• Title, Summary, Keyword: Interleukin-16

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Bevacizumab Regulates Cancer Cell Migration by Activation of STAT3

  • Wu, Huan-Huan;Zhang, Shuai;Bian, Huan;Li, Xiao-Xu;Wang, Lin;Pu, Yin-Fei;Wang, Yi-Xiang;Guo, Chuan-Bin
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.15
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    • pp.6501-6506
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    • 2015
  • There are numerous clinical cases indicating that long-term use of bevacizumab may increase the invasiveness of tumors. However, to date, little is known about underlying molecular mechanisms. Therefore, the purpose of our study was to investigate effects of bevacizumab in four cancer cells lines (WSU-HN6, CAL27, Tca83, and HeLa). It was found to promote migration and invasion in the WSU-HN6 and Tca83 cases, while exerting inhibitory effects in CAL27 and HeLa cells. The signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 inhibitors niclosamide and S3I-201 inhibited the STAT3 signal pathway, which is activated by bevacizumab. These inhibitors also substantially blocked bevacizumab-induced migration of WSU-HN6 and Tca83 cells. Bevacizumab upregulated interleukin (IL)-6 and phosphorylated (p)-STAT3 expression time-dependently. Therefore, we propose that bevacizumab has differential effects on the migration of different cancer cell lines and promotes migration via the IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway.

Evaluation of Sonic Toothbrush on the Reduction of Clinical Parameters, Interleukin-1, MMP-8 and Periodontal Pathogens in Incipient to Moderate Periodontitis (초기 및 중등도 치주염에서 임상지수, Interleukin-1, MMP-8, 치주원인균 감소에 대한 전동칫솔의 효과)

  • Yoo, Ho-Sun;Chae, Gyung-Joon;Hong, Ji-Youn;Choi, Seong-Ho;Kim, Chong-Kwan
    • The journal of the Korean dental association
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    • v.46 no.12
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    • pp.742-754
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    • 2008
  • 이 연구의 목적은 초기 및 중등도 치주염 환자에서 전동칫솔을 사용할 경우 임상 지수의 향상 정도와 치주원인균의 정량적 감소 효과를 12주의 연구 기간 동안 평가하는 것이다. $25{\sim}55$세의 환자 80명을 대상으로 12주 동안 진행하였으며, 치태지수 0.5 이상, 치은지수 0.5 이상을 나타내는 대상에서 일반 칫솔 혹은 전동칫솔 ($Sonicare^{(R)}$ Elite, Philips Oral Healthcare Inc., Snoqualmie, Washington, USA) 사용 군을 임의로 선정하였다. 하루 2회, 매 회 2분 간 사용하고, 각 군의 칫솔 사용을 교육하였다. 임상지수는 치태지수 (PI; Silness & $L{\ddot{o}}e$), 치은지수 (GI; $L{\ddot{o}}e$ & Silness), 탐침 후 출혈 부위 (%), 치주낭 깊이 부착소실을 초진 1, 4, 12주에 측정하였다. Interleukin-1 (IL-1), MMP-8과 치은연하치태샘플에서 채취한 4 종류의 치주원인균 (Actinomyces visco년, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Streptococcus sanguis, Tannerella forsythensis)에 대한 16S rRNA test는 초진, 1주, 12주에 측정하였다. 측정 결과 전동칫솔과 일반 칫솔 모두 임상지수의 유의한 감소가 나타났으며, 치은지수는 일반칫솔에 비해 전동칫솔에서 감소효과가 통계적으로 더 우수하게 나타났다 (p<0.001). 탐침 후 출혈의 감소는 전동칫솔에서 76.73%, 일반칫솔에서 44.57% 정도로 전동칫솔 군이 더 우수하게 나타났다. 치주낭 깊이 감소는 초진에 비해 전동칫솔 군에서 18.55%, 일반칫솔 군에서 14.81% 정도로 나타났으며, 초진과 비교하였을 때 부착수준의 향상 정도는 전동칫솔 25.24%, 일반 칫솔 16.94% 정도로 두 군 모두 통계적으로 유의하게 개선되었다 (p < 0.001). 두 군 모두 IL-1 beta, MMP-8 농도의 감소가 있었으며, 치주원인균 중 A.viscosus, P.gingivalis, T.forsythensis 역시 두 군 모두에서 초진에 비해 12주에 유의한 감소를 나타내었으나, S.sanguis는 전동칫솔 군에서만 12주에 유의한 감소가 있었다. 이상의 결과에서 12주 간의 연구 기간 동안 초기 및 중등도 치주염 환자에서 소니케어 전동칫솔의 사용은 임상지수 및 치주 원인균 감소에 통계적으로 유의한 개선 효과를 나타내었다.

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Influence of the Sonic Power Toothbrush on Reduction of Gingival inflammation and on the Amount of interleukin-6, Prevotella intermedia and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in Periodontal Pocket (치주낭 내의 치은 염증의 감소와 Interleukin-6, Prevotella intermedia 및 Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans에 대한 전동 칫솔의 효과)

  • Hong, Ji-Youn;Chae, Gyung-Joon;Jung, Sung-Won;Um, Yoo-Jung;Choi, Seong-Ho;Kim, Chong-Kwan
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.37 no.sup2
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    • pp.409-426
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    • 2007
  • 세균성 치태는 치은의 염증과 치주 조직 파괴를 동반하는 치주염의 주요한 인자로서 치주 조직 건강을 유지하기 위하여 적절한 치태 조절이 필요하다. 본 논문의 목적은 12주 동안 만성 초기 및 중등도 치주염 환자에서 치은염에 대한 임상 지수의 감소, interleukin-6 (IL-6) 농도와 치주질환 원인균인 Prevotella intermedia (P. intermedia), Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans)에 대한 소니케어 전동 칫솔의 효과를 일반 칫솔과 비교해 보고자 하는 데 있다. 총 82명의 환자를 선택하였으며, 30명은 일반 칫솔, 52명은 소니케어 전동 칫솔 군으로 분류하여 칫솔질 교육을 실시하였다. 전악을 전치부와 구치부로 나누어 초진, 1, 4, 12주에서의 치태, 치은 지수 및 탐침 시 출혈 여부를 조사하였으며, 가장 깊은 치주낭 탐침을 보이는 치아 3개를 선택하여 탐침 깊이와 부착 정도를 측정하였고, 선택된 치아에서 초진, 1, 12주에 채취된 샘플을 통해 치은열구액 내의 IL-6 농도와 P. intermedia, A. actinomycetemcomitans의 CT값을 추가적으로 조사하여 다음과 같은 결과를 얻었다. 1 소니케어 전동 칫솔과 일반 칫솔군 모두 치은 염증을 나타내는 임상 지수 (치태지수, 치은지수, 탐침 시 출혈)는 12주 기간 동안 유의한 감소 (p<0.05)를 보였으나, 전동 칫솔 군에서 통계학적으로 더욱 유의하게 (p<0.05) 나타났다. 2. 전치부를 제외한 구치부 치아에서 소니케어 전동 칫솔군은 12주 기간 동안 탐침 시 출혈의 감소가 통계학적으로 유의하게 (p<0.05) 나타났다. 3. 가장 깊은 치주낭 탐침 깊이를 보이는 3개의 선택된 치아에서 치주낭 탐침 깊이와 부착 정도는 두 군 모두 초진에 비해 유의한 감소 (p<0.05)를 보였다. 퍼센트 변화 비교에서 치주낭 탐침 깊이는 소니케어 전동 칫솔군이 $18.47{\pm}10.05%$, 일반 칫솔군이 $14.19{\pm}8.16%$로, 부착 정도는 소니케어 전동 칫솔군이 $24.26{\pm}12.51%$, 일반 칫솔군이 $15.65{\pm}9.92%$로 각각 나타났으나, 군 간 통계적 유의차는 보이지 않았다. 4. 치은열구액의 IL-6 농도는 두 군 모두 12주 기간 동안 통계적으로 유의한 감소 (p<0.05)를 나타내었다. 퍼센트 변화 비교에서 전동 칫솔군은 51%, 일반 칫솔군은 37%로 각각 나타났으나, 군 간 통계적 유의차는 보이지 않았다. 5. Prevotella intermedia, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans의 관찰에서 두 군 모두 유의한 차이는 없었다. 위 결과를 통해 본 연구에서는 소니케어 전동 칫솔의 사용이 일반 칫솔에 비하여 만성 초기 및 중등도 치주염 환자에서 치태의 제거, 치은 염증 및 임상 지수의 감소에 유의한 효과가 있으며 IL-6의 감소 경향에도 효과가 있음을 관찰하였다.

Interleukin-12 and Interleukin-6 Gene Polymorphisms and Risk of Bladder Cancer in the Iranian Population

  • Ebadi, Nader;Jahed, Marzieh;Mivehchi, Mohamad;Majidizadeh, Tayebeh;Asgary, Mojgan;Hosseini, Seyed Ali
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.18
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    • pp.7869-7873
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    • 2014
  • Interleukin-12 (IL-12) as an antitumor and interleukin-6 (IL-6) as an inflammatory cytokine, are immunomodulatory products that play important roles in responses in cancers and inflammation. We tested the association between two polymorphisms of IL-12(1188A>C; rs3212227) and IL-6 (-174 C>G) and the risk of bladder cancer in 261 patients and 251 healthy individuals. We also investigated the possible association of these SNPs in patients with high-risk jobs and smoking habits with the incidence of bladder cancer. The genotype distributions of IL-6 (-174 C/G) genotype were similar between the cases and the control groups; however, among patients with smoking habits, the association between IL-6 gene polymorphism and incidence of bladder cancer was significant. After a control adjustment for age and sex, the following results were recorded: CC genotype (OR= 2.11, 95%CI=1.56-2.87, p=0.007), GC genotype (OR=2.18, 95%CI=1.16-4.12, p=0.014) and GC+CC (OR=2.6, 95%CI=1.43-4.47, p=0.011). A significant risk of bladder cancer was observed for the heterozygous genotype (AC) of IL-12 (OR=1.47, 95%CI=1.01-2.14, p=0.045) in all cases, and among smokers (AC) (OR=3.13, 95%CI=1.82-5.37, p=0.00014), combined AC+CC (OR=3.05, 95%CI=1.8-5.18, p=0.000015). Moreover among high risk job patients, there was more than a 3-fold increased risk of cancer in the carriers of IL-12 beta heterozygous (OR=3.7, 95%CI=2.04-6.57, p=0.000056) and combined AC+CC(OR=3.29, 95%CI=1.58-5.86, p=0.00002) genotypes as compared with the AA genotype with low-risk jobs. As a conclusion, this study suggests that IL-12(3'UTR A>C) and IL-6 (-174 C>G) genotypes are significantly associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer in the Iranian population with smoking habits and/or performing high-risk jobs.

Obesity, Inflammation and Diet

  • Lee, Hansongyi;Lee, In Seok;Choue, Ryowon
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.143-152
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    • 2013
  • Obesity is a state in which there is an over-accumulation of subcutaneous and/or abdominal adipose tissue. This adipose tissue is no longer considered inert and mainly devoted to storing energy; it is emerging as an active tissue in the regulation of physiological and pathological processes, including immunity and inflammation. Adipose tissue produces and releases a variety of adipokines (leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin), as well as pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-${\alpha}$, interleukin [IL]-4, IL-6, and others). Adipose tissue is also implicated in the development of chronic metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus or cardiovascular disease. Obesity is thus an underlying condition for inflammatory and metabolic diseases. Diet or dietary patterns play critical roles in obesity and other pathophysiological conditions. A healthy diet and some nutrients are generally considered beneficial; however, some dietary nutrients are still considered controversial. In this article, dietary factors that influence inflammation associated with obesity are discussed.

The Immunological Effect of Mistletoe Extract on Gastric Cancer Patients (미슬토 추출물(Mistletoe Extract)이 위암환자의 수술 후 면역기능에 미치는 효과)

  • Yang, Sung-Woo;Shin, Dong-Gue;Kim, Il-Myung;Yoon, Seong-Min;Lee, Yong-Jik;Heo, Su-Hak;Kim, Tae-Hee
    • Journal of Gastric Cancer
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.167-173
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    • 2007
  • Purpose: Mistletoe (Viscum album L.) extract is one of the most widely used agents in alternative cancer therapeutic regimens in Europe. This study was conducted to determine the effect of mistletoe extract on immune function in gastric cancer patients. Materials and Methods: Ten patients that had undergone a curative gastrectomy were enrolled in the prospective study. ABNOBAviscum $Q^{(R)}$ was injected subcutaneously three times a week from postoperative-day 7 to week 16 with an increasing dose. All of the patients simultaneously received chemotheraphy with mitomycin, oral 5-FU and a cisplatin regimen. The WBC count, differential count, lymphocyte/WBC ratio and the level of cytokines (IL-$1{\beta}$, IL-2, IL-6, IFN-$\gamma$, TNF-$\alpha$) were checked in the peripheral blood preoperatively, at postoperative week 8 and at postoperative week 16. Results: The WBC and neutrophil counts significantly decreased after treatment on week 8 and week 16 (P=0.001), but the total eosinophil count was slightly increased (P=0.15). The total lymphocyte count also decreased during treatment but the lymphocyte/WBC ratio was slightly increased without statistical significance (P=0.91). The cytokine levels did not significantly change during treatment. Conclusion: It is somewhat difficult to determine the direct effect of mistletoe therapy on immune function as the effect may be compromised by the concurrent chemotherapy. It can be assumed that the slightly increased lymphocyte/WBC ratio and eosinophil count may be a result of the immunomodulatory effect of the mistletoe extract.

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Immunomodulating and Anticoagulant Activity of Glycosaminoglycans Derived from Porcine Testis

  • Yoo, Yung-Choon;Kim, Yeong-Shik;Song, Kyung-Sik;Moon, Eun-Ho;Lee, Kyung-Bok
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.25 no.5
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    • pp.669-674
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    • 2002
  • Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were isolated from the porcine testis, and their immuno-modulating and anticoagulant activity was investigated. From anion exchange chromatography (Dowex Macropolous Resin) used for further isolation of porcine testis GAGs (PT-GAGs), two fractions (PT-GAG-1.5 and PT-GAG-16) eluted by different salt concentration were obtained. In immunomodulating activity test, PT-GAG-1.5, but not PT-GAG-16, significantly enhanced the growth of murine peritoneal macrophages. In addition, treatment with PT-GAG-1.5 induced the production of cytokines, interleukin-1$\beta$ (IL-1$\beta$), interferon-${\gamma}$ (IFN-${\gamma}$) and tumor necrosis factor-$\alpha$ (TNF-$\alpha$), from murine microphages. Unexpectedly, both of PT-GAGs had no effect on the growth of murine splenocytes. The anticoagulant activity of PT-GAG-1.5 and PT-GAG-16 was examined by activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) assay and thrombin time (TT) assay. Both of PT-kGAGs significantly increased the clotting times of aPTT and TT in a dose-dependent manner. The anticoagulant activity of PT-GAG-16 was found to be higher than that of PT-GAG-1.5. These results suggest that PT-GAGs possess biological activities such as immunomodulating activity and anticoagulant activity.

Effect of Solvent Fractions from Doenjang on Antimutagenicity, Growth of Tumor Cells and Production of Interleukin-2 (된장 분획물의 항돌연변이 및 암세포 증식 억제효과와 interleukin-2 생성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Kwang-Hyuk;Park, Kun-Young;Lee, Sook-Hee;Lim, Sun-Young
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.791-797
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    • 2007
  • We studied the inhibitory effect of solvent fractions from doenjang on mutagenicity using Salmonella typhimurium TA100 in Ames test. We also investigated the effect of solvent fractions from doenjang on the growth of tumor cells and the production of interleukin-2 (IL-2). The treatment of dichlorormethane and ethylacetate fractions (2.5 mg/assay) from doenjang to Ames test system inhibited aflatoxin B$_1$ (AFB$_1$) induced mutagenicity by 96% and 97%, respectively, and showed a higher antimutagenic effect than other solvent fractions. In case of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguamidine (MNNG) induced mutagenicity, the ethylacetate fraction showed the highest inhibitory effect (by 75%) among the other sol-vent fractions, although the inhibitory effect was not stronger compared to AFB$_1$ induced mutagenicity. The treatment of dichloromethane and ethylacetate fractions markedly inhibited the growth of Yac-1 (by 80% and 94%, respectively) and sacroma-180 cancer cells (by 60% and 96%, respectively) after 4 days of incubation at 37${\circ}$C. To elucidate the immunological mechanism of antitumor activity of doenjang, spleen cells of Balb/c mouse were exposed to the dichloromethane and ethyl-acetate fractions for 24 hours at 37${\circ}$C . The culture supernatants following the treatment of djchloromethane and ethylacetate factions to spleen cells increased the production of IL-2. These results indicated that the anticarcinogenic effect of doenjang was mediated by the production of IL-2.

Immunomodulatory activities of ethanolic extract of Drynariae Rhizoma (골쇄보(骨碎補) ethanol 추출물의 면역 조절 작용에 관한 연구)

  • Lee Ki-Uk;Jeong Ji-Cheon
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.16-27
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    • 2004
  • In the traditional Chinese medicine, Drynariae Rhizoma (DR) has been reported as a good enhancer for bone healing. DR, a plant widely used in the traditional medicinal systems of Korea, has been reported to possess antiviral, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities. Modulation of immune response to alleviate disease has been of interest for a long time. Plant extracts have been widely investigated for possible immunomodulatory properties. Thus, I have evaluated the anticellular and immunomodulatory properties of ethanolic extract of DR. DR extract inhibited proliferation of mitogen (phytohaemagglutinin; PHA) and antigen (purified protein derivative; PPD)-stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). In addition, DR inhibited growth of several cell lines of mouse and human origin. It also inhibited production of nitric oxide (NO), interleukin-2 (IL-2) and tumor necrosis $factor-{\alpha}\;(TNF-{\alpha})$. Intracytoplasmic $interferon-{\gamma}\;(IFN-{\gamma})$ and expression of cell surface markers, CD16 and HLA-DR, on human PBMC, were not affected on treatment with DR but CD25 expression was down regulated. This study demonstrates the antiproliferative and immunosuppressive potential of ethanolic extract of DR in vitro.

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A Three-step Method of Immunotoxicity Assessment

  • Lee, Jeong-Woon;Shin, Ki-Duk;Kim, Kap-Ho;Kim, Eun-Joo;Han, Sang-Seop;Jeong, Tae-Cheon;Koh, Woo-Suk
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.317-323
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    • 2000
  • The immunosuppressive effects of thirty nine chemicals chosen by their potential toxicity were evaluated using a three-step testing method. The immunotoxicity test method developed in this study consisted of three simple assays of lymphoproliferation, mixed leukocyte response, and interleukin (IL)-2 production. The first step was mitogen-induced proliferation assay. Ten chemicals showed the inhibitory effects on the mitogen (lipopolysaccharide or concanavalin A)-induced proliferation in dose-dependent manners. The second step was mixed lymphocyte response. This step crosschecked the growth-suppressive effects detected at the first step. All of 10 chemicals, which showed suppression of lymphoproliferation, also exhibited the suppressive effects on the mixed lymphocyte response in the similar range of chemical concentration. The third step was planned to determine whether or not this growth suppression was mediated through an early activation of T-cell, which could be represented with IL-2 production. Six out of 10 chemicals decreased the interleukin-2 production in the similar concentration range used in the step 1 and 2. These results suggest that those 6 chemicals might have their targets on the signal transduction path-way toward the IL-2 production. In the meantime the other 4 chemicals might have their targets after the IL-2 production signal. Taken all together, the three-step test would be simple, fast, and efficient to deter-mine whether or not the chemical has immunosuppressive effects.

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