• Title, Summary, Keyword: Intestinal Morphology

Search Result 132, Processing Time 0.044 seconds

Dietary spray-dried plasma improves intestinal morphology of mated female mice under stress condition

  • Liu, Yanhong;Choe, Jeehwan;Kim, Sheena;Kim, Byeonghyeon;Campbell, Joy M.;Polo, Javier;Crenshaw, Joe D.;Pettigrew, James E.;Song, Minho
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.60 no.6
    • /
    • pp.10.1-10.6
    • /
    • 2018
  • Background: Stress causes inflammation that impairs intestinal barrier function. Dietary spray-dried plasma (SDP) has recognized anti-inflammatory effects and improvement of gut barrier function. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary SDP on intestinal morphology of mated female mice under stress condition. Results: Villus height, width, and area of small intestines were low on gestation day (GD) 3 or 4 under stress conditions, and higher later (Time, P < 0.05). Crypt depth of colon was low on GD 4 and higher later (Time, P < 0.05). Meanwhile, the SDP treatments improved (P < 0.05) intestinal morphology, indicated by increased villus height, villus width, villus area, and ratio between villus height and crypt depth of small intestines and crypt depth of colon, and by decreased crypt depth of small intestines, compared with the control diet. The SDP treatments also increased (P < 0.05) the number of goblet cells in intestines compared with the control diet. There were no differences between different levels of SDP. Conclusion: Dietary SDP improves intestinal morphology of mated female mice under stress condition.

Effects of Cu (II)-exchanged Montmorillonite on Growth Performance, Intestinal Microflora, Bacterial Enzyme Activities and Morphology of Broilers

  • Xu, Z.R.;Ma, Y.L.;Hu, C.H.;Xia, M.S.;Guo, T.;Jin, H.L.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.16 no.11
    • /
    • pp.1673-1679
    • /
    • 2003
  • Two hundred forty 1-d-old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were used to investigate the effects of Cu (II)-exchanged montmorillonite (CEM) or montmorillonite on the growth performance, intestinal microflora, bacterial enzyme activities and morphology of broilers. The chicks were assigned randomly into three groups with 80 chicks per treatment. The three dietary treatments were basal diet only (control group), basal diet +1 g $kg^{-1}$ montmorillonite, and basal diet +1 g $kg^{-1}$ CEM. The results showed that the addition of CEM to the diet increased significantly the body weight and feed efficiency, but a similarly significant increase was not found in broilers fed the diet containing montmorillonite. Supplementing the CEM in the diet of broilers also decreased the numbers of Clostridium perfringens and Escherichia coli in the small intestine and cecum. The addition of either CEM or montmorillonite to the diet depressed the activities of $\beta$-glucosidase and $\beta$-glucuronidase in the small intestinal and cecal contents. Data of villus height and crypt depth for duodenum, jejunum and ileum indicated that dietary addition of CEM or montmorillonite improved the small intestinal mucosal morphology.

Effects of Lactitol and Tributyrin on Growth Performance, Small Intestinal Morphology and Enzyme Activity in Weaned Pigs

  • Hou, Y.Q.;Liu, Y.L.;Hu, J.;Shen, W.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.19 no.10
    • /
    • pp.1470-1477
    • /
    • 2006
  • One hundred and sixty crossbred pigs ($6.62{\pm}0.36kg$) weaned at day $18{\pm}1$ were used to investigate the effects of lactitol and tributyrin on performance, small intestinal morphology and enzyme activity. The pigs were assigned to one of five dietary groups (4 pens/diet with 8 pigs/pen) and were fed the negative control diet or the negative control diet supplemented with 10 g/kg glutamine (as a positive control), or 3 g/kg lactitol (${\beta}$-D-galactopyranosyl-($1{\rightarrow}4$)-D-sorbitol), or 5 g/kg tributyrin (butanoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester), or 3 g/kg lactitol+5 g/kg tributyrin. Body weight and feed intake were measured weekly during the 4-week study. On day 7, four pigs per dietary treatment were sacrificed to examine small intestinal morphology and enzyme activity. The results showed that: (1) Compared with the negative control diet, the positive control diet improved weight gain and feed efficiency during weeks 1-2 and over the entire study (p<0.05), and also decreased duodenal and ileal crypt depth (p<0.05), but did not alter intestinal enzyme activity (p>0.05). Lactitol improved feed efficiency during weeks 3-4 and over the entire study (p<0.05), but did not improve weight gain and feed intake, intestinal morphology or enzyme activity (p>0.05). Tributyrin improved weight gain and reduced feed/gain during weeks 3-4 and over the entire study. Tributyrin significantly decreased crypt depth in the duodenum and ileum, and increased duodenal lactase and ileal maltase activity (p<0.05). Lactitol+tributyrin increased weight gain during weeks 3-4 and over the entire study, and improved feed efficiency during weeks 1-2 and 3-4 and over the entire study (p<0.05). Lactitol+tributyrin increased the jejunal villus height, and decreased the duodenal and ileal crypt depth (p<0.05). Lactitol+tributyrin also increased jejunal lactase and sucrase activity (p<0.05). (2) Compared with the positive control, tributyrin improved weight gain and reduced feed/gain during weeks 3-4 (p<0.05), decreased the ileal crypt depth, and improved the duodenal lactase and sucrase activity (p<0.05). Lactitol+ tributyrin improved weight gain during weeks 3-4, improved feed efficiency during weeks 3-4 and over the entire study, increased the ileal villus height, and increased jejunal lactase, sucrase and maltase activity (p<0.05). These results showed that tributyrin improved performance, intestinal morphology and enzyme activity, while the effect of lactitol was very limited. These results also showed that, compared with glutamine, tributyrin was more effective in improving intestinal morphology and enzyme activity, and tributyrin exerted a superior effect in improving performance as weaning progressed. These observations suggest that, as a chemical for repairing intestinal atrophy, glutamine and tributyrin should be used in the first and second periods of the starter phase, respectively.

Comparative Effects of Sodium Gluconate, Mannan Oligosaccharide and Potassium Diformate on Growth Performances and Small Intestinal Morphology of Nursery Pigs

  • Poeikhampha, T.;Bunchasak, C.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.24 no.6
    • /
    • pp.844-850
    • /
    • 2011
  • This study was conducted to compare the effects of dietary supplementation of Sodium Gluconate (SG), Mannan Oligosaccharide (MOS) and Potassium Diformate (PDF) on growth performance and small intestinal morphology in nursery piglets. One hundred forty four female piglets ($11.69{\pm}0.71\;kg$) were divided into 4 treatments with six replicates of six pigs each. The pigs received a control diet or diets supplemented with SG, MOS and PDF at 2,500, 3,000 and 8,000 ppm; respectively, for 6 weeks. Supplementation of SG, MOS or PDF increased final body weight, average daily gain and tended to improve feed to gain ratio (p = 0.02, 0.04 and 0.16; respectively), other than average daily feed intake, intestinal pH and the bacterial populations were not influenced by the dietary treatments. SG significantly decreased the ammonia concentration in the caecum (p<0.05) and supplementation of SG, MOS or PDF tended to increase lactic acid and total short chain fatty acid concentration in the caecum (p = 0.08, 0.09; respectively), in addition SG, MOS or PDF slightly increased butyric acid concentration in the caecum (p = 0.14). SG highly significant increased the villous height in jejunum (p<0.01) and supplementing SG, MOS or PDF significantly increased crypt depth in jejunum (p<0.05), moreover, PDF significantly increased villous height and crypt depth ratio in jejunum (p<0.05) compared with control. The dietary treatments did not influence villous height and crypt depth in duodenum and villous height in jejunum (p>0.05). It can be concluded that supplementing SG, MOS or PDF as a feed additive has the potential to improve the growth performance, the intestinal lactic acid bacteria population, intestinal short-chain fatty acid concentration and the intestinal morphology of pigs.

Sea Tangle Supplementation Alters Intestinal Morphology in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats and Lowers Glucose Absorption

  • Lee, Kyeung-Soon;Seo, Jung-Sook;Choi, Young-Sun
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
    • /
    • v.16 no.6
    • /
    • pp.879-883
    • /
    • 2007
  • This study examined whether dietary supplementation with sea tangle alters the intestinal morphology of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and affects the glucose absorption rate. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 2 groups and fed either a control (AIN76-based) diet or a sea tangle-supplemented diet. After 3 weeks, 10 rats in each group received an intramuscular injection of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg BW), and feeding was continued for 3 additional weeks. Dietary supplementation with sea tangle resulted in a lower fasting plasma glucose level compared with the control diet in diabetic rats. Scanning electron micrographs revealed serious damage to the jejunal villi of diabetic rats fed the control diet, whereas supplementation with sea tangle alleviated the damage. In a separate experiment, 20 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 2 groups and fed either a control diet or a sea tangle-supplemented diet for 5 weeks, and fasted rats were subjected to in situ single-pass perfusion. The glucose absorption rate determined in the absence of digesta was decreased by 34% in the jejunum of rats fed a sea tangle diet compared with those fed a control diet. In conclusion, sea tangle supplementation lowered glucose absorption rate, altered intestinal morphology, and appeared to protect villi from damage caused by diabetes mellitus.

Effects of Eco-friendly Multi-enzyme on Growth Performance, Intestinal Morphology, and Nutrient Digestibility of weaned Pigs (친환경 복합효소제 첨가가 이유자돈의 성장, 장내 형태학, 영양소 소화율에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Seong-Ki;Cho, Myung-Woo;Kim, Jun-Su;Jang, Ki-Beom;Kim, Sheen-A;Mun, Da-Ye;Kim, Byeong-Hyeon;Kim, Young-Hwa;Park, Jun-Cheol;Choe, Jee-Hwan;Song, Min-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
    • /
    • v.26 no.1
    • /
    • pp.141-149
    • /
    • 2018
  • This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of multi-enzyme on growth performance, intestinal morphology, and nutrient digestibility of weaned pigs. A total 36 weaned pigs ($5.92{\pm}0.48kg\;BW$; 28 d old) were randomly allotted to 2 dietary treatments (3 pigs/pen, 6 replicates/treatment) in a randomized complete block design. The dietary treatments were a typical diet based on corn and soybean meal (CON) and CON with 0.1% multi-enzyme (Multi; mixture of ${\beta}-mannanase$, xylanase, ${\alpha}-amylase$, protease, ${\beta}-glucanase$, and pectinase). Pigs were fed their respective diets for 6 wk. Measurements were growth performance, morphology of ileum, apparent ileal digestibility and apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, and energy of weaned pigs. There were no significant differences on growth performance during overall experimental period. No differences were found for the morphology of ileum and nutrient digestibility between CON and Multi groups. Therefore, the results in the current study indicated that multi-enzyme supplementation in diets had no effects on growth performance, intestinal morphology, and nutrient digestibility of weaned pigs.

Effects of dietary enzyme cocktail on growth performance, intestinal morphology, and nutrient digestibility of weaned pigs

  • Kim, Yunkang;Baek, Jangryeol;Jang, Kibeom;Kim, Junsu;Kim, Sheena;Mun, Daye;Kim, Byeonghyeon;Kim, Younghwa;Park, Juncheol;Choe, Jeehwan;Song, Minho
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
    • /
    • v.44 no.4
    • /
    • pp.513-518
    • /
    • 2017
  • Soybean, one of most widely used swine feed component in the world, contains non-starch polysaccharides (NSP). The digestive system of weaned pigs is not yet fully developed, and thus weaned pigs cannot easily digest diets based on corn and soybean meal. Dietary exogenous enzymes supplementation has been intensively investigated to assist digestion of anti-nutritional factors, such as NSP. This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary enzyme cocktail on growth performance, intestinal morphology, and nutrient digestibility of weaned pigs. A total 36 weaned pigs ($5.92{\pm}0.48kg\;BW$; 28 d old) were randomly allotted to 2 dietary treatments (3 pigs/pen, 6 replicates/treatment) in a randomized complete block design. The dietary treatments were a typical diet based on corn and soybean meal (CON) and CON with 0.05% enzyme cocktail (Cocktail; mixture of xylanase, ${\alpha}-amylase$, protease, ${\beta}-glucanase$, and pectinase). Pigs were fed their respective diets for 6 wk. Growth performance, morphology of ileum, apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter, crude protein, and energy of weaned pigs were measured. No significant differences (p > 0.05) were observed for growth performance for the duration of the experimental period, and morphology of ileum, and nutrient digestibility between CON and Cocktail treatment groups. Therefore, the results from the current study indicated that enzyme cocktail supplementation in diets had no influence on growth performance, intestinal morphology, and nutrient digestibility of weaned pigs.

Effects of Dietary Fructooligosaccharide on Digestive Enzyme Activities, Intestinal Microflora and Morphology of Growing Pigs

  • Xu, Z.R.;Zou, X.T.;Hu, C.H.;Xia, M.S.;Zhan, X.A.;Wang, M.Q.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.15 no.12
    • /
    • pp.1784-1789
    • /
    • 2002
  • One hundred and twenty-eight growing barrows (Jiaxing Black${\times}$Duroc${\times}$Landrace) at an average BW of 20.8 kg were allocated to four treatments for 42 days, each of which was replicated four times with eight pigs per replicate and used to investigate the effects of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) on digestive enzyme activities, intestinal microflora and morphology of growing pigs. The pigs received the same basal corn-soybean meal diet and FOS was added to the basal diet at 0, 2, 4, 6 g/kg diet at the expense of corn, respectively. As compared to control, supplementation with 4 and 6 g/kg FOS significantly improved average daily gain and feed efficiency. Addition of FOS enhanced the growth of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus, but inhibited Clostridium and Escherichia coli in the small intestinal and proximal colonic contents. Supplementation with 4 and 6 g/kg FOS significantly improved the activities of total protease, trypsin and amylase in the small intestinal contents. However, FOS had no significant effect on the activity of lipase in the small intestinal contents as well as the digestive enzymes in pancreas. Morphological measurement of jejunal mucosa did show response to consumption of FOS. Villus height and the villus height to crypt depth ratio at the jejunal mucosa were significantly higher with 4 and 6 g/kg FOS supplementation as compared to control.

Effect of Lactobacillus salivarius on growth performance, diarrhea incidence, fecal bacterial population and intestinal morphology of suckling pigs challenged with F4+ enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

  • Sayan, Harutai;Assavacheep, Pornchalit;Angkanaporn, Kris;Assavacheep, Anongnart
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.31 no.8
    • /
    • pp.1308-1314
    • /
    • 2018
  • Objective: Gut health improvements were monitored with respect to growth performance, diarrhea incidence, fecal bacterial population and intestinal morphology of suckling pigs orally supplemented with live Lactobacillus salivarius (L. salivarius) oral suspensions and challenged with $F4^+$ enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). Methods: Two groups of newborn pigs from 18 multiparous sows were randomly designated as non-supplemented (control: n = 114 piglets) and L. salivarius supplemented groups (treatment: n = 87 piglets). Treatment pigs were orally administered with 2 mL of $10^9$ colony-forming unit (CFU)/mL L. salivarius on days 1 to 3, then they were orally administered with 5 mL of $10^9CFU/mL$ L. salivarius on days 4 to 10, while those in control group received an equal amount of phosphate buffered saline solution. On day 24 (2 weeks post supplementation), one pig per replicate of both groups was orally administered with $10^8CFU/mL$ $F4^+$ ETEC, then they were euthanized on day 29 of experiment. Results: Results revealed that pigs in treatment group had a statistically significant increase in average daily gain, body weight and weight gain, and tended to lower diarrhea throughout the study. Numbers of Lactobacillus population in feces of treatment pigs were higher than control pigs, especially on day 10 of study. Numbers of total bacteria in intestinal contents of control pigs were also increased, but not Coliform and Lactobacillus populations. Histological examination revealed statistically significant improvements of villous height and villous/crypt ratio of duodenum, proximal jejunum and distal jejunum parts of treatment pigs compared with controls. Duodenal pH of treatment group was significantly decreased. Conclusion: Oral supplementation of live L. salivarius during the first 10 days of suckling pig promoted growth performance and gut health, reduced diarrhea incidence, increased fecal Lactobacillus populations and improved intestinal morphology.

Effects of Feeding Solid-state Fermented Rapeseed Meal on Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Intestinal Ecology and Intestinal Morphology of Broiler Chickens

  • Chiang, G.;Lu, W.Q.;Piao, X.S.;Hu, J.K.;Gong, L.M.;Thacker, P.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.23 no.2
    • /
    • pp.263-271
    • /
    • 2010
  • This trial was conducted to determine the effects of feeding a diet containing solid-state fermented rapeseed meal on performance, nutrient digestibility, intestinal ecology and intestinal morphology of broiler chickens. A mixed liquid culture, containing approximately 5 log cfu/ml Lactobacillus fermentum, Enterococcus faecium, Saccharomyces cerevisae and Bacillus subtilis was prepared in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. A basal substrate (BS) containing 75% rapeseed, 24% wheat bran and 1% brown sugar was mixed with the liquid culture in a ratio of 10:3. Over the 30-day fermentation, isothiocyanates were reduced from 119.6 to 14.7 mmol/kg. A total of 168, day-old male Arbor Acres broiler chicks were assigned to one of three dietary treatments including a corn-soybean meal based control diet as well as two experimental diets in which the control diet was supplemented with 10% of the BS containing unfermented rapeseed meal or 10% of the BS containing rapeseed meal subjected to solid state fermentation. There were 8 pens per treatment and 7 birds per pen. From days 19-21 and days 40-42, uncontaminated excreta were collected from each pen for digestibility determinations. In addition, digesta from the colon and ceca were collected to determine the number of lactobacilli, enterobacteria and total aerobes. The middle sections of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were collected for intestinal morphology. Over the entire experimental period (d 1-42), the weight gain and feed conversion of birds fed fermented rapeseed meal were superior (p<0.05) to that of birds fed nonfermented rapeseed meal and did not differ from the soybean control. On day 42, birds fed fermented rapeseed meal had higher (p<0.05) total tract apparent digestibility coefficients for dry matter, energy, and calcium than birds fed non-fermented rapeseed meal. Colon and ceca digesta from broilers fed the fermented feed had higher (p<0.05) lactobacilli counts than birds fed the control and non-fermented rapeseed meal diets on day 21 and 42. Fermentation also improved (p<0.05) villus height and the villus height:crypt depth ratio in the ileum and jejunum on day 21 and 42. The results indicate that solid-state fermentation of rapeseed meal enhanced performance and improved the intestinal morphology of broilers and may allow greater quantities of rapeseed meal to be fed to broilers potentially reducing the cost of broiler production.