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The Eating Behaviors, Nutrient Intakes and Hematological Status of the Lower Grade Primary School Children in Gwangiu (광주지역 일부 초등학교 저학년 아동의 식습관과 영양소 섭취량 및 혈액성상에 관한 연구)

  • 황금희;정난회;유맹자
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.293-299
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    • 2001
  • The purpose of this study was to examine height, weight. chest circumference, sitting height, hematological status. eating behaviors and nutrient intakes for the lower grade primary school children in Gwangju. The subjects consisted of 76 boys and 60 girls aged 9 years old. Height, Weight, Chest circumference, Sitting height, Hct, WBC, RBC, Hb, serum GOT, GPT and cholesterol were measured. With regard to regularity of meal time, 66.7% of the subjects has been 'regular'. With regaled to amount of eaten food, 100.0% of the subjects has been 'moderate'. With regard to nutritional balance, 66.6% of the subjects has been 'think,but do not practice'. The study also found that 100.0% of the subjects skipped breakfast, liked korean food. Their dietary intake vase assesed for 1 day by means of 24 hours dietary recall method. The mean energy intake of the subjects was 1,306 kcal. The subjects consumed 47.9g protein, 28.8g lipid, 3.9g fiber, 446.9mg calcium, 835.0mg phosphorous, 7.9mg iron, 3,721mg sodium, 1.863mg potassium, 362.3RE retinol, 0.8mg thiamin, 1.1mg riboflavin, 10.8NE niacin, 93.9mg ascorbic acrid and 173.5mg cholesterol respectively. Energy, protein, calcium, iron, retinol, thiamin, riboflavin and niacin intake was lower than the Korean RDA. There were positive correlations between meal time and protein intake or fat intake or fiber intake or iron intake or retinol intake : negative correlations between meal time and sodium intake negative correlations between saltiness and cholesterol intake positive correlations between use of perilla seeds and riboflavin intake or niacin intake : negative correlations between energy intake or carbohydrate intake or phosphorous intake : negative correlations between frequency of eating-out and protein intake or fat intake or fiber intake or iron intake or retinol intake or thiamin intake or riboflavin intake or niacin intake.

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Assessment of Dietary Intake of Preschool Children in Busan : Assessment Based on Food Group Intake (부산지역 학령전 아동의 식생활평가 : 식품군 식품섭취 상태평가)

  • 임화재
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.3-15
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    • 2001
  • To assess diet quality by food group intake and to investigate the interrelationship of age, dietary diversity score(DDS), dietary variety score(DVS), dietary frequency score(DFS), food group intake and nutrient intake with food group intake, a dietary survey was conducted with 176 preschool children aged 1 to 6 in Busan using a 24-hr recall method. Food group intake was assessed by food number consumed and intake frequency by six food groups(grain, meat, vegetable, fruit, dairy, sweets group). The mean food numbers consumed and intake frequencies by six feed group were 3.1 and 4.0 in the grain group, 3.6 and 4.0 in the meat group, 3.5 and 4.1 in the vegetable group, 1.0 and 1.1 in the fruit group, 1.3 and 1.5 in the dairy group, 1.4 and 1.4 in the sweets group respectively. As age increased, the intake frequency of the grain group(p<0.05) increased but that of the dairy group(p<0.05) decreased significantly. The DVS and DFS didn't show significant correlations with intake frequency of the dairy group. The grain group intake had significant positive correlations with intakes of the meat, vegetable, and fruit groups. The vegetable group intake had signigicant positive correlations with intakes of the grain and meat groups. The dairy group intake had significant positive correlation with sweets group intake but negative correlations with intakes of the grain and vegetable groups. As the intake frequency of the meat group increased, the NAR(nutrient adequacy ratios) of all nutrients and NAR(mean adequacy ratio) increased significantly. NARs of provein iron, vitamin B$_1$, niacin had the highest correlation with the meat group intake and those of protein, calcium, phosphorous, and vitamin B$_2$ had the highest correlation with the dairy group intake. NARs of vitamin A and vitamin C had the highest correlation with intake of the vegetable and fruit groups respectively. Children with food number consumed and intake frequency of above 6 and 4 in the grain group or above 6 and 6 in the meat group or above 4 and 8 on the

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Dietary Cholesterol Intake in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) VI (2013-2015) (한국인의 콜레스테롤 섭취 현황: 국민건강영양조사 제6기(2013-2015) 자료를 이용하여)

  • Park, Myungsook;Kweon, Sanghui;Oh, Kyungwon
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.520-528
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    • 2017
  • Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess the intake of dietary cholesterol and its major food sources in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Methods: A total of 20,671 nationally representative sample who had 24-hour recall data from the KNHANES VI (2013-2015) was included in this study. Mean cholesterol intake and the prevalence of subjects with cholesterol intake over the Intake Goal of the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for Koreans were analyzed. Intakes of cholesterol by food groups or each food were calculated to find out the major food sources for cholesterol intake in Koreans. Results: The mean dietary cholesterol intake was 261.3 mg, which was higher in men (303.5 mg) compared to women (219.1 mg). Dietary cholesterol intake and the prevalence of subjects with cholesterol intake over the Intake Goal of DRIs were the highest in the 19-29 year old group. The eggs was the first major food group source for cholesterol intake in all age groups. Major food sources for cholesterol intake among Korean were egg, chicken, pork, squid and beef, which contributed 66.9% to total cholesterol intake. Conclusions: Although the mean dietary cholesterol intake was under 300 mg, the prevalence of subjects with cholesterol intake over the Intake Goal of DRIs was about 30% in adults. Because both the mean intake and the prevalence of subjects with cholesterol intake over the Intake Goal of DRIs were higher in young adult groups, the dietary cholesterol intake was expected to be increased.

A Study on the Food Intake Sodium and Potassium Intakes and Urinary Excretion of Preschool Children in Pusan (부산지역 학령전 아동의 식품섭취와 나트륨, 칼륨의 섭취 및 소변중 배설실태에 관한 연구)

  • 임화재
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.33 no.6
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    • pp.647-659
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    • 2000
  • o assess the food intake and the sodium and potassium intakes and urinary excretion of preschool children in Pusan and to evaluate the relationship among variables dietary behaviors food and nutrient intake and 24hr urinary sodium and potassium excretion were measured with 97 subjects. The mean sodium and potassium intakes were 1890. 1mg(82,2meq) and 1479.7mg(37.8meq) respectively. The mean potassium intake(p<0.05) and density(p<0.01) were significantly low at the group who had food intake pattern absen of fruit and daily groups. The mean urinary sodium and potassium excretion were 735.3mg(32.0meq) and 418.7mg(10.7meq) respectively. The mean sodium intake(p<0.01) and urinary excretion were 735.3mg(32.0meq) and 418.7mg(10.7meq) respectively. The mean sodium intake(p<0.01) and urinary excretion (p<0.001, p<0.001) energy intake(p<0.01) sodium intake and density (p<0.001, p<0.05) the food number and intake frequency of vegetable group consumed (p<0.01, p<0.01) dietary frequency score(p<0.05) and negative correlations with the food number and frequency of dairy group consumed (p<0.05 p<0.05) The urinary potassium excretion showed positive correlations with height and weight(p<0.05, p<0.01) urine volume and urinary creatinie excretion(p<0.01 p<0.001) potassium intake(p<0.05) food number and intake frequency of dairy group consumed (p<0.05, p<0.001). Based on the results urinary sodium excretion was related to age sodium intake and food intake of vegetable and dairy group and urinary potassium excretion was related to potassium intake and food intake of dairy group. So nutritional education is needed in order to decrease sodium intake especially from food intake of vegetable group when preschool children have less food intake of diary group,.

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A Study on the Steady Intake Flow Characteristics of the Intake 3-Valve Cylinder Head (흡기3밸브 실린더 헤드의 흡입 정상유동 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Chung, Jae-Woo;Lee, Ki-Hyung;Kim, Woo-Tae
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.880-885
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    • 2000
  • Flow patterns and steady flow characteristics of an intake 3valve cylinder head are not obviously declared. Thus, in the study, the characteristics and limitation of intake flow coefficient which applied to multi intake valve engine are introduced. The flow coefficient and tumble characteristics are investigated by means of the steady flow test and flow visualization method. As the results, it is found that the intake flow rate is dominated by effective valve open area. In addition, this paper shows that the mass flow rate of intake 3valve engine is greater than that of intake 2valve engine and tumble flow of intake 3valve engine is superior to that of intake 2valve engine.

Measurement of Na intake in Korean Adult Females (우리나라 성인 여성의 Na 섭취량 측정방법의 모색)

  • 김영선
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.341-349
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    • 1987
  • Dietary intakes of na include both the amount present in food materials (nondiscretionary Na intake) and the amount added during cooking and eating to increase salty taste and flavor (discretionary Na intake). In the present study, total Na intake was measured by duplicate food sample collected from each subject for 1 day, nondiscretionary Na intake was calculated by dietary intake record, optimum gustation of salt was measured of from pooled 3-day urine collection in healthy female college students, to measure Na intake more accurately and to find suitable method to estimate total Na intake. Mean values of total, discretionary and mondiscretionary Na intakes were 169.6 mEq, 46.2mEq, and 123.4mEq. respectively. Mean 24-hour urinary Na excretion was 137.9mEq., which was about 84.5% of total intake. Subjects with optimum gustation of salt equal to or higher than 0.5% had significantly higher total Na intake and urinary Na excretion compared to subjects with optimum gustation of salt lower than 5%. Total Na intake of subjects were significantly correlated with optimum gustation of salt, non-discretionary and discretionary Na intakes, and urinary Na excretion. Multiple regression analysis showed that the best estimate of total Na intake is obtained when both optimum gustation of salt and non-discredinary Na intake were used as independent variables (r=.7071). Among the equations using one independent variable, regression, equation with urinary Na excretion provides the best approximation (r=.6627) of total Na intake.

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A Study on Nutrient Intake Status According to Coffee Intake in Korean Female College Students (일부 여대생의 커피 섭취수준에 따른 영양 섭취상태에 관한 연구)

  • 최미경;전예숙
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.375-382
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    • 1997
  • This study was performed to evaluate the nutrient intake status according to coffee intake among Korean female college students. Two-hundred subjects were asked for their daily coffee intake using a questionnaire. Daily intakes of nutrients and food groups were calculated 3-day food records. The mean height and weight of the subjects were 161.6cm and 51.2kg. The mean daily intake of coffee and milk were 0.5 and 0.6 cups, respectively. When nutrient intake was compared to RDA for Koreans, intakes of energy, iron, vitamin A were short of recommendations. The mean intakes of calcium, sodium, vitamin B$_2$ in BMI<20 group were significantly higher than those in BMI $\geq$20 group. The mean intakes of calcium and phosphorous in no-coffee group were significantly higher than those in $\geq$2 cup-coffee group. The mean intake of beverage and others significantly increased as the level of coffee intake was increased. However, intake of milk and its product decreased. There were significantly negative correlation between coffee and calcium intake, and positive correlation between milk and calcium intake. These results indicate that coffee consumption decreases calcium intake because of decrement of milk and its products. Therefore, it could be suggested that there is increased need for nutritional education on proper eating patterns for female college students.

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Portion Control by Analyzing Kimchi Intake Rate on the School Lunch Program Menu (학교급식에서의 메뉴 구성에 따른 김치 섭취율 조사를 통한 김치의 1인분량 설정에 관한 연구)

  • Jang, Myung-Sook;Lee, Se-Ra;Lee, Jin-Mee
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.521-534
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    • 2006
  • The Kimchi intake of elementary students in both school and home is decreasing due to their westernized eating habits which have been affected by the rapid economic growth and industrialization in our modem society. The purposes of this study were to examine the influence of menu selections on the Kimchi intake rate and to provide basic data for an appropriate Kimchi serving size to reduce the plate-waste rate. The results showed that the average daily intake rate of Kimchi of low-grade students was 58.2%, equating to 6${\sim}$18 g, compared to 64.6% for high-grade students, equivalent to 13${\sim}$24 g. Correlation analysis of the intake rate of menu items and Kimchi showed that the Kimchi intake rate increased with increasing total meal intake rate, rice intake rate, soup intake rate, rice mixed with grains intake rate, clear soup intake rate and soybean-paste soup intake rate, but that it decreased as the intake rate of seasoned uncooked vegetables of high-grade students increased. This study is expected to be utilized as a solution to increase the Kimchi intake rate of elementary school students, and also to determine the proper serving size per person on the menu items by grade.

Contribution of Specific Foods to Absolute Intake and between-Person Variation of Nutrient Consumption in Korean Adults Living in Rural Area (24시간 회상법으로 조사한 한국 농촌성인의 섭취영양별 주요 급원식품 및 변이식품)

  • 이심열;백희영
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.33 no.8
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    • pp.882-889
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    • 2000
  • This study was conducted to examine contribution of specific foods to absolute intake and between-person variation in nutrients consumed by 2037 adults living in Korean rural area using one day 24-hour recall method. To measure contribution of food to absolute nutrient intake, all foods consumed were ranked by percentages calculated as the sum of the nutrient intake contributed by a given food divided by the total nutrient intake from al categories. To assess between-person variability in nutrient intake, stepwise multiple regression analysis was used with total nutrient intake from al foods as the dependent variable and the nutrient amount from each of all foods as independent variables. The kind and the number of foods necessary to account for the variation in nutrient intake among persons varied significantly depending on the nutrient. The nutrients contributing more than 80% of total intake with a few number of food items were ${\beta}$-carotene(ll), vitamin C(15) and vitamin A(16). Foods sometimes overlooked as important sources were found in some instances to be quantitatively important to population intake. Even though rice and Korean cabbage kimchi do not contain much nutrients in quantity, they made a major contribution to most nutrient intake of subjects because of large serving size and high frequency of intake. The food items and contributing order for between person variance was different from those of absolute intake. A large fraction of the variability of nutrient intake in this population was explained by a small number of foods. Fewer foods were required to explain a given proportion of the between-person variance in intake than to account for the same proportion of the popylation\`s total intake. These data may be useful in the development of dietary assessment instrument and in nutrition education. (Korean J Nutrition 33(8) : 882-889, 2000)

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Trends in energy intake among Korean adults, 1998-2015: Results from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

  • Yun, Sungha;Kim, Hyun Ja;Oh, Kyungwon
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.147-154
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    • 2017
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Assessing changes in energy intake and dietary sources is important to understand trends in the prevalence of obesity. Thus, we examined trends in energy intake and its nutrient and food sources in Korean adults from 1998 through 2015. SUBJECTS/METHODS: This study included 70,769 subjects aged ${\geq}19$ years who completed a nutrition survey. Subject data were obtained from the 1998, 2001, 2005, 2007-2009, 2010-2012, and 2013-2015 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Dietary intake was assessed by a 1-day 24-hour recall method. RESULTS: In men, the daily energy intake significantly increased from 2,196 kcal in 1998 to 2,489 kcal in 2013-2015 (P for trend < 0.0001). However, the daily energy intake among women did not change significantly over the same period (P for trend = 0.5772). The percentages of energy intake from animal foods (e.g., meat and milk) and beverages increased during the study period in both men and women. However, the percentage of energy intake from plant foods decreased due to a marked decrease in the intake of white rice. Changes in food sources of energy intake led to changes in the nutrient sources of energy intake; for example, the increase of energy intake from fat and decrease of energy intake from carbohydrate. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that since 1998, energy intake has increased among Korean adult men, but not among women. However, the composition of food and nutrient sources of energy intake has changed in both men and women. Energy intake and its nutrient and food sources should continue to be monitored regularly in the Korean adult population.