• Title, Summary, Keyword: Insulin Secretion

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Putrescine and Cadaverine Enhance Insulin Secretion of Mouse Pancreatic ${\beta}$-cell Line

  • Park, Hyo-Eun;Kim, Jae-Young
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.193-200
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    • 2012
  • We examined the effects of polyamines such as putrescine and cadaverine on the biosynthesis and secretion of insulin in the mouse pancreatic ${\beta}$-cell line, MIN-6. Basal insulin secretion (BIS) and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from the MIN-6 cells were significantly increased by 20 min- or 24 h-treatment with micromolar concentrations of polyamines. To determine whether the enhancement was due to increase of insulin production by polyamines, we investigated the insulin mRNA and protein production. Both insulin mRNA and protein production were found to be not significantly affected by the polyamine treatment. Next, we examined the expression of several transcription factors (TFs) related to insulin synthesis and secretion in order to identify upstream events responsible for the promotion of insulin secretion of MIN6 cells by polyamines. Of the 6 TFs tested, MafA was induced by treatment of polyamines. MafA mRNA and protein expressions increased with treatment of polyamines. Overall results suggest that cadaverine and putrescine promote the insulin secretion process rather than the insulin biosynthesis from MIN6 cells. Also MafA may be involved in the enhanced insulin secretion process. Further studies are needed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms for promotion of insulin secretion by polyamines.

Annexin I Stimulates Insulin Secretion through Regulation of Cytoskeleton and PKC Activity

  • Kang, Na-Na;Won, Jong-Hak;Park, Young-Min
    • Animal cells and systems
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.17-23
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    • 2009
  • In previous studies, we found that Annexin I (Anx I) was co-secreted with insulin in response to glucose, and that extracellular Anx I stimulated the release of insulin via the Anx I binding site in rat pancreatic islets and the &-cell line. However, the role that Anx I plays in the insulin secretion was not established. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the insulin secretion pattern in response to Anx I and the involvement of the cytoskeleton or PKC in Anx Istimulated insulin secretion in MIN6N8a cells. The peak time of insulin secretion in response to Anx I treatment corresponded with the second phase insulin secretion by glucose in the perifused pseudoislets. In addition, Anx I-stimulated insulin secretion was not affect by readily releasable pool depletion. Taken together, these findings indicate that Anx I treatment was associated with movement of the reserve pool of insulin. Furthermore, Anx I-stimulated insulin secretion was attenuated by treatment with a microfilament inhibitor, cytochalasin B, as well as by PKC down regulation. These results indicate that Anx I may be a regulator of second phase insulin secretion.

A Portulaca oleracea L. extract promotes insulin secretion via a K+ATP channel dependent pathway in INS-1 pancreatic β-cells

  • Park, Jae Eun;Han, Ji Sook
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.183-190
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    • 2018
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to investigate how a Portulaca oleracea L. extract (POE) stimulates insulin secretion in INS-1 pancreatic ${\beta}-cells$. MATERIALS/METHOD: INS-1 pancreatic ${\beta}-cells$ were incubated in the presence of various glucose concentrations: 1.1 or 5.6, 16.7 mM glucose. The cells were treated with insulin secretagogues or insulin secretion inhibitor for insulin secretion assay using an insulin ELISA kit. In order to quantify intracellular influx of $Ca^{2+}$ caused by POE treatment, the effect of POE on intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ in INS-1 pancreatic ${\beta}-cells$ was examined using Fluo-2 AM dye. RESULTS: POE at 10 to $200{\mu}g/mL$ significantly increased insulin secretion dose-dependently as compared to the control. Experiments at three glucose concentrations (1.1, 5.6, and 16.7 mM) confirmed that POE significantly stimulated insulin secretion on its own as well as in a glucose-dependent manner. POE also exerted synergistic effects on insulin secretion with secretagogues, such as L-alanine, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, and especially tolbutamide, and at a depolarizing concentration of KCl. The insulin secretion caused by POE was significantly attenuated by treatment with diazoxide, an opener of the $K{^+}_{ATP}$ channel (blocking insulin secretion) and by verapamil (a $Ca^{2+}$ channel blocker). The insulinotropic effect of POE was not observed under $Ca^{2+}$-free conditions in INS-1 pancreatic ${\beta}-cells$. When the cells were preincubated with a $Ca^{2+}$ fluorescent dye, Fluo-2 (acetoxymethyl ester), the cells treated with POE showed changes in fluorescence in red, green, and blue tones, indicating a significant increase in intracellular $Ca^{2+}$, which closely correlated with increases in the levels of insulin secretion. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that POE stimulates insulin secretion via a $K{^+}_{ATP}$ channel-dependent pathway in INS-1 pancreatic ${\beta}-cells$.

Hormonal Regulation of Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein Secretion by a Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cell Line

  • Kim, W.Y.;Chow, J.C.;Hanigan, M.D.;Calvert, C.C.;Ha, J.K.;Baldwin, R.L.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.233-239
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    • 1997
  • A mammary epithelial cell line (MAC-T) established as a model for lactation was utilized to identify and characterize effects of various hormones upon insulin-like growth factor binding protein secretion. Ligand and immunoblot analyses of conditioned media indicated that insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 was secreted by MAC-T cells. Insulin-like growth factor-I stimulated insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 secretion in a dose-dependent manner, but prolactin and bovine somatotropin did not alter insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 secretion. Insulin increased and cortisol decreased insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 secretion. Effects of insulin-like growth factor-I on insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 secretion support previous studies using primary cultures of bovine mammary cells and bovine fibroblasts. Effects of cortisol and insulin on insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 secretion may be explained by changes in protein synthesis. In addition, supraphysiological doses of insulin can cross-react with the insulin-like growth factor-I receptor and stimulate insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 secretion. MAC-T cells provide a model system to study mechanisms that regulate local insulin-like growth factor-I bioactivity.

Effect of Sopyung-tang Extract on Insulin Secretion and Gene Expression in RIN-m5F Cells (소평탕(消平湯)이 RIN-m5F 세포에서 인슐린 분비 및 유전자 발현에 미치는 영향)

  • Youn, Sung-Sik;Cho, Chung-Sik
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.25-39
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    • 2010
  • Background : At high glucose levels in $\beta$-cells, cell viability and insulin secretion are decreased by glucotoxicity. Sopyung-tang(SPT) had an effect on blood glucose level decrease and antioxidant enzyme activities in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Objectives : This study performed a series of experiment to verify the effects of SPT extract on the cell viability, antioxidant enzyme activities, insulin secretion and insulin mRNA expression at hyperglycemic states of RIN-m5F. Methods : After treatment at various concentrations of SPT added to the RIN-m5F cells, cell viability by MTT assay, free radical-scavenging activity, SOD activity and insulin secretion were measured. Additionally, insulin-related gene expression was measured using real-time RT-PCR. Results : Compared to the control group, SPT extract showed considerable effects on RIN-m5F cell viability, DPPH radical-scavenging activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, insulin secretion and insulin-related gene expression. Conclusions : This study showed that SPT extract has an effect on $\beta$-cell cell viability, insulin secretion and insulin-related gene expression. Thus, SPT extract may be used for treatment of diabetes and its complications. Further mechanism studies of SPT seem to be necessary on the glucotoxicity and oxidative stress.

Involvement of Ca2+/Calmodulin Kinase II (CaMK II) in Genistein-Induced Potentiation of Leucine/Glutamine-Stimulated Insulin Secretion

  • Lee, Soo-Jin;Kim, Hyo-Eun;Choi, Sung-E;Shin, Ha-Chul;Kwag, Won-Jae;Lee, Byung-Kyu;Cho, Ki-Woong;Kang, Yup
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.167-174
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    • 2009
  • Genistein has been reported to potentiate glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Inhibitory activity on tyrosine kinase or activation of protein kinase A (PKA) was shown to play a role in the genistein-induced potentiation effect on GSIS. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the mechanism of genistein-induced potentiation of insulin secretion. Genistein augmented insulin secretion in INS-1 cells stimulated by various energygenerating nutrients such as glucose, pyruvate, or leucine/glutamine (Leu/Gln), but not the secretion stimulated by depolarizing agents such as KCl and tolbutamide, or $Ca^{2+}$ channel opener Bay K8644. Genistein at a concentration of $50{\mu}M$ showed a maximum potentiation effect on Leu/Gln-stimulated insulin secretion, but this was not sufficient to inhibit the activity of tyrosine kinase. Inhibitor studies as well as immunoblotting analysis demonstrated that activation of PKA was little involved in genistein-induced potentiation of Leu/Gln-stimulated insulin secretion. On the other hand, all the inhibitors of $Ca^{2+}$/calmodulin kinase II tested, significantly diminished genistein-induced potentiation. Genistein also elevated the levels of $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ and phospho-CaMK II. Furthermore, genistein augmented Leu/Gln-stimulated insulin secretion in CaMK II-overexpressing INS-1 cells. These data suggest that the activation of CaMK II played a role in genistein-induced potentiation of insulin secretion.

Cholinergic Role on Insulin Action in Exocrine Secretion of the Isolated Rat Pancreas

  • Lee, Yun-Lyul;Park, Hyung-Seo;Kim, Myoung-Sub;Kwon, Hyeok-Yil;Park, Hyoung-Jin
    • The Korean journal of physiology & pharmacology
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.219-229
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    • 1996
  • In order to investigate intra-pancreatic cholinergic roles on insulin action in exocrine secretion, the pancreas was isolated from rats and continuously perfused with modified Krebs-Henseleit solution. Intra-arterial infusion of insulin (100 nM) or cholecystokinin (CCK, 14 pM) alone resulted in stimulation of the volume flow and amylase output. Also insulin potentiated the action of CCK in the exocrine secretion. Tetrodotoxin and atropine completely abolished the potentiating action of insulin and CCK as well as the action of insulin alone, but did not change the action of CCK alone. In order to see an effect of intra-pancreatic neural activation on the insulin action, electrical field stimulation (EFS) with parameters of 20 V, 2 msec and 8 Hz was applied to the isolated pancreas for 10 min under 2.5 or 18 mM glucose background. The EFS voltage-dependently elevated the flow rate and amylase output, and potentiated exocrine secretion in 18 mM glucose infusion compared with 2.5 mM glucose. The potentiating effects of EFS and 18 mM glucose were not observed in the streptozotocin-treated pancreas although it was perfused with 18 mM glucose. However, it was restored when the diabetic pancreas was perfused with porcine insulin(100 nM). Tetrodotoxin and atropine inhibited the pancreatic secretion induced by EFS with the background of 18 mM glucose. The results of present investigation indicate that the intra-pancreatic cholinergic tone exerts a stimulatory influence on the action of insulin in pancreatic exocrine secretion of rats.

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Mechanism of Action of Pancreatic Polypeptide (PP) on Pancreatic Exocrine Secretion in Isolated Rat Pancreas

  • Lee, Yun-Lyul;Kwon, Hyeok-Yil;Park, Hyung-Seo;Park, Hyoung-Jin
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.83-90
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    • 1997
  • Aim of this study was to investigate if pancreatic polypeptide (PP) reduced the insulin action via the intra-pancreatic cholinergic nerves in the isolated rat pancreas. The pancreas was isolated from rats and perfused with intra-arterial infusion of modified Krebs-Henseleit solution containing 2.5 mM glucose at a flow rate of 1.2 ml/min. Simultaneous intra-arterial infusion of insulin (100 nM) resulted inpotentiation of the pancreatic flow rate and amylase output which were stimulated by cholecystokinin (CCK, 14 pM). These potentiating actions of insulin on the CCK -stimulated pancreatic exocrine secretion were completely abolished by administration of rat PP. Vesamicol, a potent inhibitor of vesicular acetylcholine storage, and tetrodotoxin (TTX) also significantly reduced the combined actions of insulin and CCK. Administration of carbamylcholine, an acetylcholine agonist, completely restored the vesamicol- or TTX-induced inhibition of the potentiation between insulin and CCK. Also rat PP failed to attenuate the restoring effect of carbamylcholine. Electrical field stimulation (15-30 V, 2 msec and 8 Hz) resulted in a significant increase in the pancreatic flow rate and amylase output in voltage-dependent manner. Effects of electrical field stimulation were augmented by endogenous insulin. Rat PP also suppressed the pancreatic exocrine secretion stimulated by electrical field stimulation. These observations strongly suggest that PP inhibits the potentiating actions of insulin on CCK -stimulated pancreatic exocrine secretion by suppression of the intra-pancreatic cholinergic activity in the isolated rat pancreas.

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Study of Immunosuppressive Activity and Insulin Secretion by Treated Sanguisorba Officinalis (면역억제능을 보유한 지유(地楡)의 인슐린 분비능 연구)

  • Hwang, Seock Yeon;Kim, Myung Hyun;Kang, Jung Soo;Kim, Byoung Soo
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.28 no.5
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    • pp.499-505
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    • 2014
  • Immunosuppressors cyclosporine A(CsA) and tacrolimus(FK506), the primary cellular target of which is calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T cells(NFAT) signalling pathways, decrease beta-cell insulin content and mRNA expression. The posttransplantation diabetes mellitus(PTDM) is a frequent complication in immunosuppressive therapy. The present study was to examine the effect of a crude water extracts of medicinal herbs such as Sanguisorba officinalis(SOE) on the immunosuppressive activity with lymphocyte and insulin secretion in insulinoma cell lines with RIN-5mF. It was found that SOE treatment had effect of immunosuppressor on lymphocytes and also significantly increased insulin secretion in RIN-5mF compared to other agents. we might suggest a mechanism on insulin secretion by HNF4a. Taken together, the present study suggested that SOE might serve as immunosuppressive drug in PTDM.

Effect of Undaria pinnatifida Extract on Insulin Secretion from the Pancreas of Diabetic Rats

  • Nam, Jeong-Su;Lee, Won-Joon;Choi, Hyun-Ju
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.281-286
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    • 2009
  • We found previously that Undaria pinnatifida extract has an effect of lowering blood glucose levels in diabetic rats. Therefore, an effect of Undaria pinnatifida extract on the insulin secretion directly from the pancreas was examined in this study. Neonatal diabetes were induced by intraperitoneal injection of Streptozotocin (100 mg/kg body weight) at age of day 1. Rats were fed a rodent pellet diet until they were grown to adults (age of 7 weeks). Rats having a fasting serum glucose level over 250 mg/dL were used in this feeding study and they were divided into two diet groups as follows; a diet with Undaria pinnatifida extract (5%) and a diet without this extract (control group). Fasting (12 hr) blood glucose and serum insulin levels were measured before and after feeding a diet with Undaria pinnatifida extract for 4 weeks. At the last day of feeding, in vitro pancreas perfusion was performed. Pancreas was stimulated with a perfusate without glucose during a period of 0~10 minutes and with a perfusate containing 200 mg/dL glucose during a period of 11~40 minutes. Insulin amount was measured using a radioimmuno assay. In results, amount of the insulin secreted from the pancreas in the diabetic rats fed Undaria pinnatifida extract was significantly greater than that in the diabetic control group during the periods of the equilibration period (0~10 min) and the first phase (11~20 min) of the insulin secretion (P<0.05). It is concluded that Undaria pinnatifida extract increases insulin secretion from the pancreas in the neonatal diabetic rats. Therefore, the blood glucose lowering effect of the Undaria pinnatifida extract may be elucidated by mechanisms with promoted insulin secretion from the pancreas in diabetic rats.

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