• Title/Summary/Keyword: Intergranular corrosion

Search Result 80, Processing Time 0.112 seconds

Intergranular Corrosion Behavior of Medium and Low Carbon Austenitic Stainless Steel (오스테나이트계 중탄소 및 저탄소 스테인리스강의 입계부식 거동 분석)

  • Won, S.Y.;Kim, G.B.;Yoo, Y.R.;Choi, S.H.;Kim, Y.S.
    • Corrosion Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.21 no.3
    • /
    • pp.230-241
    • /
    • 2022
  • Austenitic stainless steel has been widely used because of its good corrosion resistance and mechanical properties. However, intergranular corrosion can occur if the alloy is welded or aged. The objective of this study was to determine intergranular corrosion behaviors of austenitic medium carbon (0.05 wt%) and low carbon (0.02 wt%) stainless steel aged at several conditions. Alloys were evaluated according to ASTM A262 Practice A, ISO 12732 DL-EPR (double loop-electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation) test, and ASTM A262 Practice C. The degree of sensitization and intergranular corrosion rate were obtained. The relationship between the degree of sensitization and the intergranular corrosion rate showed a very large fluctuation. Such behavior might be related to whether two-dimension tests or three-dimension tests were performed. On the other hand, regardless of carbon content of alloys, when the intergranular corrosion rate increased, the degree of sensitization also increased. However, the DL-EPR test showed a higher sensitivity than the Huey test for differentiating the intergranular corrosion property at a low intergranular corrosion rate, while the Huey test had a higher sensitivity than the DL-EPR test for distinguishing the intergranular corrosion property at a high intergranular corrosion rate.

Intergranular Corrosion of Stainless Steel (스테인리스강 입계부식)

  • Kim, Hong Pyo;Kim, Dong Jin
    • Corrosion Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.17 no.4
    • /
    • pp.183-192
    • /
    • 2018
  • Stainless steel can be classified into three categories depending on the microstructure as austenitic stainless steel, ferritic stainless steel and martensitic stainless steel. Generally, stainless steel is extremely resistant to corrosion as the name implies. However, under specific environments, susceptibility to localized corrosion such as pitting, intergranular corrosion and stress corrosion cracking increases. This paper reviewed the state of arts on intergranular corrosion mechanisms, countermeasures on intergranular corrosion and intergranular corrosion test methods. Intergranular corrosion is mostly related with chromium depletion at the grain boundary and sometimes with segregation of electroactive elements in solution annealed stainless steel. Countermeasures on intergranular corrosion include avoiding chromium depletion by heat treatment and the addition of alloying elements. Sensitization evaluation of stainless steel was performed either through acid immersion test or electrochemical test. The methods were standardized in (Japanese Industrial Standards). Even though are useful in evaluating the degree of sensitization for industrial purpose but do not provide detailed information about sensitization mechanism, cause and chromium profile.

Intergranular Corrosion Mechanism of Slightly-sensitized and UNSM-treated 316L Stainless Steel

  • Lee, J.H.;Kim, K.T.;Pyoun, Y.S.;Kim, Y.S.
    • Corrosion Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.15 no.5
    • /
    • pp.226-236
    • /
    • 2016
  • 316L stainless steels have been widely used in many engineering fields, because of their high corrosion resistance and good mechanical properties. However, welding or aging treatment may induce intergranular corrosion and stress corrosion cracking etc. Since these types of corrosion are closely related to the formation of chromium carbide in grain boundaries, the alloys are controlled by methods such as the lowering of carbon content, solution heat treatment. This work focused on the intergranular corrosion mechanism of slightly-sensitized and Ultrasonic Nano-crystal Surface Modification (UNSM)-treated 316L stainless steel. Samples were sensitized for 1, 5, and 48 hours at $650^{\circ}C$ in $N_2$ gas atmosphere. Subsequently UNSM treatments were carried out on the surface of the samples. The results were discussed on the basis of the sensitization by chromium carbide and carbon segregation, the residual stress and grain refinement. Even though chromium carbide was not precipitated, the intergranular corrosion rate of 316L stainless steel was drastically increased with aging time, and it was confirmed that the increased intergranular corrosion rate of slightly-sensitized (not carbide formed) 316L stainless steel was due to the carbon segregation along the grain boundaries. However, UNSM treatment improved the intergranular corrosion resistance of aged stainless steels, and its improvement was due to the reduction of carbon segregation and the grain refinement of the outer surface, including the introduction of compressive residual stress.

INTERGRANULAR CORROSION-RESISTANT STAINLESS STEEL BY GRAIN BOUNDARY ENGINEERING

  • Hiroyuki Kokawa;Masayuki Shimada;Wang, Zhan-Jie;Yutaka S. Sato
    • Proceedings of the KWS Conference
    • /
    • 2002.10a
    • /
    • pp.250-254
    • /
    • 2002
  • Intergranular corrosion of austenitic stainless steels is a conventional and momentous problem during welding and high temperature use. One of the major reasons for such intergranular corrosion is so-called sensitization, i.e., chromium depletion due to chromium carbide precipitation at grain boundaries. Conventional methods for preventing sensitization of austenitic stainless steels include reduction of carbon content in the material, stabilization of carbon atoms as non-chromium carbides by the addition of titanium, niobium or zirconium, local solution-heat-treatment by laser beam, etc. These methods, however, are not without drawbacks. Recent grain boundary structure studies have demonstrated that grain boundary phenomena strongly depend on the crystallographic nature and atomic structure of the grain boundary, and that grain boundaries with coincidence site lattices are immune to intergranular corrosion. The concept of "grain boundary design and control", which involves a desirable grain boundary character distribution, has been developed as grain boundary engineering. The feasibility of grain boundary engineering has been demonstrated mainly by thermomechanical treatments. In the present study, a thermomechanical treatment was tried to improve the resistance to the sensitization by grain boundary engineering. A type 304 austenitic stainless steel was pre-strained and heat-treated, and then sensitized, varying the parameters (pre-strain, temperature, time, etc.) during the thermomechanical treatment. The grain boundary character distribution was examined by orientation imaging microscopy. The intergranular corrosion resistance was evaluated by electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation and ferric sulfate-sulfuric acid tests. The sensitivity to intergranular corrosion was reduced by the thermomechanical treatment and indicated a minimum at a small roll-reduction. The frequency of coincidence-site-lattice boundaries indicated a maximum at a small strain. The ferric sulfate-sulfuric acid test showed much smaller corrosion rate in the thermomechanically-treated specimen than in the base material. An excellent intergranular corrosion resistance was obtained by a small strain annealing at a relatively low temperature for long time. The optimum parameters created a uniform distribution of a high frequency of coincidence site lattice boundaries in the specimen where corrosive random boundaries were isolated. The results suggest that the thermomechanical treatment can introduce low energy segments in the grain boundary network by annealing twins and can arrest the percolation of intergranular corrosion from the surface.

  • PDF

Three-dimensional Computational Modeling and Simulation of Intergranular Corrosion Propagation of Stainless Steel

  • Igarashi, T.;Komatsu, A.;Motooka, T.;Ueno, F.;Yamamoto, M.
    • Corrosion Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.20 no.3
    • /
    • pp.105-111
    • /
    • 2021
  • In oxidizing nitric acid solutions, stainless steel undergoes intergranular corrosion accompanied by grain dropping and changes in the corrosion rate. For the safe operation of reprocessing plants, this mechanism should be understood. In this study, we constructed a three-dimensional computational model using a cellular automata method to simulate the intergranular corrosion propagation of stainless steel. The computational model was constructed of three types of cells: grain (bulk), grain boundary (GB), and solution cells. Model simulations verified the relationship between surface roughness during corrosion and dispersion of the dissolution rate of the GB. The relationship was investigated by simulation applying a constant dissolution rate and a distributed dissolution rate of the GB cells. The distribution of the dissolution rate of the GB cells was derived from the intergranular corrosion depth obtained by corrosion tests. The constant dissolution rate of the GB was derived from the average dissolution rate. Surface roughness calculated by the distributed dissolution rates of the GBs of the model was greater than the constant dissolution rates of the GBs. The cross-sectional images obtained were comparable to the corrosion test results. These results indicate that the surface roughness during corrosion is associated with the distribution of the corrosion rate.

Effect of σ-phase on Intergranular Corrosion of Super Duplex Stainless Steel Weld Metal (슈퍼듀플렉스강 용접금속의 입계부식에 미치는 σ 상의 영향)

  • Lee, Jae-Hyoung;Jung, Byong-Ho;Seo, Gi-Jeong;Kang, Chang-Yong
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Heat Treatment
    • /
    • v.26 no.6
    • /
    • pp.293-299
    • /
    • 2013
  • A specimen of weld metal was prepared by GTA welding with weld wire of super duplex stainless steel. Aging treatment was conducted for the sample at the temperature range of 700 to $900^{\circ}C$ for 5 to 300 minutes. The effect of volume fraction of ${\sigma}$-phase to intergranular corrosion of weld metal has been investigated and the results were derived as follows. The volume fraction of ${\sigma}$ phase tends to increase with an increase of aging temperature and time and intergranular corrosion of weld metal was increased by an increase of ${\sigma}$ phase. Degree of sensitization representing intergranular corrosion was found to tend to increase with an increase of aging time at 700 to $800^{\circ}C$, while it decreased by an increase of aging time at $900^{\circ}C$.

The Effect of Alloying Elements and Heat Treatment on the Intergranular Corrosion of 440A Martensitic Stainless Steel(II) (440A 강의 입계부식에 미치는 합금원소와 열처리의 영향(II))

  • Kim,, Y.C.;Jung, B.H.;Kang, C.Y.
    • Journal of Power System Engineering
    • /
    • v.15 no.3
    • /
    • pp.52-57
    • /
    • 2011
  • 440A martensitic stainless steels which were modified with reduced carbon content(~0.5wt.%) and addition of small amount of vanadium, tungsten and molybdenum 0.4wt.%, 0.4wt.% and 0.68wt.% respectively were manufactured. Effects of alloying elements and tempering temperatures on the intergranular corrosion were investigated through the method of DL-EPR(Double-electrochemical potentiodynamic reactivation). It was thought that the highest DOS(Degree of sensitization) of specimens was obtained at the tempering temperature of $450^{\circ}C$ regardless of types of alloy because of the precipitation of Cr7C3. Addition of vanadium lowered DOS a little above the tempering temperature of $550^{\circ}C$. It was considered to be effected by precipitation of VC carbides. Intergranular corrosion was influenced more by tempering temperature than by alloying elements of V, W and Mo.

The Effect of Solution Treatment on Intergranular Corrosion Resistance of a New Type Ultra Low Carbon Stainless Steel

  • Julin, Wang;Nannan, Ni;Qingling, Yan;Lingli, Liu
    • Corrosion Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.6 no.3
    • /
    • pp.140-146
    • /
    • 2007
  • In the paper, with corrosion velocity measurement and metallographic observation on specimens after sulfuric acid/ferric sulfate boiling experiment, intergranular corrosion tendency of the new type ultra low carbon stainless steel developed by ourselves which experienced solution treatment at different temperatures was evaluated. A VHX 500 super depth field tridimensional microscope was used to observe corrosion patterns on the sample surfaces. The depth and width of grain boundary corrosion groove were measured by the tridimensional microscope, which indicated that the corrosion degrees of the samples which received solution treatment at different temperatures are quite different. Transgranular corrosion at different degree occurred along with forged glide lines. After comparison it was proved that the stainless steel treated at $1100^{\circ}C$ performs very well against intergranular corrosion.

Effect of Thermal Cycle and Stress on the Intergranular Corrosion in 316 Stainless Steel (316 스테인리스강의 입계부식에 미치는 열사이클과 응력의 영향)

  • Jung, Byong-Ho;Kim, Moo-Gil
    • Journal of Advanced Marine Engineering and Technology
    • /
    • v.30 no.6
    • /
    • pp.709-715
    • /
    • 2006
  • The effects of thermal cycle condition and applied stress on the intergranular corrosion in austenitic 316 type stainless steels were investigated. Specimens were solution-treated at 1100$^{\circ}C$ for one hour and then sensitized in the temperature range of $500{\sim}800^{\circ}C$ by holding $2{\sim}300s$ with a various applied stresses of $0{\sim}8kg/mm^2$. Degree of sensitization. DOS %, was measured through polarization curve by electrochemical DL-EPR test. Microstructural observations were also conducted DOS % increased with an increase of sensitization temperature and/or holding time. Increase of applied stress resulted in increase of DOS % and more corroded surface because of acceleration of intergranular corrosion and fine grain size due to the stress. Cr depleted zone near grain boundary was observed. The amount of depletion was profounded with an increase of sensitization temperature, holding time and applied stress. $M_{23}C_6$ carbides were precipitated discontinuously at grain boundary. However, its amount was relatively small in the thermal cycle condition of 800$^{\circ}C$, 300sec and 4kg/mm$^2$.

Elucidation of Intergranular Corrosion of UNS N08810 alloys (UNS N08810 합금의 입계부식손상과 원인 분석)

  • Kim, Youngsik;Hwangbo, Deok
    • Corrosion Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.11 no.5
    • /
    • pp.196-204
    • /
    • 2012
  • Corrosion failure of petrochemical facilities is one of the difficulties in maintenance, since operating conditions of crude oil production, storage, and refinement are very aggressive. UNS N08810, which has been used for crude oil transportation pipes and storage tanks in petrochemical industries, shows good resistance to general corrosion and localized corrosion in several environments. Among its environments, UNS N08810 showed better corrosion resistance in fuel gas containing sulfuric acid and phosphoric acid and sulfur. However, ductility and toughness at high temperature over about $500^{\circ}C$ were greatly reduced due to microstructural change. In general, welding process is the representative method to join the parts in industrial components. Because the alloy by welding can be sensitized and corroded, the manufacturing process should be controlled. In this work, UNS N08810 was used and heat treatment conditions including solution and stabilization treatments were controlled. Oxalic acid etch test by ASTM A262 Practice A was done to evaluate the qualitative sensitization in room temperature. Huey test by ASTM A262 Practice C was done to evaluate the intergranular corrosion rate in boiling 65% $HNO_3$ solution. Also, the microstructure by thermal history was analyzed. Experimental alloy showed high intergranular corrosion rate and its corrosion mechanism was elucidated.