily nutrient intake that is likely to pose no risk of adverse effects to almost all individuals in the general population." Koreans consume excess iodine from seaweed, and iodine intake is strongly influenced by seaweed consumption. However, no dose-response data derived from subjects consuming excess iodine frequently but not continuously during a lifetime are available. Therefore, the Korean DRI committee set the iodine UL to reduce the risk of adverse health effects by excess iodine intake for Koreans with distinctive seaweed-eating habits.

Isothermal Iodine Adsorption by Various Cellulose Fibers (II) Cellulose-iodine and Iodine-iodine Interactions (각종 Cellulose섬유에 의한 등온흡착(제2보) Cellulose-옥소 및 옥소-옥소간의 상호작용에 관해서)

  • 최석철
    • Textile Science and Engineering
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.8-11
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    • 1973
  • Isothermal iodine adsorption behaviors of seven natural and regenerated cellulose fibers observed through the indirect I$_2$/KI/Na$_2$SO$_4$procedure were analyzed with Fowler-Guggenheim equation. The cellulose-iodine interaction energy was found to be -4.2 KCal/mole, regardless of the origin of cellulose fibers. The adsorbed iodine-iodine interaction energies of natural and regenerated cellulose fibers were -0.9 and -0.7Kcal/mole, respectively.

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The Iodine Content in Common Korean Foods (한국인의 상용식품내 요오드 함량)

  • 문수재
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.206-212
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    • 1998
  • This study was undertaken to analyze the iodine content in commonly donsumed Korean foods. Food samples were purchased from 3 randomly selected markets. The iodine contents in foods were determined by nuetron activation analysis (NAA). All irradiation of food samples were done at a pnueumatic transfer system (thermal nuetron flux : 1 $\times$1013n/$\textrm{cm}^2$.s) of the TRIGA MarkIII research reactor in the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute . The results indicated that the iodine content was high in seaweeds, fishes, and iodine-enriched eggs in that order and very low in grain, beans , fruits and vegetables. Edible seaweeds contained iodine levels of between 13,700 and 1,790, 600$\mu\textrm{g}$/kg. Levels of iodine in fishes and shellfishes were between 478 and 2, 840$\mu\textrm{g}$/kg. Ordinary eggs contained 314$\mu\textrm{g}$/kg iodine, but iodine -enriched eggs contained 1,869$\mu\textrm{g}$/kg. The average concentration of iodine in milk was 207$\mu\textrm{g}$/kg. There was seasonal variation in the iodine content of milk , levels were highest in winter milk(230$\mu\textrm{g}$/kg) and lowest in summer milk(180$\mu\textrm{g}$/kg).The idodine contents of most vegetables and fruits were below 10$\mu\textrm{g}$/kg. The iodine contents of most vegetables and fruits were below 10$\mu\textrm{g}$/kg. From high to low , the sequence of foods with high iodine content in one serving was as follows ; sea tangle , sea mustard, iodine-enriched eggs, fish , laver and milk. This study may provide basic data on the iodine content of foods consumed by Korean which have not yet been analyzed .

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The Study on the Urinary Iodine Excretion of Koreans Living in Rural Areas

  • Lee, Jun-Ho;Min, Byung-Woon
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Laboratory Science
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    • v.43 no.3
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    • pp.105-112
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    • 2011
  • More accurate evaluation of iodine consumption of Koreans can be made by measuring the urinary iodine excretion of people living in representative areas. The data about average iodine excretions by region, sex and age were gathered in order to suggest as a factor the criteria on the progress or prognosis of thyroid disease patients. This study was conducted on 3,000 subjects (2,000 Younggwang-gun residents and 1,000 Muan-gun residents) between July 2004 and August 2005. The data sampling was done based on stratified random sampling and the data were analyzed according to age (the subjects were divided into age groups, five years each) and sex of the subjects. Of the 3,000 subjects, a total of 1,592 people (1,174 in Younggwang-gun and 418 in Muan-gun) participated in this study, which used ISE (iodine ion selective electrode) to measure the concentration of iodine in urine. The 1,592 subjects are composed of 732 males and 860 females. The average urinary iodine excretion was $3.10{\pm}1.75mg/L$ (0.31~15.2 mg/L). The average iodine excretion of males was $3.09{\pm}1.61mg/L$ (0.42~15.2 mg/L) while it was $3.11{\pm}1.86mg/L$ (0.31~12.5 mg/L) among females, which represents no significant difference between males and females. However, the values were significantly higher than those of Europeans and Americans. There were statistically significant differences among the regions. When the data were analyzed according to age, females in their 40s were found to have a little less urinary iodine excretion and males had less and less iodine excretion as they get older. These results are deemed to have a statistically significant difference. This study was conducted on a large number of people (N=1,592) for the first time in Korea. If the data collected through this study can be regarded as the average urinary iodine excretion of Koreans, it is possible to conclude that the average iodine consumptions of Koreans are a lot more than Europeans and Americans. Thus, the effect of much iodine consumption should be studied further.

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Dietary evaluation of a low-iodine diet in Korean thyroid cancer patients preparing for radioactive iodine therapy in an iodine-rich region

  • Ju, Dal Lae;Park, Young Joo;Paik, Hee-Young;Kim, Min-Ji;Park, Seonyeong;Jung, Kyong Yeun;Kim, Tae Hyuk;Choi, Hun Sung;Song, Yoon Ju
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.167-174
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    • 2016
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Despite the importance of a low-iodine diet (LID) for thyroid cancer patients preparing for radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy, few studies have evaluated dietary intake during LID. This study evaluated the amount of dietary iodine intake and its major food sources during a typical diet and during LID periods for thyroid cancer patients preparing for RAI therapy, and examined how the type of nutrition education of LID affects iodine intake. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A total of 92 differentiated thyroid cancer patients with total thyroidectomy were enrolled from Seoul National University Hospital. All subjects completed three days of dietary records during usual and low-iodine diets before $^{131}I$ administration. RESULTS: The median iodine intake was $290{\mu}g/day$ on the usual diet and $63.2{\mu}g/day$ on the LID. The major food groups during the usual diet were seaweed, salted vegetables, fish, milk, and dairy products and the consumption of these foods decreased significantly during LID. The mean energy intake on the LID was 1,325 kcal, which was 446 kcal lower than on the usual diet (1,771 kcal). By avoiding iodine, the intake of most other nutrients, including sodium, was significantly reduced during LID (P < 0.005). Regarding nutritional education, intensive education was more effective than a simple education at reducing iodine intake. CONCLUSION: Iodine intake for thyroid cancer patients was significantly reduced during LID and was within the recommended amount. However, the intake of most other nutrients and calories was also reduced. Future studies are needed to develop a practical dietary protocol for a LID in Korean patients.

Modelling protection behaviour towards micronutrient deficiencies: Case of iodine biofortified vegetable legumes as health intervention for school-going children

  • Mogendi, Joseph Birundu;De Steur, Hans;Gellynck, Xavier;Makokha, Anselimo
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.56-66
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    • 2016
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Despite successes recorded in combating iodine deficiency, more than 2 billion people are still at risk of iodine deficiency disorders. Rural landlocked and mountainous areas of developing countries are the hardest hit, hence the need to explore and advance novel strategies such as biofortification. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We evaluated adoption, purchase, and consumption of iodine biofortified vegetable legumes (IBVL) using the theory of protection motivations (PMT) integrated with an economic valuation technique. A total of 1,200 participants from three land-locked locations in East Africa were recruited via multi-stage cluster sampling, and data were collected using two, slightly distinct, questionnaires incorporating PMT constructs. The survey also elicited preferences for iodine biofortified foods when offered at a premium or discount. Determinants of protection motivations and preferences for iodine biofortified foods were assessed using path analysis modelling and two-limit Tobit regression, respectively. RESULTS: Knowledge of iodine, iodine-health link, salt iodization, and biofortification was very low, albeit lower at the household level. Iodine and biofortification were not recognized as nutrient and novel approaches, respectively. On the other hand, severity, fear, occupation, knowledge, iodine status, household composition, and self-efficacy predicted the intention to consume biofortified foods at the household level; only vulnerability, self-efficacy, and location were the most crucial elements at the school level. In addition, results demonstrated a positive willingness-to-pay a premium or acceptance of a lesser discount for biofortification. Furthermore, preference towards iodine biofortified foods was a function of protection motivations, severity, vulnerability, fear, response efficacy, response cost, knowledge, iodine status, gender, age. and household head. CONCLUSIONS: Results lend support for prevention of iodine deficiency in unprotected populations through biofortification; however 'threat' appraisal and socio-economic predictors are decisive in designing nutrition interventions and stimulating uptake of biofortification. In principle, the contribution is threefold: 1) Successful application of the integrated model to guide policy formulation; 2) Offer guidance to stakeholders to identify and tap niche markets; 3) stimulation of rural economic growth around school feeding programmes.

Structural Study of Polyacrylonitrile-Iodine Complex-Microstructural Feature of Polyacrylonitrile-Iodine Complex- (폴리아크릴로니트릴-요오드 복합체의 구조해석-폴리아크릴로니트릴-요오드 복합체의 미세구조적 특성-)

  • Jo, Hyeon-Hok;Kim, Hong-Seong;Choe, Seok-Cheol
    • Textile Science and Engineering
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    • v.30 no.5
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    • pp.370-378
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    • 1993
  • The microstructural aspects of polyacrylonitrile(PAN)-iodine complex made from stretched FAN film were studied by infrared spectroscopic. volumetric. mechanical and dielectric characteristics. The complex shows two very different properties (dependent on its iodine content, which is supplementary to X-ray data in view of the fact that a crystalline phase transition is confirmed to occur depending on the iodine content. The iodine sorption of up to 30 weight % makes the PAN chains rigid by sticking to backbone chains, and bulky by interrupting intermolecular bonds of PAH. The iodine sorption of beyond 80 weight % increases weak intermolecular bons and decreases the free volume of the PAN-iodine complex film seriously. Thermal mobility of PAH chains decreases, but molecular motions of side groups of PAH increase with strengthening their dipole moment by influence of the electrophilic iodine ions.

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Imaging of Tumor Proliferation Using Iodine-131-Iodomethyluridine (Iodine-131-Iodomethyluridine을 이용한 종양세포증식의 영상화에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • Min Kyung-Yoon;Kim, Chang-Guhn;Kim, Hyun-Jeong;Lim, Hyung-Guhn;Rho, Ji-Young;Juhng Seon-Kwan;Won Jong-Jin;Yang, David J.
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.344-350
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    • 1996
  • Purpose : Noninvasive imaging of tumor cell proliferation could be helpful in the evaluation of tumor growth potential and could provide an early assessment of treatment response. Radiolabeled thymidine, uridine and adenosine have been used to evaluate tumor cell proliferation. These nucleoside analogs are incorporated into DNA during proliferation. Iodine-131-Iodomethyluridine, an analog of Iodine-131-Iododeoxyuridine, is also involved in DNA/RNA synthesis. The purpose of this study was to develop Iodine-131-Iodomethylurdine and image tumor proliferation using Iodine-131-Iodomethyluridine. Materials and Methods : Radiosynthesis of Iodine-131-5-Iodo-2'-O-methyluridine (Iodine-131-Iodomethyluridine) was prepared from 10 mg of 2'-O-methyluridine(Sigma chemical Co., St. Louis, Missouri) and 2.1 mCi(SP. 10Ci/mg) of Iodine-131-labeled sodium iodide in $100{\mu}l$ of water using iodogen reaction. Female Fischer 344 rats were inoculated in the thigh area with breast tumor cells(13765 NF, $10^5$ cells/rat S.C.). After 14 days, the Iodine-131-Iodomethyluridine $10{\mu}Ci$ was injected to three groups of rats(3/group). The percent of injected dose per gram of tissue weight was determined at 0.5-hours, 2-hours, 4-hours, and 24-hours respectively. Tumor bearing rats after receiving Iodine-131-Iodomethyluridine($50{\mu}Ci$ IV) were euthanized at 2 hours after injection. Autoradiography was done using freeze-dried $50{\mu}m$ coronal section. After injection of Iodine-131- Iodomethyluridine ($10{\mu}Ci$/rat, IV) in three breast tumor-bearing rats, planar scintigraphy was taken at 45 minutes, 90 minutes and 24 hours. Results : Iodine-131-Iodomethyluridine was conveniently synthesized using iodogen reaction. The biodistribution showed fast blood clearance and the tumor-to-tissue uptake ratios showed that optimal imaging time was at 2 hours postinjection. Autoradiogram and planar scintigram indicated that tumor could be well visualized. Conclusion : The findings suggest that Iodine-131-Iodomethyluridine, a new radio-iodinated nucleoside, has potential use for evaluation of active regions of tumor growth.

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Influence of Surfactant on the Iodine Complex Formation of Some Non-ionic Polymers (비이온성 고분자의 Iodine 착물형성에 대한 계면활성제의 영향)

  • Ahn, Beom-Shu
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.1031-1037
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    • 2018
  • The formation of a complex between PVP or HPC and iodine was indicated by a red shift in the tri-iode band while PVA-iodine complex showed its characterized band around 500 nm in pure aqueous media. Addition of surfactant SDS resulted in a disapperance of the characteristic blue color of the PVA-iodine complex indicating that the complex is not formed in aqueous surfactant media. However in case of PVP or HPC, presence of the monomers of SDS favored the complex formation but in higher concentration, the micelles of SDS decreased the complex. Complexation was found to increase with increasing content of n-propanol in the system since n-propanol inhibits the formation of gels or microgels in the polymer solution. But in case of PVA-iodine complex, addition of n-propanol led to conversion of bigger polyiodides into smaller ones, which is indicative of increased intermolecular hydrogen bond interaction between propanol and PVA effecting a decrease in the PVA aggregate space.

The Effects of Dietary Iodine Intake on the Postpartum Thyroiditis(PPT) Manifestation (산모의 요오드섭취가 산후 갑상선염 발현에 미치는 영향)

  • 조여원
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.30 no.10
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    • pp.1195-1202
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    • 1997
  • Iodine-rich seaweed soup has been traditionally supplied to postpartum women in Korea. This dietary habit might introduce over-intake of iodine above the recommended requirements, and might provoke postpartum thyroid dysfunction. Although the response to excess iodine intake is highly variable, goiter, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, and thyroiditis could follow the daily intake of 1,500$\mu\textrm{g}$ of iodine. A few studies are available concerning iodine toxicity in Korea. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between the dietary intake of iodine and thyroid function change as well as the incidence of postpartum thyroiditis. One hundred and thirty-seven postpartum women who had experienced normal deliveries were studied. Dietary intake of iodine and excretion concentration of iodine in breast milk and maternal urine were measured . Serum T$_3$, T$_4$, TSH, anti-thyroglobulin antibody, and anti-microsomal antibody were anlayzed 1 week before delivery and 1, 6, 12, and24 weeks after delivery. Iodine intake was analyzed by one-to-one interviews using 24-hr recall and a food frequncy questionnaire. The result showed that the intake of dietary iodine before delivery and 1 and24 weeks after delivery were 483$\mu\textrm{g}$/day, 3367$\mu\textrm{g}$/day, and 1069$\mu\textrm{g}$/day, respectively. The concentration of iodine in urine at the first week after delivery was 63$\mu\textrm{g}$/dL, and 23.9$\mu\textrm{g}$/dL in breast milk . The levels of serum T$_3$ and T$_4$ before delivery were 2.01ng/mL and 11.49$\mu\textrm{g}$U/dL, respectively, showing that the levels were gradually dropping to normal values after delivery. Positive serum anti-thyroglobulin antibody and anti-microsomal antibody appeared in 3 cases. After a 24 week follow-up period , 6 women(10.3%) experienced cases of postpartum thyroiditis, 5 of which were cases of hyperthyroidism and one of which was a case of hypothyroidism. These figures of postpartum thyroiditis are similar to those of other countries.

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