• Title, Summary, Keyword: Intestine

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Resource conservation using whole body autophagy: Self-digestion of shedded gut lining cells in the small intestine

  • Lee, Phil Jun;Cho, Namki;Yoo, Hee Min;Chang, Sun-Young;Ko, Hyun-Jeong;Kim, Hong Pyo
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.52 no.3
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    • pp.244-248
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    • 2020
  • To retain valuable resources, organisms adopt several strategies including coprophagy. Cells covering the outer skin and internal digestive lumen are actively recycled to maintain their integrity. In present study, we suggested that the small intestine can consume dead cells in a manner similar to how it consumes protein from the diet. We examined the eluates from five segments of the mouse small intestine and cecum and 2 segments of the large intestine and small intestine tissue, and detected immunoreactivity with eukaryotic caveolin-1 and β-actin antibodies only in the cecum and 2 segments from the large intestine. Bacterial agitation of the mouse intestine with Shigella disrupted the architecture and absorptive function of the small intestine. Small intestine eluates were immunoreactive with murine caveolin-1 and contained heme as determined by dot blot analysis. We concluded that the body conserves resources in the small intestine by disposing of and recycling shedded cells.

Frictional Behavior of Solid and Hollow Cylinders in Contact Against a Porcine Intestine Specimen

  • Kim, Young-Tae;Kim, Dae-Eun;Park, Suk-Ho;Yoon, Eui-Sung
    • KSTLE International Journal
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.51-55
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    • 2006
  • In order to design an effective foot surface which can provide adequate friction for a self-propelled medical microrobot moving inside the small intestine, frictional mechanisms between the small intestine inner wall and the foot surface of the robot must be understood. In this paper, mechanical interlocking effect was considered to design the surface of the foot that can generate the desired frictional force. The concept of the design was derived from the hookworm that lives inside the small intestine. Hookwarms are known to adhere to the small intestine wall by interlocking with villi on the surface of the small intestine. The interlocking mechanism was considered as the main frictional mechanism for the design of the microrobot foot surface in this work. 2 mm and 6 mm diameter solid and hollow cylindrical shaped foot specimens were designed and tested to assess the frictional force between the specimens and the porcine small intestine specimen.

An immunohistochemical study of endocrine cells in the alimentary tract of the snake, Rhabdophis tigrinus tigrinus

  • Lee, Jae-hyun;Ku, Sae-kwang;Lee, Hyeung-sik
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.689-697
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    • 1999
  • The regional distribution and relative frequency of endocrine cells in the alimentary tract of the snake, Rhabdophis tigrinus tigrinus, were investigated by immunohistochemical method using 7 antisera. Chromogranin (Cg)-, glucagon-, somatostatin-, gastrin/cholecystokinin (Gas/CCK)-, serotonin-, bovine pancreatic polypeptide (BPP)-immunoreactive cells were identified in this study. Cg-immunoreactive cells were detected throughout the alimentary tract including the esophagus, with predominant frequency in the pylorus. Numerous immunoreactive cells were observed from the esophagus to the pylorus but a few cells were detected in the large intestine. Glucagon-immunoreactive cells were observed from the proximal portions to the distal portions of the small intestine. They were increased to the middle portions but thereafter decreased, and no cells were found in the terminal portions. Somatostatin-immunoreactive cells were restricted to the small intestine and these cells were decreased toward to distal portions of the small intestine. Gas/CCK-immunoreactive cells were detected in the pylorus and small intestine. They were most predominant in the pylorus and the proximal portions of the small intestine but thereafter decreased toward to the distal regions. Serotonin-immunoreactive cells were observed throughout the alimentary tract. They were most predominant in the pylorus and proximal portions of the small intestine but a few cells were observed in the large intestine. BPP-immunoreactive cells were restricted to the distal portions of the small intestine with rare frequency. No bombesin-immunoreactive cells were found in this study.

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Understanding Starch Utilization in the Small Intestine of Cattle

  • Harmon, David L.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.7
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    • pp.915-922
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    • 2009
  • Ruminants possess the capacity to digest very large amounts of starch. However, in many cases diets approach 60% starch and even small inefficiencies present opportunities for energetic losses. Ruminal starch digestion is typically 75-80% of starch intake. On average, 35-60% of starch entering the small intestine is degraded. Of the fraction that escapes small-intestinal digestion, 35-50% is degraded in the large intestine. The low digestibility in the large intestine and the inability to reclaim microbial cells imposes a large toll on post-ruminal digestive efficiency. Therefore, digestibility in the small intestine must be optimized. The process of starch assimilation in the ruminant is complex and remains an avenue by which increases in production efficiency can be gained. A more thorough description of these processes is needed before we can accurately predict digestion occurring in the small intestine and formulate diets to optimize site of starch digestion.

Effects of Ginseng Saponin on the Transport of 3-O-Methylglucose in the Isolated Rat Intestine(I) (인삼 사포닌이 3-O-Methylglucose의 장관내 흡수에 미치는 영향(I))

  • 김낙두;이종욱
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.115-119
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    • 1978
  • The effects of ginseng saponin on the transport of 3-O-methylglucose (=3-O-MG) in an isolated rat intestine were studied by using modified Wiseman's circulating unit. Gineseng saponin inhibited significantly the intestinal absorption of 3-O-MG when it was circulated together with ginseng saponin through the isolated intestine. Ginseng saponin was given to rats intraperitoneally and orally, and the intestine isolated from the rats after one and four hours was used for the study of glucose absorption. When buffer solution containing 3-O-MG was circulated through the isolated intestine isolated after one hour, whereas the absorption was increased in the intestine after four hours. The results indicate that intestinal absorption of 3-O-MG was inhibited when the saponin is contained in the same circulation medium. However, the inhibition of absorption was not significant in the intestine of rats which were previously exposed to the saponin orally or intraperitoneally.

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INVESTIGATION OF ENDOSCOPE CAPSULE DESIGN ON THE FRICTIONAL RESISTANCE INSIDE THE INTESTINE

  • Baek, N.K.;Sung, I.H.;Kim, J.S.;Kim, D.E.
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers Conference
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    • pp.367-368
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    • 2002
  • The design of capsule body for self-propelled endoscope is important from the frictional resistance point of view. The capsule should be able to overcome the frictional resistance in order to move along the intestine. The motivation of this work was to gain a better understanding of the capsule body design on the frictional resistance of the capsule inside an intestine. A special experimental set-up was built to measure the frictional resistance as the capsule was being pulled inside the pig intestine specimen. Tests were performed with open and closed intestine specimens. Experimental data showed that smooth cylindrical capsule geometry resulted in the least frictional resistance. The resistance inside the closed intestine specimen was about four times higher than that of the open specimen. It is expected that the results of this work will be used to design the optimum propulsion system for the microendoscope.

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Transfer of Cupric Sulfate across Rat Small Intestine, in Vitro and Effect of Chelating Agents on It's Transfer

  • Kim, Chong-Kil;Choi, Seung-Gi;Rho, Young-Soo
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.81-86
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    • 1988
  • The transfer of cupric sulfate across the rat small intestine in vitro was studied by perfusion method using the segments of everted rat small intestine. Copper transport was approximately propotional to the metal concentration in the mucosal solution and no difference was observed in the metal transport among rat duodenum, jejunum and ileum. It was suggested from these results that copper transport across the rat small intestine would occur by passive diffusion. The effect of various chelating agents on copper transport across the rat small intestine n vitro and its uptake by the intestine were also studied. Copper transport was greatly enhanced in the presence of EDTA and NTA. Copper uptake decreased to a greater extent in the presence of EPTA and NTA.

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An Effect of Carbon Tetrachloride Treatment on the Xanthine Oxidase Activity of Small Intestine in Rats (흰쥐에 사염화탄소역여시 소장 Xanthine Oxidase 활성 변동)

  • 윤종국
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.67-74
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    • 1990
  • An effect of carbon tetrachloride (CCl$_{4}$) was studied on the xanthine oxidase(XOD)activity of small intestine in male rats. Concomitantly a cause of increasing small intestine XOD was focused on an effect of actinomycin D and the kinetics of partial purified XOD frdm small intestine in CCl$_{4}$ intoxicated rats. An injection of CCl$_{4}$ to the rats showed an increase of small intestine XOD. In the pretreatment of actinomycin D before injection of CCl$_{4}$ to the rats, the XOD activities of small intestine were significantly decreased. In the partial purified enzyme preparation, the small intestine XOD in CCl$_{4}$ intoxicated rats showed the more increased Km and Vmax value with xanthine as substrate than that of control group.

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Physiology of Small and Large Intestine of Swine - Review -

  • Mosenthin, R.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.11 no.5
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    • pp.608-619
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    • 1998
  • The small and the large intestine of swine represent the organs that extract nutrients from feedstuffs through digestion and fermentation and that allow their absorption and incorporation into the blood circulation. Special attention is directed towards the small intestine of young pigs since the transition to a solid diet at weaning exerts major impacts on the structural and functional integrity of the small intestine. Dietary factors involved in postweaning changes of gut morphology and biochemistry such as removal of bioactive compounds in sows milk at weaning, anti-nutritional factors in weaner diets, dietary fiber and the role of voluntary feed intake will be elucidated. The microbial function of the large intestine which is carried out by a diverse population of microorganisms is dependent on substrate availability. Short chain fatty acids as main fermentation products contribute to the energy supply of the host but they are also important for the maintenance of the morphological and functional integrity of the epithelium in the colon. As a result of bacterial nitrogen assimilation in the large intestine, nitrogen is shifted from the urinary to the fecal excretion route thus saving metabolic energy to the pig because less ammonia would become available for conversion to urea.

Digestive Physiological Characteristics of the Gobiidae - Characteristics of CCK-producing Cells and Mucus-secreting Goblet Cells of Stomach Fish and Stomachless Fish -

  • Hur, Sang-Woo;Kim, Shin-Kwon;Kim, Dae-Jung;Lee, Bae-Ik;Park, Su-Jin;Hwang, Hyung-Gyu;Jun, Je-Cheon;Myeong, Jeong-In;Lee, Chi-Hoon;Lee, Young-Don
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.207-217
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    • 2016
  • In this study, we investigated the characteristics of CCK-producing cells and mucus-secreting goblet cells with respect to stomach fish and stomachless fish of the Gobiidae in order to provide a basis for understanding the digestive physiology. Hairychin goby (Sagamia geneionema), which is stomachless fish, the numbers of mucus-secreting goblet cells is highest in the posterior intestine portion (P<0.05), while CCK-producing cells are scattered throughout the intestine. Gluttonous goby (Chasmichthys gulosus), which is stomach fish, mucus-secreting goblet cells are most abundant in the mid intestine portion (P<0.05), whereas CCK-producing cells are observed only in the anterior and mid intestine portion. Trident goby (Tridentiger obscurus) which is stomach fish, mucus-secreting goblet cells were most abundant in the mid intestine portion (P<0.05). CCK-producing cells are found in the anterior and mid intestine portion. Giurine goby, Rhinogobius giurinus which is also stomach fish, the largest number of mucus-secreting goblet cells showed in anterior intestine portion except for esophagus (P<0.05). CCK-producing cells are present only in the anterior and mid intestine portion. In S. geneionema, digestive action occurs in the posterior intestine portion to protect and functions to activate digestion. In contrast, in C. gulosus, T. obscurus and R. giurinus, their digestive action occurs in the anterior and mid intestine portion to protect and functions to activate digestion. Further studies of the modes of food ingestion by these fish, the contents of their digestive tracts, and the staining characteristics of the goblet cells need to be carried out.