• Title, Summary, Keyword: Intramammary Infection

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Factors in Dry Period Associated with Intramammary Infection and Subsequent Clinical Mastitis in Early Postpartum Cows

  • Leelahapongsathon, Kansuda;Piroon, Tipapun;Chaisri, Wasana;Suriyasathaporn, Witaya
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.580-585
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    • 2016
  • The objective of this study was to determine cow characteristics and farm management factors during the dry period associated with early postparturient intramammary infection (IMI) and subsequent clinical mastitis (CM). Data were collected three times: before drying off (P1), during the dry period (P2), and 5 to 14 days after calving (P3), using questionnaires and farm investigation. Milk samples were aseptically collected for bacterial identification at P1 and P3. Factors associated with IMI and CM were analyzed using multiple logistic regression models. The final model showed that IMI in early postpartum was significantly associated with full insertion of dry cow antibiotic, dry cows in barns with a combination of tie and free stalls, body condition score (BCS) in dry period and after calving, and milk yield before drying off. For IMI cows, factors significantly associated with clinical expression of mastitis were having daily barn cleaning, teat disinfected with alcohol before administration of dry cow therapy, BCS before drying off, milk yield before drying off, and days in milk at drying off. In conclusion, both cow and farm management factors are associated with the IMI rate and subsequent expression of clinical signs of mastitis in early postpartum cows.

Effects of teat dipping disinfectant containing biodegradable iodophor microspheres on preventing dry period intramammary infection in dairy cows (생분해성 iodophor microsphere 함유 유두침지 소독제의 건유기 젖소에서의 유방내 신규감염 예방 효과)

  • Hwang, Cheol-Yong;Kim, Jong-Min;Youn, Hwa-Young;Han, Bo;Han, Hong-Ryul
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.113-120
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    • 2004
  • 1% iodophor loaded microspheres of PLGA (Poly[DL-Lactide-co-Glycolide]) were prepared by solvent evaporation method and were applied to the cows on dry period for evaluating it's preventive effects on intramammary infections. The morphology of the microspheres were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy and their releasing patterns were investigated. On investigating idophor releasing patterns of the microsphere, burst releasing pattern was detected until 2 days after in vitro incubation and sustained releasing was observed until 4 weeks. In field trial of teat dipping solution containing idophor loaded microspheres in dry cows showed significant preventive effects of intramammary infection caused by S. aureus, S. agalactiae, coagulase negative Staphylococci and coliform bacteria (p<0.05).

Immunophysiological Defense Mechanism of the Bovine Udder on Mastitis A Review (유우유방의 유방염에 대한 자연방어기전)

  • Han Hong-Ryul
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.277-298
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    • 1986
  • This paper reviews the mechanisms effecting host defense in the mammary gland and assesses their possible in preventing of bovine mastitis. The streak canal is the first line of defense against invading mastitis pathogens, providing a physical barrier and antibacterial substances. The milk leukocytes are a second defense line by ingesting pathogens breached the streak canal by multiplication, physical passage, and propulsion during milking. Leukocytosis in milk and enhancement of the phagocytic defense machanisms of the udder were accomplished by inserting intramammary devices. Milk antibodies serum derived and synthesized in mamma tissue aggregate and opsonise bacteria, agglutinate and neutralise toxins, and inhibit. binding of bacteria to epitherial surfaces. Vaccination generally has been unsuccessful because protection is not absolute, but immunization is useful in controlling specific pathogens. Immunostimulant to enhance locally the protective nature of antibody-producing plasma cells concentrated in internal teat end tissue may be effective in reducing the occurrence of infection, but ineffective in preventing intramammary infections.

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Effect of Gamijipaesan Extracts against Mastitis Induced by Staphylococcus aureus Infection in a Rat Model through Anti-inflammatory and Antibacterial Effects (가미지패산(加味芷貝散)의 포도상구균 감염 유방염에 대한 항균활성 및 항염 효과)

  • Kwon, Ji-Myung;Kim, Dong-Chul
    • The Journal of Korean Obstetrics and Gynecology
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.1-24
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    • 2013
  • Objectives: The object of this study was to observe the protective effect of Gamijipaesan aqueous extracts(GJS), which has been traditionally used in Korean medicine in obstetrics & gynecological fields as anti-infectious and anti-inflammatory agents, against mastitis induced by Staphylococcus aureus infection in a rat model through antibacterial, antiinflammatory, immunomodulatory, and anti-oxidant effects. Methods: Antibacterial activities of GJS against S. aureus were detected using standard agar microdilution methods, with the effects on the bacterial invasion and intracellular killing of individual test materials in human mammary gland carcinoma cell(MCF-7) and murine macrophages(Raw 264.7) at MIC1/2, MIC and MIC2 concentration levels. In addition, the effects on the cell viability, nitric oxide(NO), tumor necrosis factor(TNF)-${\alpha}$ and interleukin (IL)-6 productions of LPS activated Raw 264.7 cells. The changes on the mammary tissue viable bacterial numbers, myeloperoxidae(MPO), inducible nitric oxide synthetase(iNOS), TNF-${\alpha}$ and IL-6 contents were observed in the S. aureus in vivo intramammary infectious rat model. The anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory effects were compared with ciprofloxacin and piroxicam, respectively in the present study. Results: MIC of GJS and ciprofloxacin against S. aureus were detected as $0.860{\pm}0.428$ (0.391-1.563) mg/ml and $0.371{\pm}0.262$(0.098-0.782) ${\mu}g/ml$, respectively. In addition, GJS and ciprofloxacin were also showed marked dosage-dependent inhibition of the both bacterial invasion and intracellular killing assays using MCF-7 and Raw 264.7 cells at MIC1/2, MIC and $MIC{\times}2$ concentrations, respectively. $ED_{50}$ against LPS-induced cell viabilities and NO, TNF-${\alpha}$ and IL-6 releases of GJS were detected as 0.72, 0.04, 0.08 and 0.11 mg/ml, and as 19.04, 4.18, 5.37 and 4.27 ${\mu}g/ml$ in piroxicam, respectively. 250 and 500 mg/kg of GJS also inhibit the intramammary bacterial growth, MPO, iNOS, TNF-${\alpha}$ and IL-6 contents in S. aureus in vivo intramammary infected rats, respectively. GJS 500 mg/kg showed quite similar antibacterial and anti-infectious effects as compared with ciprofloxacin 40 mg/kg and also showed similar anti-inflammatory effects as piroxicam 10 mg/kg, in S. aureus in vivo intramammary infectious models. Conclusions: The results obtained in this study suggest that over 250 mg/kg of GJS showed favorable anti-infectious effects against S. aureus infection in a rat model through their antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and anti-oxidant effects and therefore expected that GJS can be used as alternative therapies, having both anti-inflammatory and anti-infectious activities. However, more detail mechanism studies should be conducted in future with the efficacy tests of individual herbal composition of GJS and the screening of the biological active compounds in individual herbs. In the present study, GJS 500 mg/kg showed quite similar anti-infectious effects were detected as compared with ciprofloxacin 40 mg/kg treated rats, and also GJS shows quite similar anti-inflammatory effects as compared with piroxicam 10 mg/kg in S. aureus in vivo intramammary infectious rats, but ciprofloxacin did not showed any anti-inflammatory effects, and piroxicam did not showed anti-infectious effects in this study.

Relationship of Somatic Cell Count and Mastitis: An Overview

  • Sharma, N.;Singh, N.K.;Bhadwal, M.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.429-438
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    • 2011
  • Mastitis is characterized by physical, chemical and bacteriological changes in the milk and pathological changes in the glandular tissue of the udder and affects the quality and quantity of milk. The bacterial contamination of milk from the affected cows render it unfit for human consumption and provides a mechanism of spread of diseases like tuberculosis, sore-throat, Q-fever, brucellosis, leptospirosis etc. and has zoonotic importance. Somatic cell count (SCC) is a useful predictor of intramammary infection (IMI) that includes leucocytes (75%) i.e. neutrophils, macrophages, lymphocytes, erythrocytes and epithelial cells (25%). Leucocytes increase in response to bacterial infection, tissue injury and stress. Somatic cells are protective for the animal body and fight infectious organisms. An elevated SCC in milk has a negative influence on the quality of raw milk. Subclinical mastitis is always related to low milk production, changes to milk consistency (density), reduced possibility of adequate milk processing, low protein and high risk for milk hygiene since it may even contain pathogenic organisms. This review collects and collates relevant publications on the subject.

Diagnosis and Chemotherapy of Mycotic Mastitis (소의 진균성유방염의 진단과 화학요법 1예)

  • Pal Mahendra;Lee Chang-Woo
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.53-57
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    • 1991
  • Opportunistic mycotic infection of mammary gland due to Candida tropicalis is described in a 7-year-old Holstein Friesian cow with a history of prologned use of antibiotics and corticosteroids. C. tropicalis was repeatedly isolated from the mastitic milk on simplified sunflower seed medium at 30$^{\circ}C$. The pathogen was directly detected in the infected milk by 'PHOL' technique. Microscopic examination of Gram stained smears of milk sediment revealed numerous yeast cells and hyphae morphologically consistent with Candida spp. In vitro drug sensitivity test indicated that C. tropicalis was sensitive to nystatin. Chemotherapy with intramammary infusion of nystatin was successful as evidenced by clinical and mycological observations. It emphasizes the growing significance of Candida spp. and other opportunistic fungal pathogens in Veterinary medicine.

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A study on efficacy of chitosan on bovine mastitis (젖소 유방염에 대한 키토산의 효능에 관한 연구)

  • Moon, Jin-san;Joo, Yi-seok;Ku, Bok-gyeong;Kim, Jong-yeom;Kim, Duck-won;Park, Yong-ho;Hahn, Tae-wook
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.71-76
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    • 1998
  • The effects of chitosan on mastitis in lactating holstein cows were evaluated. Fifty six cows with intramammary infection(IMI) from nine farms were selected and the cows were fed with diets which contained 15~20g chitosan per day for 5~7 days. The milk samples were obtained from cows at 7 days and 14 days after administration to determine effect of the curing of mastitis and the reduction of somatic cell counts(SCC). The average value of SCC levels in quarter milk from the cows administrated with chitosan significantly decreased up to 31.8% and 47.7% at 7 and 14 days, respectively(P<0.05). The cure rates of chitosan for Stapylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative Staphylococci, Streptococci spp, other gram positive bacteria and coliforms were 30.4, 42.8, 33.3, 66.6 and 54.5 % respectively. Twenty three out of 64 cases were cured by feeding with chitosan. The results showed that administration of chitosan could reduce SCC in milk and improve cure rates of bovine mastitis caused by microorganisms. The further studies will be pursued to study on the mechanism of chitosan in the immune responses of cows with mastitis.

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A Field Trial as Dry-cow Therapy Using Nophazin (norfloxacin mixed cephalexin) in Mastitis Control (건유기 유방염 치료제 Nophazin리 야외응용시험)

  • 손봉환;황현순;김종훈;최진영
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.130-140
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    • 1990
  • A field test using Nophazin (drying off period therapeutics) was done from May, 1989 to October, 1989. 299 quarters of 75 cows from 28 herds were tested. The results were summarized as follows. 1. At the day 7 after parturition, CMT-was 81.60%, clots were removed perfectly, removal rate of hard, hot, pain was 99.6%, only one hard 0.35% was maintained. Recovery rate of general symptoms was 100%. 2. Recovery rate in Nophazin treatment was 100% in Micro-coccus SPP, Corynebacterium SPP, and unisolated, 97.06% in Enterobacterid SPP, 95.58% in Staphylococcus SPP, 91.67% in other Bacilli, 89.19% in Streptococcus SPP, Overall recovery rate was 95.32%, And fungi did not react. 3. The ratio of isolated microorganisms was Staphylococcus SPP 49.8%, Streptococcus SPP 16.3%, Enterobacteria SPP 15.0%, Micrococcus SPP 7.9% Corynebacterium SPP 4.4%, Pseudomonas SPP 2.6%, Bacilli 2.6% and Fungi 1.3%. 4. The range of sensitivity of each microorganism to therapeutics is as follow : Staphylococcus SPP 61.1∼94.7%, Streptococcus SPP 51.4∼91.9%, Micrococcus SPP 44.4∼94.4%, Corynebacterium SPP 70∼80%, Enterobacteria SPP 11.8∼88.2%, and other Gram negative bacilli 8.3∼83.3%. Overall sensitivity was in the range of 50.4∼92.0%, Microorganisms showed the highest sensitivity (80∼94.7%) to Nophazin. 5. New intramammary infection rate was 3.96% (9 strains) at paturition, 8.37% (19 strains) at the day 7 after paturition. Persistent organism wits 6.17% .(14 strains). 6. There was no side effect of Nophazin treatment.

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Distribution and characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus subtypes isolated from dairy herds (젖소 목장에서 분리된 황색포도상구균의 아형 분포와 특성)

  • Yoo, Jong-hyun;Park, Hee-myung;Oh, Tae-ho;Sohn, Dae-ho;Han, Hong-ryul
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.39 no.5
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    • pp.995-1005
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    • 1999
  • Staphylococcus aureus is one of most prevalent intramammary pathogens and have characteristics which are not easily eradicated. Recently, to understand the sources and transmission of S aureus, many studies have focused on the subtyping of field isolate. This study was preformed to investigate the distribution pattern and characteristics of the isolates using phenotyping and genotyping. Samples were collected from milk of each udder, cow bodies (perianal region, vagina, tail, udder skin, sole) and environment (floor, liner, milker's hands, water, towel, insect) from 6 herds located in Kyung-gi province. Forty five strains of S aureus were isolated from 3 dairy herds (A, B, C) and were typed by hemolytic pattern, antibiotic resistant pattern, enterotoxin typing and PCR-based DNA fingerprinting. Slime productivity was also compared by each subtype to examine potential infectiousness. Of 45 strains, 41 were isolated from milk samples and 4 were isolated from liners. No strains isolated in the bodies and environment. Forty five strains isolated were classified as 18 subtypes by phenotyping and genotyping. There was common subtype between A and B herd, but the subtype of C herd showed different pattern. Among predominant subtypes, 60% of S aureus strain isolated from A and B herd showed subtype I and 50% of S aureus strain isolated from C herd belonged to subtype VI and X II. Neither somatic cell count (SCC) nor slime production was significantly different between predominant and minor subtypes. In summary, the study revealed that liners play more important roles in the mode of transmission than environmental sources. Several subtypes can be found in a herd, only a few subtype, however, was largely associated with the majority of infection.

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