• Title, Summary, Keyword: Intramuscular

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Comparison of Two Intramuscular Injection Techniques on the Severity of Discomfort and leasions at the Injection Site (근육주사법에 따른 주사부위의 불편감과 조직손상의 차이에 관한 연구)

  • 김경선
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.257-268
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    • 1988
  • The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of the Z-track intramuscular injection technique with the effect of the stand and intramuscular injection technique on the severity of discomfort and leasions at the injection site. The subjects of the study were 20 patients with only early tuber culosis excluding another abnormalities (a akin rash, allergy to topical use of alcohol, jaundice, edema, neurosensory abnormality, coagulation defects, obesity and thin). Data collection was done from Feb. 1 to March 15, 1988 by means of Korean Pain Measurement Tool, Visual Analogue Scale, and Objective measures of injection site lesions. The results of this study were as follows ; 1) Hypothesis 1 ; “The severity of subject discomfort is less following administration of the Z-track intramuscular injection technique than following administra tion injection technique.” was not sopported 2) Hypothesis 2 ; “The degress of severity subject discomfort is less following administration of the Z-track intramuscular injection technique than following administra tion of the standard intramuscular injection technique.” was not supported. 3) Hypothesis 3 ; “The severity of injection site lesions is less following administra tion of the Z-track intramuscular injection technique than following administration of the standard intramuscular injection techniques.” was not supported. 4) The terms that were selected included factor II (mild-moderate pain) of Ratio Scale Measuring Pain using Korean Pain Terms. In conclusion ; it was found that there was not a difference from the severity of subject discomfort between two groups, but the degress of severity of subject discomfort about following administration of the Z-t-rack intramuscular injection was tended to be declined. Therefore further studies suggest that the Z-track intramuscular injection technique can decrease the severity of discomfort in persons receiving frequently intramuscular injections. First of all, it is necessery to be developed an effective tool of discomfort measurement for the intramuscular injection in Korean.

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Intramuscular EMG signal estimation using surface EMG signal analysis (표면 근전도 신호 해석에 의한 내부 근육 근전도 신호의 추정)

  • 왕문성;변윤식;박상희
    • 제어로봇시스템학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.641-642
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    • 1986
  • We present a method for the estimation of intramuscular electromyographic(EMG) signals from the given surface EMG signals. This method is based on representing the surface EMG signal as an autoregressive(AR) time model with a delayed intramuscular EMG signal as an input. The parameters of the time series model that transforms the intramuscular signal to the surface signal are identified. The identified model is then used in estimating the intramuscular signal from the surface signal.

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A Case of Intramuscular Lipoma in the Malar Area (관골부에 발생한 Intramuscular lipoma 1례)

  • Hong, Jung-Soo;Lee, Tae-Hoon;Seul, Jung-Hyun;Choi, Won-Hee
    • Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.181-185
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    • 1990
  • Lipomas are common soft tissue tumor that are usually located in the subcutaneous tissue. And intramuscular lipomas commonly arise in the upper and lower extremities, where they usually involve the large muscles. Intramuscular lipoma, also referred to as an infiltrating lipoma. is an unusual benign slow growing tumor composed of mature fat cell interdigitating with skeletal muscle. However, intramuscular lipomas are exceedingly rare in the face. We have been experienced a case intramuscular lipoma that located in the malar area. Because of the rarity of these tumors and their propensity to recur without adequate surgery, the case report is presented here. Achievement of surgical margin is essential as the recurrent rate may be as high as 15% to 62.5% without complete excision.

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Effects of Neck and Back Touch on Ultrasonic Vocalization and the Rat Grimace Scale in Rats Receiving Intramuscular Injections (목과 등의 접촉이 근육주사를 투여 받는 흰쥐의 초음파발성과 Rat Grimace Scale에 미치는 효과)

  • Lee, Jung Ok
    • Journal of Korean Biological Nursing Science
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.11-17
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: To determine the effects of neck and back touch on Ultrasonic Vocalization (UV) and the Rat Grimace Scale (RGS) in rats touched by the human hand as an intervention for reducing pain and anxiety associated with intramuscular injections. Methods: This study was a randomized, controlled, pre-test/post-test design study. Twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to either the experimental or control groups (n= 10 rats/group). The experimental group was touched in a manner similar to massaging the rat's neck and back twice a day for one week. The two groups received two intramuscular injections. The 22kHz and 50kHz UV and the RGS scores were measured before and after each intramuscular injection. Results: The 22kHz UV and RGS score were significantly higher in the control group than in the experimental group when the first intramuscular injection was administered; whereas, no difference between the experimental and the control groups were observed when the second intramuscular injection was administered. There was no statistical difference in the 50kHz UV between the two groups when the first and second injections were administered. Conclusion: This study found that touching was an effective intervention method to reduce negative emotions and pain in rats receiving their first intramuscular injection.

Effect of Different Cooking Methods on the Composition of Intramuscular Fatty Acids of Hyla Rabbit

  • Xue, Shan;Xiao, Xia;He, Zhifei;Li, Hongjun
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.178-185
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    • 2016
  • The influence of three cooking methods (stewing, microwaving and Aluminium (Al) foil-baking) was evaluated on the content of intramuscular lipid and the composition of intramuscular fatty acids of Hyla rabbit. The percentage of intramuscular lipid in cooked-longissimus dorsi (LD) (dry weight %) were in the order mentioned below: microwaving > foil-baking > stewing. All treated samples showed decrease in the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), whilst increase in the proportion of saturated (SFA) and n-6/n-3 value during processing. All of the cooked samples had the n-6/n-3 ratio within the recommended range (5-10). By the analysis of partial least squares regression (PLSR), the microwaving treatment was better to keep the stability of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), whilst the long-time Al foil-baking did the most serious damage to UFA, especially the PUFA. In addition, the heating method showed greater influence on the samples than the processing time. The shorter processing time was better to retain the intramuscular PUFA of Hyla rabbit, especially the LC-PUFAs (C20-22). Considering all the factors, microwaving showed the superiority in reserving the composition of intramuscular fatty acids of Hyla rabbit.

Effect of Growth on Fatty Acid Composition of Total Intramuscular Lipid and Phospholipids in Ira Rabbits

  • Xue, Shan;He, Zhifei;Lu, Jingzhi;Tao, Xiaoqi;Zheng, Li;Xie, Yuejie;Xiao, Xia;Peng, Rong;Li, Hongjun
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.10-18
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    • 2015
  • The changes in fatty acid composition of total intramuscular lipid and phospholipids were investigated in the longissimus dorsi, left-hind leg muscle, and abdominal muscle of male Ira rabbits. Changes were monitored at 35, 45, 60, 75, and 90 d. Analysis using gas chromatography identified 21 types of fatty acids. Results showed that the intramuscular lipid increased and the intramuscular phospholipids (total intramuscular lipid %) decreased in all muscles with increasing age (p<0.05). An abundant amount of unsaturated fatty acids, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids, was distributed in male Ira rabbits at different ages and muscles. Palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), and arachidonic acid (C20:4) were the major fatty acids, which account to the dynamic changes of the n-6/n-3 value in Ira rabbit meat.

Effects of Carbon Precursors and Hormones on the Lipogenesis and Lipolysis of Hanwoo Cattle Adipose Tissues

  • Lee, S.C.;Lee, H.J.;Kim, D.W.;Park, J.G.;Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.300-306
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    • 2000
  • This experiment was carried out to determine the contributions of acetate, glucose, amino acids and amino acid metabolites as carbon precursors for the incorporation of radioisotope, in intramuscular and subcutaneous adipose tissue and the effects of insulin on lipogenesis and adrenergic agent, norepinephrine on lipolysis in both tissues. The rate of incorporation of $C^{14}$ labelled acetate, glucose, leucine, isoleucine and ${\alpha}$-ketoisocaproic acid into adipose tissue has been measured in subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissues. The rate of incorporation was greater (p<0.05) from acetate than glucose in both subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissue and the rate of incorporation of carbon precursors into adipose tissues was greater in subcutaneous than in intramuscular adipose tissues. In comparison of amino acids, the rate was highest (p<0.05) with leucine followed by isoleucine and ${\alpha}$-ketoisocaproic acid in subcutaneous adipose tissue, in which there were no differences. Also, in intramuscular tissue, leucine was highest (p<0.05), and the rate of incorporation decreased in the same order. The rates of carbon precursor incorporation appeared to be higher in subcutaneous than in intramuscular tissue. For incorporation of radio-labelled acetate and glucose into intramuscular adipose tissue. preincubated for 48 hrs with insulin and IGF-1, insulin was the most effective to stimulate the incorporation of precursors in both substrates but there was no difference between insulin and IGF-1 in glucose incorporation. For glyceride-fatty acid synthesis, acetate was significantly (p<0.05) greater than glucose in both subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissue, and glyceride-glycerol synthesis was greater (p<0.05) for glucose than acetate in both adipose tissues. The rates of lipogenesis from both precursors were slightly greater in subcutaneous than intramuscular adipose tissue. There was significant (p<0.05) site effect in insulin treatment for glyceride-fatty acid synthesis. But there were no significance in control and norepinephrine. For glyceride-glycerol synthesis, there was no site effect caused by hormonal treatment. Insulin was the most effective (p<0.05) in glyceride fatty acid synthesis, while norepinephrine was the same as control. Compared with control, glyceride-glycerol synthesis from acetate in insulin treatment was significantly (p<0.05) low in subcutaneous, but high in intramuscular tissue. At the same time, in both tissues, it was lower in norepinephrine treatment than in control. Glyceride-glycerol synthesis from glucose was highest (p<0.05) in norepinephrine treatment followed by insulin although there was no significance between insulin and control. Lipolysis was not affected by insulin but was increased by norepinephrine when added to adipose tissue incubations in vitro. Rates of basal lipolysis were greater in subcutaneous adipose tissue than in intramuscular adipose tissue.

Local Irritation of DA-3002, an Authentic Recombinant Human Growth Hormone, in Rabbits (토끼에 대한 천연형인성장호르몬 DA-3002의 국소자극성)

  • 김옥진;안병옥;인순복;김원배;양중익
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.63-71
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    • 1995
  • The local irritation studies of DA-3002, an authentic recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH), were carried out in rabbits after the following treatment ; application into the conjunctival sac of the eye (single), single subcutaneous and intramuscular injection, 7-day repeated subcutaneous and intramuscular injection. The results obtained were as follows. In the result of ocular irritation test, 0.16% solution of DA-3002 could be considered as a non-irritating material. In single subcutaneous and intramuscular irritation test, the irritancy of 0.16% DA-3002 solution was not so much different from that of saline. The local irritation of DA-3002 by 7-day repeated injection was negligible and similar to that of saline by both subcutaneous and intramuscular routes. These results suggest that DA-3002 has no irritating activity when injected through subcutaneous or intramuscular route for clinical practice as 0.16% solution.

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Effects of Zinc on Lipogenesis of Bovine Intramuscular Adipocytes

  • Oh, Young Sook;Choi, Chang Bon
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.10
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    • pp.1378-1382
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    • 2004
  • Zinc (Zn) is a micromineral and functions as a cofactor of many enzymes and its deficiency induces retardation of growth and dysfunction of the immune system in animals. This study was conducted to determine lipogenic activity of Zn in bovine intramuscular adipocytes. Preadipocytes were isolated from intramuscular fat depots of 26 month old Korean (Hanwoo) steers and cultured in media containing Zn. At confluence, the cells were treated with insulin, dexamethasone, and 1-methyl-3-isobutyl-xanthine to induce differentiation (accumulation of lipid droplets in cells). The sources of Zn were zinc chloride (${ZnCl}_2$) and zinc sulfate (${ZnSO}_4$), and the final concentrations of both Zn sources were 0, 5, 25, 50 and 100 ${\mu}$M. Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity, an index of adipocyte differentiation, was increased as the concentration of Zn in media increased showing the highest activity (25.74 ng/min/mg protein) at 25 ${\mu}$M of ${ZnSO}_4$. Supplementation of Zn during differentiation of bovine intramuscular adipocytes tended to decrease the production of nitric oxide (NO). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2(PPAR$\gamma$2) gene expression was increased 10 days after differentiation induction. The current results indicate that Zn has a strong lipogenic activity in cultured bovine intramuscular adipocytes with remarkable suppression of NO production.

Differentiation of Hanwoo Intramuscular Preadipocytes (한우 Intramuscular Preadipocyte의 분화)

  • Lee, S.M.;Jeong, Y.H.;Hwang, S.H.;Park, H.Y.;Yoon, D.H.;Moon, S.J.;Chung, E.R.;Kang, M.J.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.47 no.6
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    • pp.913-918
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    • 2005
  • The development of marbling in cattle is closely associated with an increase in adipocyte size and number within muscle. The adipose precursor cells have the capacity to differentiate into adipocytes within the muscle during the formation of marbling. In this studies, we established the cell culture system for differentiation of intramuscular preadipocyte isolated from the sirloin of Hanwoo aged 12 months. The intramuscular preadipocyte cells exhibited a fibroblastic appearance and differentiated into adipocytes by treating confluent cells with differentiation medium containing insulin, dexamethasone, and troglitazone. When intramuscular preadipocyte cells were differentiated at 18 day, the triglyceride concentration was higher than control cells. Moreover, the thiazolidinedione treatment increased adipogenesis. RT-PCR analysis confirmed the significant expression of PPARγ mRNA during adipocyte differentiation. In conclution, our culture system used in this study allowed intramuscular preadipocyte cells to differentiated into adipocytes and intramuscular preadipocyte cells may be useful in the further study of differentiation mechanism of adipocytes in Hanwoo.