• Title, Summary, Keyword: Intervention Programs

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An Analysis of Referrals, Nursing Diagnosis, and Nursing Interventions in Home Care - Wonju Christian Hospital Community Health Nursing Service - (가정간호 기록지 분석 - 원주기독병원 가정간호 보건활동을 중심으로 -)

  • Suh, Mi-Hae;Huh, Hae-Kyung
    • Journal of Korean Academic Society of Home Health Care Nursing
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    • v.3
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    • pp.53-66
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    • 1996
  • Home Health Care is one part of the total health care system. It includes health care services that link the hospital to the community. While it is important for early discharge patients, home care is also important for people with chronic illnesses or handicapping conditions. In 1989 the Korean government passed a law that opened the way for formal development of home health care services beginning with education programs to certify nurses for home care, and then demonstration home care services. Part of the mandate of the demonstration projects was evaluation of home care services. This study was done in order to provide basic data that would contribute to the development of records that could be used for evaluation through a retrospective audit and to examine the care that had been given in Home Care at Wonju Christian Hospital over a twenty year period from 1974 to 1994. The purposes of the study were : to identify to characteristics of the clients who had received home care, to identify the reasons for client referrals, to identify the nursing problems of these clients, to identify the nursing care provided to these clients, and to identify differences in these areas over the twenty year period. The study was a descriptive study involving a retrospective audit of the client records. Demographic data on all clients were included : 4,171 clients from 2,564 families. Data on referrals, nursing diagnosis and nursing interventions were from even numbered records which had a patient problem list included in the record, 2,801 clients, Frequencies and ANOVA were used in the analysis. The results of the study showed that the majority of the clients were from Wonju city /county. There were more women than men related to the high number of postpartum clients(1,300). The high number of postparttum clients and newborns was also evident in the age distribution. An the number of maternal-child clients decreased over the 20 years, the mean age of the clients increased significantly. Other factors also contributed to this change ; as increasing number of clients with brain injuries or with cancer, and fewer children with burns, osteomyelitis and tuberculosis. There was a decrease in the mean number of visits and mean length of coverage, reflecting a movement towards a short term acute care model. The number of new clents dropped sharply after 1985. The reasons for this are : the development of other treatment alternatives for clients, the establishment of an active wellbaby clinic, many more options plus a decreasing number of new cases of Hansen's Disase, and insurance that allows people with burns to be kept in hospital until skin grafts are healed. Socioeconomic changes have resulted in an increase in the number of cases of cancer, stroke, head injuries following car accidents, and of diabetes. Of the 2,801 client records, 2,541(60.9%) contained a written referral but for 1,802 it contained only the medical diagnosis. The number of records with a referral requesting specific nursing care was 739(29.1%). Many family members who were identified as in need of nursing care had no written referral. Analysis of the patient problem list showed that 41.9% of the enteries were nursing diagnoses. Others incuded medical diagnosis, symptoms, and plans. The most frequently used diagnoses were alteration in nutrition, less than body requirements(115 entries), alteration in skin integrity(114), knowledge deficit(111), pain(78), self-care deficit(66), and alteration in pattern of urinary elimination(50). These are reflected in the NANDA categories for which the highest number of diagnosis was in the Exchanging pattern(446), followed by Moving(178), Feeling(136) and Knowing (115). Analysis of the frequency of interventions showed that exercise and teaching about exercise was the most frequent intervention, followed by teaching concering the need for follow-up care, checking vital signs, managing nutritional problems, managing catheters, giving emotional support, changing dressings, teaching about medication, teaching (subject not specified), teaching about diet, IM and IV medications or fluid, and skin care, in that order. Recommendations included: development of a record that would allow for efficient recording of frequently used nursing diagnoses and nursing interventions: expansion of the catchment area for Home Care at Wonju Christian Hospital ; expansion of the service to provide complication prevention, rehabilitation services, and support to increase the health maintenance /health promotion of the people being served as well as providing client dentered care ; and development of a clinical record that will allow efficient data collection from records, even though the recording is done by a variety of health care providers.

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Factors Related to Health Promoting Behaviors of Young-Old and Old-Old Elderly in Rural Areas (농촌지역 전기노인과 후기노인의 건강증진행위 관련요인)

  • Lee, Myung-Suk;Lim, Hyun-Ja
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.370-382
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    • 2010
  • Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of health promoting behaviors and the significant factors in rural elderly(young-old vs old-old). Methods: The data was collected using structured questionnaires from June 22th to Sep. 18th, 2009. A total of 556 elderly aged 65 years or over were selected from 14 rural districts in C province, South Korea. Age was divided into two groups as below 65-74 and 75 or older. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on the demographic characteristics, their perceived health status, the difficulty of activities of daily living, quality of life, self-efficacy and health promoting behaviors. The health promoting behaviors included nutrition, stress management, interpersonal support, exercise, health responsibility and self-actualization. The scores for health promoting behaviors were used mean and standard deviation. The data was analyzed using SPSS Win 12.0. Results: Of the 556 subjects, we found that the young-old(65-74 aged) were 359 and the old-old elderly(over 75 aged) were 197. We found that the level of health promoting behavior was higher for young-old ($2.75{\pm}0.374$) compared to old-old elderly people ($2.67{\pm}0.399$). In multiple linear regression, quality of life, self-efficacy, living with spouse, and number of generation living together for the young-old, and quality of life for old-old elderly were significantly associated with health promoting behaviors. Conclusions: The study findings indicate that there are age differences in associated factor of health promoting behaviors. Therefore our findings may provide useful assistance in developing effective intervention programs to improve health promoting behavior of the elderly in rural areas according to their age differences.

Analysis of Trading Performance on Intelligent Trading System for Directional Trading (방향성매매를 위한 지능형 매매시스템의 투자성과분석)

  • Choi, Heung-Sik;Kim, Sun-Woong;Park, Sung-Cheol
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.187-201
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    • 2011
  • KOSPI200 index is the Korean stock price index consisting of actively traded 200 stocks in the Korean stock market. Its base value of 100 was set on January 3, 1990. The Korea Exchange (KRX) developed derivatives markets on the KOSPI200 index. KOSPI200 index futures market, introduced in 1996, has become one of the most actively traded indexes markets in the world. Traders can make profit by entering a long position on the KOSPI200 index futures contract if the KOSPI200 index will rise in the future. Likewise, they can make profit by entering a short position if the KOSPI200 index will decline in the future. Basically, KOSPI200 index futures trading is a short-term zero-sum game and therefore most futures traders are using technical indicators. Advanced traders make stable profits by using system trading technique, also known as algorithm trading. Algorithm trading uses computer programs for receiving real-time stock market data, analyzing stock price movements with various technical indicators and automatically entering trading orders such as timing, price or quantity of the order without any human intervention. Recent studies have shown the usefulness of artificial intelligent systems in forecasting stock prices or investment risk. KOSPI200 index data is numerical time-series data which is a sequence of data points measured at successive uniform time intervals such as minute, day, week or month. KOSPI200 index futures traders use technical analysis to find out some patterns on the time-series chart. Although there are many technical indicators, their results indicate the market states among bull, bear and flat. Most strategies based on technical analysis are divided into trend following strategy and non-trend following strategy. Both strategies decide the market states based on the patterns of the KOSPI200 index time-series data. This goes well with Markov model (MM). Everybody knows that the next price is upper or lower than the last price or similar to the last price, and knows that the next price is influenced by the last price. However, nobody knows the exact status of the next price whether it goes up or down or flat. So, hidden Markov model (HMM) is better fitted than MM. HMM is divided into discrete HMM (DHMM) and continuous HMM (CHMM). The only difference between DHMM and CHMM is in their representation of state probabilities. DHMM uses discrete probability density function and CHMM uses continuous probability density function such as Gaussian Mixture Model. KOSPI200 index values are real number and these follow a continuous probability density function, so CHMM is proper than DHMM for the KOSPI200 index. In this paper, we present an artificial intelligent trading system based on CHMM for the KOSPI200 index futures system traders. Traders have experienced on technical trading for the KOSPI200 index futures market ever since the introduction of the KOSPI200 index futures market. They have applied many strategies to make profit in trading the KOSPI200 index futures. Some strategies are based on technical indicators such as moving averages or stochastics, and others are based on candlestick patterns such as three outside up, three outside down, harami or doji star. We show a trading system of moving average cross strategy based on CHMM, and we compare it to a traditional algorithmic trading system. We set the parameter values of moving averages at common values used by market practitioners. Empirical results are presented to compare the simulation performance with the traditional algorithmic trading system using long-term daily KOSPI200 index data of more than 20 years. Our suggested trading system shows higher trading performance than naive system trading.

CHARACTERISTICS OF DETAINED DELINQUENT ADOLESCENTS AND VARIABLES RELATED TO THE REPEATED CRIME DURING 6 MONTHS AFTER RELEASE (구속된 비행 청소년들의 특성 및 석방 후 6개월간 재범여부와 관련된 변인)

  • Kim, Won-Sik;Koh, Seung-Hee;Koo, Yong-Jin;Kim, Hong-Chang;Suh, Dong-Hyuck;Chung, Sun-Ju
    • Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.201-211
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    • 1999
  • Objectives:This study investigated the characteristics of detained delinquent adolescents and variables related to the repeated crime during 6 months after release. Methods:The socio-demographic and crime-related characteristics of 73 detained adolescents were evaluated by semi-structured interviews and police records, and the psychological characteristics of them measured by the MMPI. We also compared the characteristics between subjects with and without repeated crime during 6 months after release. Results:1) Most of detained adolescents had families with low socioeconomic status(77%) and broken families(48%). Sixty-six percent of them were dropped out of school. The most frequent crime pattern was theft(49%), and with accomplice(77%). Seventy-five percent of total subjects had the records of previous conviction. Of the previous convictions, seventy-eight percent was same with the present crimes. 2) Subjects with repeated crime during 6 months after release were younger and had higher T-score on Pa scale of MMPI than the subjects without repeated crime. More adolescents with repeated crime had broken families than those without repeated crime. They also showed the crime-related characteristics of higher percent of theft among crime patterns, higher incidence of previous conviction, younger age of the first crime, and shorter crime-free duration from the last to present crime. Conclusion:These results of present study suggest that the development and the persistence of adolescent delinquency would be resulted from interaction of factors of individual, family, school, and community. By the comparison between subjects with and without repeated crime, it was found that familial dysfunction, younger age at first crime, presence of previous conviction might be the risk factors for repeated delinquency. To prevent repeated crime of delinquent adolescents more effectively, early therapeutic intervention and the development of programs to help adaptation in school and community would be essential.

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Epidemiology of Psychosocial Distress in Korean Employees (우리나라 직장인 스트레스의 역학적 특성)

  • Chang, Sei-Jin;Kang, Myung-Gun;Cha, Bong-Suk;Park, Jong-Ku;Hyun, Sook-Jung;Park, Jun-Ho;Kim, Seong-Ah;Kang, Dong-Mug;Chang, Seong-Sil;Lee, Kyung-Jae;Ha, Eun-Hee;Ha, Mi-Na;Koh, Sang-Baek
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.25-37
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    • 2005
  • Objective : To estimate the magnitude of psychosocial distress and examine eligible factors associated with the development of psychosocial distress in Korean employees, using a nationwide sample. Methods : A total of 6,977 workers were recruited from 245 companies. A structured questionnaire was used to assess sociodemographics, health-related behaviors, job characteristics, social support at work, personality traits (locus of control, type A behavior pattern), self-esteem, and psychosocial distress. Results : The results showed that 23 % of workers were categorized as high stress, 73% as moderate, and 5% as normal. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that psychosocial distress was more common in younger workers, both male and female. Regular exercise was negatively associated with increase of psychosocial distress. In job characteristics, as expected, low decision latitude, high job insecurity, and low social support at work were related to high psychosocial distress. Personality traits such as locus of control and type A behavior pattern, and self-esteem were more powerful predictors of psychosocial distress than general characteristics, health-related behavior, and job characteristics. There were some gender differences. While men who are less educated and single (unmarried, divorced, and separated) experienced higher levels of psychosocial distress than those who are educated and married, women who feel high job demand experienced higher levels of psychosocial distress than those who feel low job demand. Conclusions : The proportion of the high stress group was higher than expected, and psychosocial factors like social support and personality characteristics (e. g. locus of control, type A behavior pattern and self-esteem) were more significant factors for psychosocial distress than other variables. This finding suggests that some psychosocial factors, especially inadequate social support, low self-esteem and lack of internal locus of control for the development of psychosocial distress, will also operate as an intervention strategy in the worksite stress reduction program. It is strongly required that worksite stress reduction programs should be established in at both occupational and level as well as in individual levels.

The Injury and its Related Factors in the Elderly Using the Data of 2008 Community Health Survey (2008 지역사회 건강조사 자료를 이용한 노인의 손상 관련요인)

  • Kwon, Yu-Jin;Ryu, So-Yeon;Shin, Seung-Ok;Chun, In-Ae;Park, Moon-Sook;Shim, Jae-Soon
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.1-13
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    • 2014
  • Objective: The objectives were to estimate the rate of the injury in the elderly over the past year and to identify factors related to injury in the elderly in South Korea. Method: Using data from the 2008 Community Health Survey, 43,049 elderly persons, aged 65 years and older, were selected as study subjects. Their experience of injury during the past year and other variables, including socio-demographic factors, health-related factors, and diagnosed chronic diseases, were used. The chi-squared test and multiple logistic regression analysis with weighted analysis were conducted and statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Result: The rate of injury in the elderly during the past year was 5.1%. The most common types of the injury were falling/slipping down and traffic accidents. Factors related to injury in the elderly were living alone, current drinking, depression, poor self-rated health, stroke, and osteoporosis. Living alone (odds ratio 1.23, 95% CI: 1.05-1.45), current drinkers (OR 1.19, 95% CI: 1.05-1.35), poor self-rated health (OR 1.72, 95% CI: 1.43-2.08), depression (OR 1.23, 95% CI: 1.17-1.68), and history of stroke (OR 1.40, 95% CI: 1.17-1.68), and history of osteoporosis (OR 1.45, 95% CI: 1.26-1.66) were related to an increased risk of injury. Conclusions: Intervention programs that consider the risk factors related to injury should be developed and implemented to decrease and prevent injuries in the elderly.

Effect of an abdominal obesity management program on dietary intake, stress index, and waist to hip ratio in abdominally obese women - Focus on comparison of the WHR decrease and WHR increase groups - (복부비만 관리프로그램이 성인 비만여성의 식이섭취, 스트레스지수 및 복부비만율에 미치는 영향 - 복부비만감소군과 복부비만증가군의 비교를 중심으로 -)

  • Lee, Ji-Won;Yoo, Sook-Young;Yang, So-Young;Kim, Hye-Sook;Cho, Seong-Kyung
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.127-139
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    • 2012
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of an abdominal obesity management program on dietary intake, stress index, and waist to hip ratio (WHR) in abdominally obese women. The subjects were 195 adult abdominally obese women (WHR ${\geq}$ 0.80) who had been participating in a nutrition education (total of nine times) and dietary habits and life style modification programs (total of six times) for 12 weeks. The abdominal obesity management program focused on the nutrition provided by breakfast, lunch, and dinner, proper dietary habits, and practices to improve life style. The subjects were divided into a WHR decrease group and a WHR increase group according to changes in the WHR. Daily nutrient intake was assessed with a 3-day food record, body measurements and blood vessel age, stress index, and a health index that were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks. After the intervention, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, WHR, and body mass index (BMI) decreased significantly in the WHR decrease group. Energy intake increased from 1486.2 kcal to 1541.4 kcal with a significant improvement in nutrient density for animal protein, total fat, animal fat, fiber, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, vitamin $B_6$, vitamin C, vitamin E, and saturated fatty acids in the WHR decrease group. Additionally, dietary diversity increased significantly in the WHR decrease group compared to that in the WHR increase group. The WHR decrease group showed a significant improvement in the stress and health indices. Changes in WHR were correlated with changes in nutrient intake (animal protein, total fat, animal fat, plant fat, fiber, calcium, iron, potassium, vitamin A, vitamin $B_2$, vitamin $B_6$, vitamin C, and folate) and medical index profiles (stress and indices) adjusted for age, birth status, baseline BMI, and baseline WHR. These results show that an abdominal obesity management program was effective not only for reducing the WHR but also to improve dietary intake and the stress index in abdominally obese women.

Impact of Mother's Oral Health Literacy on Preschool Children's Oral Health Status and Behavior (어머니의 구강건강정보이해력이 유아 자녀의 구강건강상태와 행동에 미치는 영향)

  • Kang, Yu-Min;Cho, Young-Sik
    • Journal of dental hygiene science
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.26-36
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this study was to examine how oral health literacy of mothers affect the oral health status of their preschool children. The subjects were 233 mothers and their preschool children who are between 5 and 6 years old. They were selected according to the convenience sampling method. The individual self-administered questionnaire was used for the mother's survey while the children were interviewed using structured questionnaire to examine their oral health status and behavior. According to study results, the number of decayed primary teeth and the number of decayed and filled primary teeth had a statistically significant negative correlation with the oral health literacy of the mother, the children's oral health knowledge, attitude and behavior (COHKAB), and the mother's oral health management behavior. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed after including general characteristics variables, the COHKAB and the mother's oral health management behavior. Meanwhile, mother's oral health literacy had a statistically influence on children's oral health status. The higher the mother's oral health literacy level, the lower the number of decayed and filled primary teeth were. The findings suggest that efforts to improve the oral health status of preschool children should consider mother's oral health literacy as an important factor. Therefore, the effective intervention and education programs are necessary to enhance mother's oral health literacy.

The correlation among stress, coping behaviors and perceived social support in school age children (학령기 아동의 스트레스와 대처행위 및 사회적지지 지각과의 관계)

  • Kim, Kyeong Uoon
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.17 no.10
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    • pp.373-381
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    • 2016
  • This research is a descriptive correlation research to examine the relationship among stress, coping behaviors, and perceived social support in school-age children. Students in third, fourth, and fifth grades at one elementary school in A metropolitan city were included for this research. A researcher of the study visited the elementary school and obtained appropriate approval to conduct this survey. Then, a total of 481 students answered the questionnaire; finally, the questionnaires of 409 students were analyzed after excluding 72 questionnaires due to unreliable responses. Descriptive statistics, T-test, ANOVA, and Pearson's correlation were used to analyze the collected data with SPSS 13.0. In the stress scores, academic stress was associated with the highest score ($9.30{\pm}4.41$). With respect to stress coping behaviors, lower-grade students showed to have significantly higher scores in coping behavior of pursuing social support than higher-grade students (F=3.181, p=.043); male students had higher scores in aggressive coping behavior than female students (t=-3.399, p=.001). Perceived social support scores were higher in the following order: family members ($33.01{\pm}7.61$), friends ($28.43{\pm}7.89$), and teachers ($25.71{\pm}6.30$). Female students had higher scores in perceived social support from friends (t=3.842, p=.000) and teachers (t=3.037, p=.003) than the male students. As the stress scores increased, passive coping behaviors (r=.410, p=.000) and aggressive coping behaviors (r=.445, p=.000) have been significantly increased. As perceived social support is higher, active coping behaviors (r=.455, p=.000) and coping behaviors to pursue social support (r=.429, p=.000) were significantly increased. Therefore, we can conclude that stress management is very significant for children. It would be necessary to develop nursing intervention programs in order to reduce the aggressive and passive coping behaviors of children and encourage perceived social support.

Effects of Health Perception, Self-efficacy and Social Support of College Students on the Health Promotion Behaviors (대학생의 건강지각, 자기효능감, 사회적 지지가 건강증진행위에 미치는 영향)

  • Woo, Bok Jin;Lee, Hye Kyung
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.1290-1302
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    • 2019
  • This study is a descriptive research with a purpose of examining the effects of health perception, self-efficacy and social support of college students on the health promotion behaviors. The subjects of this study have targeted 196 college students, where the data collection was made from September 10, 2018 to October 5, 2018. As a result of analyzing the differences in health promoting behaviors according to general characteristics of college students, there was a statistically significant difference according to the residence type(F=8.56, p<.001), subjective health status(F=7.23, p=.001), university life satisfaction(F=8.50, p<.001), exercise status(t=6.62, p<.001), and number of breakfasts per week(F=14.13, p<.001). For the correlation between college students' health perception, self-efficacy, social support, and health promotion behaviors, health promotion behavior and health perception(r=44, p<.001), self-efficacy(r=.57, p<.001), and social support(r=.49, p<.001) has shown a significant positive correlation between them. As a result of conducting multiple regression analysis by setting general characteristics, health perception, self-efficacy and social support as independent variables in order to analyze the factors affecting health promotion behaviors of college students, The variables that have significant explanatory power on health promoting behaviors(F=34.921, p<.001) were self-efficacy, social support, number of breakfasts per week(more than 5times), whether or not to exercise, number of breakfasts per week(2 to 4times), rent and lodging for residential type, and for grade, seniors. The explanatory power of these factors on health promotion behaviors was a total of 56.9%. Conclusively, In order to Improving health promotion behavior requires the development and intervention of personalized health promotion programs for each generation that consider self-efficacy and social support and emphasize the importance of proper exercise and proper eating habits.