• Title, Summary, Keyword: Interface

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THE EFFECT OF SEALING PROCEDURE USING ALL-IN-ONE ADHESIVE ON MICROLEAKAGE OF PIT AND FISSURE SEALANT (All-in-one adhesive를 이용한 치면열구전색술식이 전색재의 미세누출에 미치는 영향에 대한 연구)

  • Yoon, Hee-Hun;Lee, Jae-Cheon;Kim, Jjung-Wook;Kim, Chong-Chul;Hahn, Se-Hyun;Lee, Sang-Hoon
    • JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.486-494
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    • 2004
  • The purpose of this study was to examine differences in microleakage of enamel-sealant interface when all-in-one adhesives were used compared with conventional acid etching and single-bottle adhesive system. Seventy-five extracted permanent third molars were randomly divided into 5 groups and treated with only Etching, $Adper^{TM}\;Single\;Bond^{TM}\;Adper^{TM}\;Prompt^{TM}$ L-Pop, AQ-bond and One-up Bond F each. After sealant application, the samples were thermocycled and the degree of microleakage was determined. The results were as follows : 1. Group 3, 4, 5 using the all-in-one adhesive system showed significantly higher microleakage score than Group 1(p<0.05). 2. The lowest mean microleakage score was Group 2(0.41) followed by Group 1(1.05) Group 3(1.65), Group 4(2.85) and Group 5(3.05). 3. Among Groups using all-in-one adhesives, Group 3 showed significantly lower mean microleakage score than the other groups(p<0.05) but showed significantly higher mean score than both Group 1 and Group 2(p<0.05). 4. There was no statistically significant difference(p>0.05) between Group 4 and Group 5. 5. In SEM examination, all the groups used all-in-one adhesive showed shorter resin tags than Group 1.

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Quantitative Micro-CT Evaluation of Microleakage in Composite Resin Restorations (Micro-CT를 이용한 복합 레진 수복물 미세 누출도의 정량 분석)

  • Lee, Sang-Ik;Hyun, Hong-Keun;Kim, Young-Jae;Kim, Jung-Wook;Lee, Sang-Hoon;Kim, Chong-Chul;Hahn, Se-Hyun;Jang, Ki-Taeg
    • JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.222-233
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    • 2007
  • One of the most important and basic test of dental restorative materials is the evaluation of microleakage into the tooth-restorative interface. There are many techniques to test microleakage, but most of them have several disadvantages. Recently developed microtomography(micro-CT) can provide the three dimensional image and information about the internal component in non-destructive way, therefore using micro-CT, it is possible to evaluate microleakage exactly in quantitative manner. The purpose of this study is to find a new method for quantitative and non-destructive evaluation of microleakage in composite resin restorations using micro-CT and to compare the new method with conventional dye penetration method. Thus, microleakages of two kinds of dentin bonding systems were evaluated with above two methods. 40 extracted sound human premolars were randomly divided into two groups consisting of 20 samples and restored accordingly. Group 1 : Class V resin restorations with $Adper^{TM}$ Singe Bond Group, 2 : Class V resin restorations with $Adper^{TM}\;Promp^{TM}$ L-pop. The $Filtek^{TM}$ Supreme was applied to the Class V cavities of all teeth. After that, 10 teeth from each group were applied to evaluation of microleakage using micro-CT, and other 10 teeth from each group were using conventional dye penetration method. The conclusions of this study were as follow : 1 Using micro-CT, Group 1 showed significantly less microleakage than Group 2 and there was statistically significant difference(p<0.01) between two groups. 2. Using conventional dye penetration method, Group 1 leaked less than Group 2 and there was statistically significant difference(p<0.01) between two groups 3. The difference between two groups is more evident in the method using micro-CT. 4. In all two methods, microleakage appeared more into the cavities to dentinal margins than enamel margins.

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Automated-Database Tuning System With Knowledge-based Reasoning Engine (지식 기반 추론 엔진을 이용한 자동화된 데이터베이스 튜닝 시스템)

  • Gang, Seung-Seok;Lee, Dong-Joo;Jeong, Ok-Ran;Lee, Sang-Goo
    • Proceedings of the Korean Information Science Society Conference
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    • pp.17-18
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    • 2007
  • 데이터베이스 튜닝은 일반적으로 데이터베이스 어플리케이션을 "좀 더 빠르게" 실행하게 하는 일련의 활동을 뜻한다[1]. 데이터베이스 관리자가 튜닝에 필요한 주먹구구식 룰(Rule of thumb)들을 모두 파악 하고 상황에 맞추어 적용하는 것은 비싼 비용과 오랜 시간을 요구한다. 그렇게 때문에 서로 다른 어플 리케이션들이 맞물려 있는 복잡한 서비스는 필수적으로 자동화된 데이터베이스 성능 관리와 튜닝을 필 요로 한다. 본 논문에서는 이를 해결하기 위하여 지식 도매인(Knowledge Domain)을 기초로 한 자동화 된 데이터베이스 튜닝 원칙(Tuning Principle)을 제시하는 시스템을 제안한다. 각각의 데이터베이스 튜닝 이론들은 지식 도매인의 지식으로 활용되며, 성능에 영향을 미치는 요소들을 개체(Object)와 콘셉트 (Concept)로 구성하고 추론 시스템을 통해 튜닝 원칙을 추론하여 쉽고 빠르게 현재 상황에 맞는 튜닝 방법론을 적용시킬 수 있다. 자동화된 데이터베이스 튜닝에 대해 여러 분야에 걸쳐 학문적인 연구가 이루어지고 있다. 그 예로써 Microsoft의 AutoAdmin Project[2], Oracle의 SQL 튜닝 아키텍처[3], COLT[4], DBA Companion[5], SQUASH[6] 등을 들 수 있다. 이러한 최적화 기법들을 각각의 기능적인 방법론에 따라 다시 분류하면 크게 Design Tuning, Logical Structure Tuning, Sentence Tuning, SQL Tuning, Server Tuning, System/Network Tuning으로 나누어 볼 수 있다. 이 중 SQL Tuning 등은 수치적으로 결정되어 이미 존재하는 정보를 이용하기 때문에 구조화된 모델로 표현하기 쉽고 사용자의 다양한 요구에 의해 변화하는 조건들을 수용하기 쉽기 때문에 이에 중점을 두고 성능 문제를 해결하는 데 초점을 맞추었다. 데이터베이스 시스템의 일련의 처리 과정에 따라 DBMS를 구성하는 개체들과 속성, 그리고 연관 관계들이 모델링된다. 데이터베이스 시스템은 Application / Query / DBMS Level의 3개 레벨에 따라 구조화되며, 본 논문에서는 개체, 속성, 연관 관계 및 데이터베이스 튜닝에 사용되는 Rule of thumb들을 분석하여 튜닝 원칙을 포함한 지식의 형태로 변환하였다. 튜닝 원칙은 데이터베이스 시스템에서 발생하는 문제를 해결할 수 있게 하는 일종의 황금률로써 지식 도매인의 바탕이 되는 사실(Fact)과 룰(Rule) 로써 표현된다. Fact는 모델링된 시스템을 지식 도매인의 하나의 지식 개체로 표현하는 방식이고, Rule 은 Fact에 기반을 두어 튜닝 원칙을 지식의 형태로 표현한 것이다. Rule은 다시 시스템 모델링을 통해 사전에 정의되는 Rule와 튜닝 원칙을 추론하기 위해 사용되는 Rule의 두 가지 타업으로 나뉘며, 대부분의 Rule은 입력되는 값에 따라 다른 솔루션을 취하게 하는 분기의 역할을 수행한다. 사용자는 제한적으로 자동 생성된 Fact와 Rule을 통해 튜닝 원칙을 추론하여 데이터베이스 시스템에 적용할 수 있으며, 요구나 필요에 따라 GUI를 통해 상황에 맞는 Fact와 Rule을 수동으로 추가할 수도 었다. 지식 도매인에서 튜닝 원칙을 추론하기 위해 JAVA 기반의 추론 엔진인 JESS가 사용된다. JESS는 스크립트 언어를 사용하는 전문가 시스템[7]으로 선언적 룰(Declarative Rule)을 이용하여 지식을 표현 하고 추론을 수행하는 추론 엔진의 한 종류이다. JESS의 지식 표현 방식은 튜닝 원칙을 쉽게 표현하고 수용할 수 있는 구조를 가지고 있으며 작은 크기와 빠른 추론 성능을 가지기 때문에 실시간으로 처리 되는 어플리케이션 튜닝에 적합하다. 지식 기반 모률의 가장 큰 역할은 주어진 데이터베이스 시스템의 모델을 통하여 필요한 새로운 지식을 생성하고 저장하는 것이다. 이를 위하여 Fact와 Rule은 지식 표현 의 기본 단위인 트리플(Triple)의 형태로 표현된다, 트리플은 Subject, Property, Object의 3가지 요소로 구성되며, 대부분의 Fact와 Rule들은 트리플의 기본 형태 또는 트리플의 조합으로 이루어진 C Condition과 Action의 두 부분의 결합으로 구성된다. 이와 같이 데이터베이스 시스템 모델의 개체들과 속성, 그리고 연관 관계들을 표현함으로써 지식들이 추론 엔진의 Fact와 Rule로 기능할 수 있다. 본 시스템에서는 이를 구현 및 실험하기 위하여 웹 기반 서버-클라이언트 시스템을 가정하였다. 서버는 Process Controller, Parser, Rule Database, JESS Reasoning Engine으로 구성 되 어 있으며, 클라이 언트는 Rule Manager Interface와 Result Viewer로 구성되어 었다. 실험을 통해 얻어지는 튜닝 원칙 적용 전후의 실행 시간 측정 등 데이터베이스 시스템 성능 척도를 비교함으로써 시스템의 효용을 판단하였으며, 실험 결과 적용 전에 비하여 튜닝 원칙을 적용한 경우 최대 1초 미만의 전처리에 따른 부하 시간 추가와 최소 약 1.5배에서 최대 약 3배까지의 처리 시간 개선을 확인하였다. 본 논문에서 제안하는 시스템은 튜닝 원칙을 자동으로 생성하고 지식 형태로 변형시킴으로써 새로운 튜닝 원칙을 파생하여 제공하고, 성능에 영향을 미치는 요소와 함께 직접 Fact과 Rule을 추가함으로써 커스터마이정된 튜닝을 수행할 수 있게 하는 장점을 가진다. 추후 쿼리 자체의 튜닝 및 인텍스 최적화 등의 프로세스 자동화와 Rule을 효율적으로 정의하고 추가하는 방법 그리고 시스템 모델링을 효과적으로 구성하는 방법에 대한 연구를 통해 본 연구를 더욱 개선시킬 수 있을 것이다.

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Buyers' Trust in a Brand and Brand Loyalty in the business-to-business (산업재 시장에서 브랜드 신뢰와 브랜드 충성도에 관한 연구)

  • Han, Sang-Rin;Sung, Hyung-Suk
    • Proceedings of the Korean DIstribution Association Conference
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    • pp.29-51
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    • 2005
  • Brands are important in the consumer market. They are the interface between consumers and the company, consumers may develop loyalty to brands. also, The late development of industrial marketing explains the near absence of research on Brand Equity in business to business. With recent change, industrial companies have shifted from a production focus to a customer focus. industrial brand is fast developing. The basic purpose of this study is to investigate industrial brand trust and loyalty affecting the Result of business relationship between industrial buyers and suppliers. Factors hypothesized to influence trust in a brand include a number of brand characteristics, company characteristics and consumer-brand characteristics. This research presented a comprehensive constructive model consisting of components of industrial brand trust and loyalty, and then propose the research model base on prior researches and studies about relationships among components of industrial brand loyalty. Data were gathered from respondents who work in industrial buying center. For this study, Data were analyzed by SPSS 10.0 and AMOS 4.0. The results of this research analysis were as fallow. Industrial brand trust and loyalty were positively related with a number of industrial brand characteristics, supplier characteristics and buyer-brand characteristics. relationship commitment. This research newly proposed the concept of 'industrial brand trust and loyalty affecting the Result of business relationship between industrial buyers and suppliers'

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Conceptual framework for Emotions in Usability of Products (제품 사용성과 감성에 관한 개념적 연구)

  • Lee Kun-Pyo;Jeong Sang-Hoon
    • Science of Emotion and Sensibility
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.17-28
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    • 2005
  • With the advent of computer technology, the fundamental nature of products has shaped from physical forms towards product interactivity, The focus is now on usability of the product with ease and efficiency rather than conversing with just the looks of the product. However, most definitions of usability and contemporary usability-related researches, have focused on the performance-oriented functional aspects of usability (i.e., how well users perform tasks using a product). Today, user expectations are higher; products that bring not only functional benefits but also emotional satisfaction. So far, there have been many studies on human emotions and the emotional side of products in the field of emotional engineering. Contemporary emotion-related researches have focused mainly on the relationship between product aesthetics and the emotional responses elicited by the products, but little is known about emotions elicited from using the products. The main objective of our research is analyzing user's emotional changes while using a product, to reveal the influence of usability on human emotions. In this research, we suggested conceptual framework for the study on the relationship between usability of products, and human emotions with emphasis on mobile phones. We also extracted emotional words for measuring user's emotions expressed not from looking at the product's appearance, but from using the product. First, we assembled a set of emotions that is sufficiently extensive to represent a general overview of the full repertoire of Korean emotions from the literature study. Secondly, we found emotional words in the after note by the users on the websites. Finally, verbal protocols in which the user says out loud what he/she ks feeling while he/she ks carrying out a task were collected. And then, the appropriateness of extracted emotional words was verified by the members of the consumer panel of a company through web survey. It is expected that emotional words extracted in this research will be used to measure user's emotional changes while using a product. Based on the conceptual framework suggested in this research, basic guidelines on interface design methods that reflect user's emotions will be illustrated.

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Multi-purpose Geophysical Measurements System Using PXI (PXI를 이용한 다목적 물리탐사 측정 시스템)

  • Choi Seong-Jun;Kim Jung-Ho;Sung Nak-Hun;Jeong Ji-Min
    • Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.224-231
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    • 2005
  • In geophysical field surveys, commercial equipments often fail to resolve the subsurface target or even sometimes fail to be applied because they do not fit to the various field situations or the physical properties of the medium or target. We developed a geophysical measurement system, which can be easily adapted for the various field situations and targets. The system based on PXI with A/D converter and some stand alone equipment such as Network Analyzer was applied to borehole radar survey, borehole sonic measurement and electromagnetic noise measurement. The system for borehole radar survey consists of PXI, Network Analyzer, dipole antennas, GPIB interface is used for PXI to control Network Analyzer. The system for borehole sonic measurement consists of PXI, 24 Bit A/D converter, high voltage pulse generator, transmitting and receiving piezoelectric sensors. The electromagnetic noise measurement system consists of PXI, 24 Bit A/D converter, 2 horizontal component electric field sensors and 2 horizontal and 1 vertical component magnetic filed sensors. The borehole radar system has been successfully applied to detect the width of the artificial tunnel through which the borehole pass and to image buried steel pipe, while the commercial borehole radar equipment failed. The borehole sonic system was tested to detect the width of artificial tunnel and showed a reasonable result. The characteristic of electromagnetic noise was grasped at an urban area with the data from the electromagnetic noise measurement system. The system is also applied to characterize the signal distortion by induction between the electric cables in resistivity survey. The system can be applied various geophysical problems with a simple modification of the system and sensors.

A Development of Kolb's Learning Style Based Team Organization Support System (Kolb의 학습양식에 기반 한 팀 조직 지원 시스템 개발)

  • Park, Su-Hong;Jung, Ju-Young;Hong, Jin-Yong;Kim, Seong-Ok;Ryu, Young-Ho;Kang, Eun-Kyeong
    • Journal of The Korean Association of Information Education
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.9-22
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    • 2008
  • The purpose of this research is to develop a prototype of the support system in order for team building associated with web-based project learning having applied Kolb's learning style. To accomplish this purpose, the following research tasks were performed. First, core idea in order to embody the system's value, key activities, tools that will support pertinent activities and the strategy so as to develop guidelines, etc. were devised and prepared. Second, a system was designed on the basis of structural model of teaching design, then after, interface was developed. The core factors in this system are inspection of learning style, organizing a team and team building. Above all, it is required to make learners know about learning environments, of which they are in favor, and also its distinctive features through inspection of learning style, and then focusing on learning style, a team should be organized insomuch as to accommodate a variety of learning styles as much as possible. For the purpose of team building, after learning style of each constituent member of the team has been made known, then the roles will be divided among the constituent members of the team so as to suit their individual characteristics referring to each of their learning styles that have been exposed. To verify the value of this system developed and efficiency thereof, a focus group interview was conducted. The focus group consisted of professionals, all from related fields. After the interview, the points required to make further improvements were elicited and taken care of by follow-up actions as needed. And having reflected such improvements made, the final system was developed. With this newly developed system, learners can get the results of inspection of learning style so quickly by performing inspection any time any where, and based on the results from such inspection, a team comprising dissimilar constituents who exhibit a variety of different propensities will be automatically organized. Thus, this system may be used not only for web-based project learning having unspecified persons elected as constituents, but in the offline space also.

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A Pursuit of Innovation in the Korean Genetics-Genomics Research System through a Culturalist Strategy (문화적 전략을 통한 한국 유전학-유전체학 연구체계의 혁신 모색)

  • Lee, Cheong-Ho
    • Journal of Science and Technology Studies
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.131-183
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    • 2006
  • The Korean genetics and genomics reveal a firm willingness to participate in and contribute to the production of creative scientific knowledge at a world level at present, though they have short past histories of introduction from the Western counterparts and those of education for the next generations. But the Korean genetics and genomics have been developed in a fragmented and biased manner. By reconfiguring the various research projects of genomics into the Genome Project of Korea, which reflect a worldly trend in life science, but have been established in a scattered fashion in Korea, and incorporating some neglected areas of genetics, such as human genetics and theoretical and population genetics which can be reconstructed in a new way, a genetics-genomics research system can be formulated on the multi-tiered perspective of concept, knowledge, and institution, while the system being a subsystem of the national research system of life science in Korea. Innovation can be pursued in the systematic practice through a culturalist strategy. The culturalist strategy with the practice based on the research system consists of 1) intensification of fundamentalness of genetics and genomics, 2) advancement of communitarianism in geneticist-genomicist community, 3) research on the cultural bio-species along with the promotion of scientific arts and culture, and 4)formation of the Korean science studies of genetics-genomics and the diffusion of the knowledge produced. The first two strategy components are the ones that intends to bring out changes in the structural aspect of the scientist community in Korea. The third is the one that attempts to magnify the interface between the scientist community and the Korean society at large and increase its connectivity between both, while the fourth is the one that has an intentionality toward the Korean society outside of the scientist community. This culturalist strategy is intended to increase the cultural constructivity of the genetics-genomics research system in Korea.

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STUDY ON THE SHEAR BOND STRENGTH OF ALL-IN-ONE DENTIN BONDING SYSTEM (우치에 대한 All-in-one 상아질 결합제의 전단결합강도 비교 연구)

  • Park, Hyung-Joo;Yoo, Seung-Hoon;Kim, Jong-Soo
    • JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.661-672
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    • 2006
  • This study was performed to compare the shear bond strength of AQ Bond $Plus^{TM}$ with AQ $Bond^{TM}$ and Single $Bond^{TM}$. Also by observing the fractured interface under scanning electro-microscope, the fracture pattern and the quality of hybrid layer were analyzed. The possibility of clinical application of all-in-one system which has an advantage to reduce chair time for children with difficult behavior pattern was evaluated, The results obtained are as follows ; 1. There was no significant difference between AQ $Bond^{TM}$ and AQ Bond $Plus^{TM}$ in shear bond strength and Single Bond showed the highest bond strength with statistical significant difference (p<0.05). 2. Adhesive fracture pattern was mainly observed in both enamel/dentin in AQ $Bond^{TM}$ and AQ Bond $Plus^{TM}$ group while Single Bond group showed equal numbers for cohesive and adhesive pattern. 3. Under scanning electro-microscope, resin tags observed in AQ $Bond^{TM}$ and AQ Bond $Plus^{TM}$ were very weak and tangled while strong and thick tags were shown with many lateral branches in Single Bond. Careful case selection and accurate clinical application is recommended when using AQ $Bond^{TM}$ and AQ Bond $Plus^{TM}$considering the result showing its weaker strength than Single $Bond^{TM}$.

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Design and Implementation of Web Based Instruction Based on Constructivism for Self-Directed Learning Ablity (구성주의 이론에 기반한 자기주도적 웹 기반 교육의 설계와 구현)

  • Kim Gi-Nam;Kim Eui-Jeong;Kim Chang-Suk
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Information and Commucation Sciences Conference
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    • pp.855-858
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    • 2006
  • First of all, Developing information technology makes it possible to change a paradigm of all kinds of areas, including an education. Students can choose learning goals and objects themselves and acquire not the accumulation of knowledge but the method of their learning. Moreover, Teachers get to be adviser, and students play a key role in teaming. That is, the subject of leaning is students. Constructivism emphasizes the student-oriented environment of education, which corresponds to the characteristics of hypeimedia. In addition, Internet allows us to make a practical plan for constructivism. Web Based Internet provides us with a proper environment to make constructivism practice md causes an education system to change. Sure Web Based Instruction makes them motivated to learn more, they can gain plenty of information regardless of places or time. Besides, they are able to consult more up-to-date information regarding their learning use hypermedia such as an image, audio, video, and test, and effectively communicate with their instructor through a board, an e-mail, a chatting etc. A school and instructors have been making effort to develop a new model of a teaching method to cope with a new environment change. In this thesis, with 'Design and Implementation of Web Based Instruction Based on Constructivism', providing online learner-oriented and indexed video lesson, learners can get chance of self-oriented learning. In addition, learners doesn't have to cover all contents of a lesson but can choose contents they want to have from a indexed list of a lesson, and they ran search contents they want to have with a 'Keyword Search' on a main page, which can make learners improve learner's achievement.

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