• Title, Summary, Keyword: Integrity

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Physico-chemical Characteristics and In situ Fish Enclosure Bioassays on Wastewater Outflow in Abandoned Mine Watershed (폐광산 지역의 유출수에 대한 이.화학적 수질특성 및 Enclosure 어류 노출시험 평가)

  • An, Kwang-Guk;Bae, Dae-Yeul;Han, Jeong-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.218-231
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    • 2012
  • The objectives of this study were to evaluate the physico-chemical water quality, trophic and tolerance guilds in the control ($C_o$) and impacted streams of the abandoned mine, along with the ecological health, using a multimetric health model and physical habitat conditions of Qualitative Habitat Evaluation Index (QHEI), during the period of three years, 2005~2007. Also, eco-toxicity ($EE_t$) enclosure tests were conducted to examine the toxic effects on the outflows from the mine wastewater, using the sentinel species of Rhynchocypris oxycephalus, and we compared the biological responses of the control ($C_o$) and treatment (T) to the effluents through a Necropybased Health Assessment Index ($N_b$-HAI). Tissue impact analysis of the spleen, kidney, gill, liver, eyes, and fins were conducted in the controlled enclosure experiments (10 individuals). According to the comparisons of the control ($C_o$) vs. the treatment (T) in physicochemical water quality, outflows from the abandoned mine resulted in low pH of 3.2, strong acid wastewater, high ionic concentrations, based on an electrical conductivity, and high total dissolved solid (TDS). Physical habitat assessments, based on Qualitative Habitat Evaluation Index (QHEI) did not show any statistical differences (p>0.05) in the sampling sites, whereas, the $M_m$-EH model values in a multimetric ecological health ($M_m$-EH) model of the Index of Biological Integrity (IBI), using fish assemblages, were 16~20 (fair condition) in the control and all zero (0, poor condition) in the impacted sites of mine wastewater. In addition, in enclosure eco-toxicity ($EE_t$) tests, the model values of $N_b$-HAI ranged between 0 and 3 in the controls during the three years, indicating an excellent~good condition (Ex~G), and were >100 (range: 100~137) in the impacted sites, which indicates a poor condition (P). Under the circumstances, organ tissues, such as the liver, kidney, and gills were largely impaired, so that efficient water quality managements are required in the outflow area of the abandoned mine watershed.

Evaluation of White Matter Abnormality in Mild Alzheimer Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment Using Diffusion Tensor Imaging: A Comparison of Tract-Based Spatial Statistics with Voxel-Based Morphometry (확산텐서영상을 이용한 경도의 알츠하이머병 환자와 경도인지장애 환자의 뇌 백질의 이상평가: Tract-Based Spatial Statistics와 화소기반 형태분석 방법의 비교)

  • Lim, Hyun-Kyung;Kim, Sang-Joon;Choi, Choong-Gon;Lee, Jae-Hong;Kim, Seong-Yoon;Kim, Heng-Jun J.;Kim, Nam-Kug;Jahng, Geon-Ho
    • Investigative Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.115-123
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    • 2012
  • Purpose : To evaluate white matter abnormalities on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in patients with mild Alzheimer disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Materials and Methods: DTI was performed in 21 patients with mild AD, in 13 with MCI and in 16 old healthy subjects. A fractional anisotropy (FA) map was generated for each participant and processed for voxel-based comparisons among the three groups using TBSS. For comparison, DTI data was processed using the VBM method, also. Results: TBSS showed that FA was significantly lower in the AD than in the old healthy group in the bilateral anterior and right posterior corona radiata, the posterior thalamic radiation, the right superior longitudinal fasciculus, the body of the corpus callosum, and the right precuneus gyrus. VBM identified additional areas of reduced FA, including both uncinates, the left parahippocampal white matter, and the right cingulum. There were no significant differences in FA between the AD and MCI groups, or between the MCI and old healthy groups. Conclusion: TBSS showed multifocal abnormalities in white matter integrity in patients with AD compared with old healthy group. VBM could detect more white matter lesions than TBSS, but with increased artifacts.

Influence of Fish Compositions and Trophic/Tolerance Guilds on the Fishkills in Geum-River Watershed (Backje Weir) (금강수계(백제보)에서 발생된 어류폐사에 대한 종 조성 및 트로픽/내성도 길드 영향 분석)

  • Kwon, Hyuk-Hyun;Han, Jeong-Ho;Yoon, Johee;An, Kwang-Guk
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.393-401
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    • 2013
  • The objectives of this study were to analyze structures of fish community and the ecological health using a multi-metric fish model, the Index of Biological Integrity (IBI) in the Backje Weir of Geum River during two periods namely before-the-fishkill ($B_f$) and after-the-fishkill ($A_f$). The total number of fish species observed were 32 and among them 10 species (35%) were Korean endemic species. The exotic species observed were 3 which decreased by 0.4% after-the-fishkill ($A_f$). The dominant species were Opsariichthys uncirostris amurensis (13%) at the Bf period and Squalidus japonicus coreanus (17%) at the Af period in the Backje Weir. At after the fishkill ($A_{f-I}$) total biomass was about 10 times lower than the biomass before-the-fishkill ($B_f$). The biomass of Carassius auratus decreased 98% after-the-fishkill and as time passed by the biomass recovered to nearly 100%. Similar decrease in the biomass occurred in the population of Opsariichthys uncirostris amurensis, while Rhinogobius brunneus population increased. According to the structure analysis of fish community, species richness index, evenness index and species diversity index were high but after-the fishkill, the values of indices decreased. Tolerant species (64%) dominated the fish community, and the sensitive species (2%) were rare, indicating the degradation of the ecosystem. According to analysis of the multi-metric model (IBI), the mean model value of the fish community in Backje Weir was estimated as 17.5 indicating a "fair condition".

Activation Analysis of Dual-purpose Metal Cask After the End of Design Lifetime for Decommission (설계수명 이후 해체를 위한 금속 겸용용기의 방사화 특성 평가)

  • Kim, Tae-Man;Ku, Ji-Young;Dho, Ho-Seog;Cho, Chun-Hyung;Ko, Jae-Hun
    • Journal of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology(JNFCWT)
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.343-356
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    • 2016
  • The Korea Radioactive Waste Agency (KORAD) has developed a dual-purpose metal cask for the dry storage of spent nuclear fuel that has been generated by domestic light-water reactors. The metal cask was designed in compliance with international and domestic technology standards, and safety was the most important consideration in developing the design. It was designed to maintain its integrity for 50 years in terms of major safety factors. The metal cask ensures the minimization of waste generated by maintenance activities during the storage period as well as the safe management of the waste. An activation evaluation of the main body, which includes internal and external components of metal casks whose design lifetime has expired, provides quantitative data on their radioactive inventory. The radioactive inventory of the main body and the components of the metal cask were calculated by applying the MCNP5 ORIGEN-2 evaluation system and by considering each component's chemical composition, neutron flux distribution, and reaction rate, as well as the duration of neutron irradiation during the storage period. The evaluation results revealed that 10 years after the end of the cask's design life, $^{60}Co$ had greater radioactivity than other nuclides among the metal materials. In the case of the neutron shield, nuclides that emit high-energy gamma rays such as $^{28}Al$ and $^{24}Na$ had greater radioactivity immediately after the design lifetime. However, their radioactivity level became negligible after six months due to their short half-life. The surface exposure dose rates of the canister and the main body of the metal cask from which the spent nuclear fuel had been removed with expiration of the design lifetime were determined to be at very low levels, and the radiation exposure doses to which radiation workers were subjected during the decommissioning process appeared to be at insignificant levels. The evaluations of this study strongly suggest that the nuclide inventory of a spent nuclear fuel metal cask can be utilized as basic data when decommissioning of a metal cask is planned, for example, for the development of a decommissioning plan, the determination of a decommissioning method, the estimation of radiation exposure to workers engaged in decommissioning operations, the management/reuse of radioactive wastes, etc.

Effects of Screw Speed, Moisture Content, and Die Temperature on Texturization of Extruded Soy Protein Isolate (스크루 회전속도, 수분 함량과 사출구 온도가 압출성형 분리대두단백의 조직화에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Ji Hoon;Kang, Dae Il;Ryu, Gi Hyung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.8
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    • pp.1170-1176
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    • 2016
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of screw speed, moisture content, and die temperature on the physical properties of extruded soy protein isolate. Extrusion conditions were moisture content (20 and 25%) and die temperature (120, 130, and $140^{\circ}C$) at a fixed screw speed of 250 rpm. The other extrusion conditions for screw speed (150, 200, 250, 300, and 330 rpm) were a fixed moisture content and die temperature of 30% and $140^{\circ}C$, respectively. Specific mechanical energy input decreased as die temperature increased from 120 to $140^{\circ}C$, whereas specific mechanical energy input increased as screw speed increased from 150 to 330 rpm. Expansion ratio and specific length increased as die temperature increased. Breaking strength decreased as die temperature increased and moisture content decreased. A lower moisture content resulted in a greater color difference. Integrity index increased as die temperature increased from 120 to $140^{\circ}C$ and moisture content decreased from 25 to 20%. Nitrogen solubility index decreased as screw speed increased from 150 to 330 rpm. Nitrogen solubility index was lowest at $2.83{\pm}0.51%$ as screw speed decreased to 150 rpm. In conclusion, moisture content was a more important factor than die temperature for texturization of soy protein isolate.

Exploring the Role of Vocational Education for the Social Integration in Preparation for the Reunification of the Korea Peninsula (남·북한 통일대비 사회통합을 위한 직업교육의 역할 탐구 -통일 독일의 사회적 통합 사례분석을 중심으로-)

  • Lee, Sung-Kyun
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.16 no.7
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    • pp.382-397
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    • 2016
  • This study focuses on the lessons and implications of Germany's measures for the social integration after the reunification, and especially the Germany's measure on labor reproduction for the economic stability of East Germany. This analysis indicates, whether South Korea is going to achieve gradual and peaceful reunification or absorb North Korea due to its sudden collapse, that the reunification, in any case, requires the social integration through economic stability of both North and South. In order to ensure national reconciliation, recovery of homogeneity, and establishment of identity for the economically stable social integration, the new integration of educational system is necessary. Especially, the objective of this study is to find the role and direction of vocational education for the stability of the North Korea's labor market and economic life in order to socially integrate South Koreans with its Northern counterparts. First of all, this study examined a priori example of the experiences during West Germany's social integration process, i.e. the vocational education promotion process for the social stability and economic life. It figured out the problem of vocational education for the integrity as well as analyzed the vocational education differences and integration promotion system between East & West Germany. Even though East and West Germany showed their disparities in each vocational education, they corroborated each other by finding one similar system such as bifurcation, which lead to the integration of the labor market and new vocational education policy for the economic stability. Despite the West Germany's support for the socio-economic integration, nevertheless, the East Germany's capacity turned out to be insufficient, which resulted in the failure of the policy. Based on above discussion, this study intended to suggest the efficient solutions of vocational education for the internal reunification of South and North Korea by promoting the independence and self-support of North Koreans and leading the stability of labor market and economic for the future reunification.

Analysis of Evaluator's Role and Capability for Institution Accreditation Evaluation of NCS-based Vocational Competency Development Training (NCS 기반 직업능력개발훈련 기관인증평가를 위한 평가자의 역할과 역량 분석)

  • Park, Ji-Young;Lee, Hee-Su
    • Journal of vocational education research
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.131-153
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this study was to derive evaluator's role and capability for institution accreditation evaluation of NCS-based vocational competency development training. This study attempted to explore in various ways evaluator's minute roles using Delphi method, and to derive knowledge, skill, attitude and integrity needed to verify the validity. To the end, this study conducted the Delphi research for over three rounds by selecting education training professionals and review evaluation professions as professional panels. From the results, roles of evaluators were defined as the total eight items including operator, moderator-mediator, cooperator, analyzer, verifier, institution evaluator, institution consultant, and learner, and the derived capabilities with respect to each role were 25 items in total. The area of knowledge included four items of capabilities such as HRD knowledge, NCS knowledge, knowledge of vocational competency development training, and knowledge of training institution accreditation evaluation, and the area of skill comprised fourteen items of capabilities such as conflict management ability, interpersonal relation ability, word processing ability, problem-solving ability, analysis ability, pre-preparation ability, time management ability, decision making ability, information comprehension and utilization ability, comprehensive thinking ability, understanding ability of vocational competency development training institutions, communication ability, feedback ability, and core understanding ability. The area of attitude was summarized with the seven items in total including subjectivity and fairness, service mind, sense of calling, ethics, self-development, responsibility, and teamwork. The knowledge, skill and attitude derived from the results of this study may be utilized to design and provide education programs conducive to qualitative and systematic accreditation and assessment to evaluators equipped with essential prerequisites. It is finally expected that this study will be helpful for designing module education programs by ability and for managing evaluator's quality in order to perform pre-service education and in-service education according to evaluator's experience and role.

Media Scholars and Power: The politicized intellectuals hanging on the dangerous rope (언론학자와 권력: 정치화된 지성의 위험한 줄타기)

  • Choi, Nakjin;Kim, Sunghae
    • Korean Journal of Legislative Studies
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.113-156
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    • 2016
  • Media scholars take a lion stake in power circle. Not only do they take a part in media policies but seize prestigious positions like board members in Korea Communication Commission(KCC). Unfortunately, though, little has been known about who they are, what qualifications they have, and whether they meet public interests. This paper attempts to unveil the mechanism of those politicized intellectuals who are specialized on the media. Two categories divided into 'representative' and 'expertise' are employed for this purpose. On the one hand, the representative means the degree of committment into such public services as participation in conferences or non-profit organizations. On the other hand, the number of research articles, books and projects belong to the expertise. Evaluation levels consist of 'excellence, good and average' were allocated to those scholars who are(were) in 'Power Hole,' where decision makings come into being. Some interesting observations were made though this study. First of all, such criteria as representative and expertise vaguely suggested by the laws were hardly fit into those intellectuals, Rarely did they commit into public service let alone showing vigilance in academic activities. Secondly, both ideological loyalty and political activities in line with the government had much to do with taking such positions. Thirdly, not surprisingly, it showed that to graduate from Seoul National University and have Ph.D. degree from U.S.A. was one of the most essential factors. In final, most of them were very good at taking advantage of the press in way of boosting their publicity. To attend at policy making processes either in form of board members or advisers is inevitable for media experts. However, as shown in this study, such qualification of public service and academic eagerness shouldn't be underestimated. Academic integrity not selling intelligence solely for private interests needs to be protected as well. The authors hope this study to provide a valuable opportunity to establish a kind of ethical standards in participating into politics.

Evaluation of Ecological quality and establishment of ecological restoration guideline in landscape level of Mt. Moodeung National Park (무등산국립공원의 생태적 질 평가 및 복원 가이드라인 수립)

  • Lim, Chi Hong;Park, Yong Su;An, Ji Hong;Jung, Song Hie;Nam, Kyeong Bae;Lee, Chang Seok
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.49 no.4
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    • pp.296-307
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    • 2016
  • Ecological restoration is an eco-technology, which heals the nature damaged by human activity by imitating organization and function of the integrate nature and thereby provide an inhabitable space for diverse organisms. Such an ecological restoration has to be carried out by applying restoration plan prepared based on the results of diagnostic evaluation discussed in the diversified respects. This study aims to prepare an ecological restoration plan of the damaged forest ecosystem in Mt. Moodeung National Park. To arrive at the goal, first of all, we diagnosed quality of forest landscape established in Mt. Moodeung National Park based on natural (topography, climate, and distribution of vegetation) and artificial (land use, linear landscape element) factors. In addition, we evaluated the integrity of each zone divided by linear landscape element quantitatively based on geometric property and land use intensity. As the result of analysis, topography of Mt. Moodeung National Park tended to be depended on weathering property of parent rock and vegetation zones were divided to three vegetation zones. Based on land use pattern, deciduous broad-leaved forest, evergreen needle-leaved forest, and mixed forest occupied about 90% of Mt. Moodeung National Park. Mean score of forest landscape quality was shown in $69.86{\pm}11.41$. As a result, forest landscape elements in Mt. Moodeung National Park were influenced greatly by human activity and the degree was depended on topographic condition. This study suggested the synthetic restoration plan to improve ecological quality of Mt. Moodeung National Park based on the results of diagnostic evaluation.

Distributions of Endangered Fish Species and Their Relations to Chemical Water Quality-Ecological Stream Health in Geum-River Watershed (금강 대권역 대표 멸종위기 담수어류의 분포 특성 및 이화학적 수질-하천 생태건강도와의 관계분석)

  • Lee, Sang-Jae;An, Kwang Guk
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.986-995
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    • 2016
  • The objective of this study was to analyze the distribution of endangered fish species and elucidate their relations on chemical water quality, physical habitat conditions and ecological stream health. The dominant species in the watershed was Pseudopungtungia nigra (Pn), Gobiobotia macrocephala (Gm), Gobiobotia brevibarba (Gb), Liobagrus obesus (Lo), and Iksookimia choii (Ic) in the order. The species of Pn designated as "critical endangered species (I) (CER)", was most widely distributed species among the endangered species, so the designation of the species should be re-evaluated. The endangered species was most popular (4 species, 384 individuals) in the Cho-River region of eighteen lotic regions. According to the analysis of chemical tolerance limits in the habitats with endangered fish species, biological oxygen demand (BOD) and total phosphorus (TP) was analyzed as "very good" (Ia) and "good condition" in the chemical criteria of the Ministry of Environment, Korea. Also, chemical conditions, based on ammonia-N ($NH_{4+}$), total nitrogen (TN), phosphate-P ($PO_{4^-}P$) were much better in the habitat with endangered species (Hw) than the habitat without endangered species (Ho). In the meantime, the species of Ic showed wide ranges on the chemical tolerance, so physical habitat conditions, such as the size of substrate particles (sand) and hydrological regime, were considered as more important factors than the chemical water quality, if the water quality is not largely degraded. The endangered species were also more distributed in the high-order (4-6) streams than the low-order (1-3) streams. The evaluation of ecological stream health, based on multi-metric model of the Index of Biological Integrity (IBI), showed the large difference between the Hw (21.6, fair condition)and Ho (30.5, good condition), indicating that the habitat maintained well chemically and physically had higher distributions of endangered species. Overall, the designation of CER on the Pn should be re-evaluated due to wide-distributions, and the protections from water pollution and the habitat conservations on the endangered species are necessary in the watershed.