• Title, Summary, Keyword: Inorganic Se

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Effect of Organic or Inorganic Selenium and Germanium on Growth Stage of Rice (벼 생육단계별 유기 또는 무기 셀레늄(Selenium)과 게르마늄(Germanium)의 처리효과)

  • Kim, Yeon-Su;Chun, Jin-Hyuk;Jeon, Young-Ji;Woo, Hyun-Nyung;Kim, Sun-Ju
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.96-103
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    • 2019
  • BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to develop selenium (Se)- and germanium (Ge)-enriched rice by foliar spray application of organic or inorganic Se and Ge. METHODS AND RESULTS: The time and frequency of organic or inorganic Se and Ge treatment were performed at the five main growth stages as followings: effective tillering stage (E), maximum tillering stage (M), booting stage (B), heading stage (H), grain filling stage (G). The main treatment plots were consisted of (1) 'once' treatment (at each E, M, B, H, G stage, Se/Ge single apply), (2) 'twice I' (at H + G stages, organic or inorganic Se/Ge apply), (3) 'twice II' (at H + G stages, mixture apply of Se + Ge + pesticide). The organic or inorganic Se treatment concentration was 20 and 40 ppm, and the Ge was 50 and 100 ppm. The Se and Ge contents in rice grain (brown rice and polished rice) were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma (ICP). The highest Se content was noted in brown rice 'twice I' with Se 40 ppm (1394.06) at H + G stages, but the lowest was in 'once' with Se 40 ppm ($367.79{\mu}g{\cdot}kg^{-1}$) at B stage. The highest of Se content in polished rice was found in 'twice I' of Se 40 ppm (1090.25) at H + G stages, but the lowest was in 'once' with Se 40 ppm ($403.53{\mu}g{\cdot}kg^{-1}$) at E stage. On the other hand, The highest of Ge content in brown rice was found in 'twice I' with Ge 100 ppm (398.66) at H + G stages, but the lowest was in 'once' with Ge 100 ppm ($139.64{\mu}g{\cdot}kg^{-1}$) at B stage. The highest of Ge content in polished rice was found in 'twice I' of Ge 100 ppm (300.29) at H + G stages, but the lowest was in 'once' with Ge 100 ppm ($142.24{\mu}g{\cdot}kg^{-1}$) at B stage. CONCLUSION: Se and Ge contents both in brown rice and polished rice treated with organic Se and Ge forms were higher than those of inorganic Se and Ge. Overall results concluded that the supplementation of organic Se and Ge contents in brown and polished rice contents were comparatively higher than the inorganic Se and Ge. This is results also proved that the foliar spray application of organic Se and Ge has positive nutritive effect on the rice for regular consumption.

INORGANIC SELENIUM FOR SHEEP I. SELENIUM BALANCE AND SELENIUM LEVELS IN THE DIFFERENT RUMINAL FLUID FRACTIONS

  • Serra, A.B.;Nakamura, K.;Matsui, T.;Harumoto, T.;Fujihara, T.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.83-89
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    • 1994
  • The effects of inorganic selenium (Se), selenate and selenite on Se balance levels in the different ruminal fluid fractions were studied using Japanese Corriedale wethers with an average body weight of 47 kg. A $3{\times}3$ Latin square design was used with three animal, three periods and three treatments. In each period, there was 7 d dietary adjustment followed by 5 d total collection of urine and feces. Ruminal fluid samples were obtained at 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 h postprandially on the final day of the collection period. The three dietary treatments were: (1) without Se supplementation (control); (2) with Se supplement as sodium selenate; and (3) sodium selenite at a rate of 0.2 mg Se/kg dietary DM. The basal diet was timothy hay (Phleum pratense L.) fed 2% of body weight/d. Results indicated that Se balance were higher (p < 0.05) for those animals under supplementation than those animals under control. Overall data gathered showed a similar digestion balance of selenate and selenite in sheep. Inorganic Se, both selenate and selenite produced positive Se contents of the ruminal feed particles and protozoa. Bacterial Se increased (p < 0.05) on the first three hours post-prandially in Se supplemented diets. Gross ruminal fluid fraction, although there was improvement on their Se content under the supplemented diets, the changes were insignificant over the control. free inorganic Se and Se in soluble protein of the ruminal fluid were not significantly different for selenate and selenite. Most of the Se in the ruminal fluids of the animals under supplementation were insoluble, indicating the influence of rumen environments on Se bioavaliability.

Effects of Dietary Supplemented Inorganic and Organic Selenium on Antioxidant Defense Systems in the Intestine, Serum, Liver and Muscle of Korean Native Goats

  • Chung, J.Y.;Kim, J.H.;Ko, Y.H.;Jang, I.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.52-59
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    • 2007
  • The present study was designed to assess whether dietary inorganic and organic selenium (Se) could affect antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), a marker of lipid peroxidation, in the intestine, serum, liver, and gastrocnemius muscle of Korean native goats. A total of eighteen Korean native goats was allotted into three dietary groups, consisting of basal diet (CON), or basal diet with either 0.25 ppm inorganic (IOSEL) or 0.25 ppm organic Se (ORSEL), and fed the corresponding diets for 5 wks. Growth performance, including body weight and total gain, and blood biochemical profiles, including GSH-Px, were not significantly different between the three dietary groups. Also, the specific activities of SOD, GSH-Px, and GST, and the level of MDA in the intestinal mucosa and liver from goats were not substantially affected by either inorganic Se or organic Se. However, goats fed the diet containing organic Se showed a significant increase in GSH-Px and GST activities in the gastrocnemius muscle compared with those fed the basal diet. In conclusion, increased muscle GSH-Px and GST activities suggest that dietary organic Se may affect, at least in part, the antioxidant defense system in muscle of Korean native goats under the conditions of our feeding regimen.

The Effect of Dietary Selenium Source and Vitamin E Levels on Performance of Male Broilers

  • Choct, M.;Naylor, A.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.7
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    • pp.1000-1006
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    • 2004
  • Selenium and vitamin E are micronutrients essential for normal health and maintenance in poultry. They are necessary in preventing free radical damage to phospholipid membranes, enzymes and other important molecules. Two experiments were conducted in a semi-commercial environment to examine the effect of Se source and vitamin E level in diet on broiler performance and meat quality. Increasing vitamin E from 50 IU to 100 IU did not affect growth performance of broilers although the 24 h drip-loss was tended to be reduced (p=0.06). There was an interaction between vitamin E and the source of Se in glutathione peroxidase activity (GSH-Px) and Se concentration in excreta. Increasing vitamin E from 50 IU to 100 IU elevated GSH-Px and Se concentration in excreta by 42 IU/g Hb and 0.9 ppm for the organic Se group, respectively, but reduced GSH-Px and Se concentration in excreta by 16 IU/g Hb and 1.3 ppm for inorganic group, respectively. Vitamin E played no role in the feather coverage of the birds when scored on day 37. Organic Se is more effective in improving feather score and 24 h drip-loss, with a markedly higher deposition rate in breast muscle and a lower excretion rate in the excreta (p<0.05) compared to the inorganic Se source. Both vitamin E and the source of Se did not affect (p>0.05) the energy utilisation by birds.

Studies on the Selenium Type and Metabolism of Selenium Accumulation in the Selenium-Enriched Mushroom, Flammulina Velutipes, and Its Spent Mushroom Composts (셀레늄 강화 팽이버섯과 폐배지의 셀레늄 형태 및 팽이버섯내 셀레늄 축적대사에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, S.H.;Kwak, W.S.;Kim, W.Y.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.47 no.2
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    • pp.305-316
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    • 2005
  • This study was conducted to determine the total amount and type of seleniwn (Se) in the Se-enriched mushroom and its spent mushroom composts (SMC), and to investigate the metabolism in relation to Se accwnulation in the mushroom. Mushrooms, Flammulina velutipes, used in this study were grown for 60 days by adding 2 rng of inorganic Se (Na2Se03) per kg of mushroom composts (MC) on as-fed basis and were compared with normal mushrooms grown on the non Se-supplemented Me. Total Se contents for Se-treated mushrooms were significantly increased (P < 0.0001) by 20-fold (4.51 $\mu$/ g of dry) compared to Se-untreated (0.23 $\mu$/ g of dry). On the contrary, organic Se ratio was significantly lower (P < 0.0001) in the Se-treated mushroom (72.3 %) than the Se-untreated one (100 %, not analytically detected of inorganic Se). Se distribution upon a length in the Se-treated mushrooms was the highest in the bottom part (6.86 $\mu$/ g of dry) near to MC, and top and middle parts were significantly lower (3.71 and 3.01 $\mu$/ g of dry, respectively; P < 0.001) than the bottom. In the SMC from Se-treated mushrooms, the significant amount of Se (5.04l1g/g of dry) was remained, but that from the Se-untreated mushrooms was significantly low (P$\mu$ / g of dry. Se-treated SMC showed a high ratio of organic Se (65.67 %), suggesting that the significant amount of inorganic Se in the SMC was converted to organic Se by mushroom mycelia. Prior to mycelia inoculation in the mushroom culture, the sterilization of MC brought approximately 18% of Se loss in the MC. Apparent and net accumulation rates (%) for Se into mushrooms were 14.81 and 10.14 %, respectively, resulting from the Se volatilization into the air via metabolic process of mushroom itself. The result of this study shows that inorganic Se addition to MC for mushroom improved the organic Se contents in the mushroom and SMC. This study showed the possibility that Se in Se-enriched mushroom and SMC could be utilized as Se sources of food for human as well as feed for livestock.

Effect of Dietary Organic or Inorganic Minerals (Selenium and Copper) on Layer's Production and Their Transfer into the Egg (사료 내 유기태 및 무기태 미네랄(셀레늄, 구리)의 수준별 첨가가 산란계의 생산성과 계란 내 이행에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, T.S.;Kim, J.Y.;You, S.J.;Lee, B.K.;Kim, J.M.;Kim, E.J.;Ahn, B.K.;Kang, C.W.
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.103-110
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    • 2009
  • This experiment was conducted using 350 Lohmann Brown layers (67 weeks of age) to evaluate the dietary effect of organic or inorganic Se and Cu on their contents in chicken eggs. The layers were divided into seven groups and fed a commercial diet or one of the six experimental diets containing different levels of Se and Cu (T1, 0.3ppm organic Se; T2, 1.0ppm organic Se; T3, 1.0ppm inorganic Se; T4, 125ppm organic Cu; T5, 250ppm organic Cu; and T6, 250ppm inorganic Cu) for 5 weeks. No significant differences were observed in egg production and its qualities among groups. The contents of blood cholesterol in the birds fed various levels of Se and Cu were not significantly different as compared to control. Se contents in eggs were linearly increased as dietary Se levels increased for both sources, but Se contents from the groups fed organic Se were slightly higher than those fed inorganic Se. Sensory characteristics of eggs were not influenced by dietary treatments. In conclusion, Se contents in eggs were linearly increased as dietary levels of organic or inorganic Se increased, but eggs in layers fed the diet containing organic Se did not show higher Se contents than those in birds fed dietary inorganic Se.

Effects of Different Products and Levels of Selenium on Growth, Nutrient Digestibility and Selenium Retention of Growing-finishing Pigs

  • Tian, J.Z.;Yun, M.S.;Kong, C.S.;Piao, L.G.;Long, H.F.;Kim, J.H.;Lee, J.H.;Lim, J.S.;Kim, C.H.;Kim, Y.Y.;Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.61-66
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    • 2006
  • This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different selenium (Se) products (inorganic, organic A, organic B) added at two supplemental dietary Se levels (0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and Se retention in growing-finishing pigs. A $3{\times}2$ factorial arrangement of treatments was used in a RCB design, with a non-Se-fortified basal diet serving as the negative control. A total of 56 crossbred pigs (28 male and 28 female pigs) initially weighing an average $28.45{\pm}0.53kg$ BW were allotted to each treatment with four pigs per pen on the basis of sex and weight. Two pigs per pen were selected and bled from the anterior vena cava at 3- weekly intervals to analyze Se concentration. In the growing phase (0-6 weeks), increased ADFI was observed when pigs were fed organic Se compared to those fed the control diet or inorganic Se treatment (p<0.05). Pigs fed inorganic Se had a great ADFI than pigs fed organic Se (p<0.05) in the late finishing phase (7-12 weeks), although there were no differences in whole period ADFI between organic or inorganic Se products. During 12 weeks of the whole experimental period, serum Se concentration increased linearly when dietary Se level increased regardless of Se products (p<0.05). Both dietary Se source (p<0.05) and Se level (p<0.01) influenced the Se concentration of various pig tissues at end of this experiment and Se content was the highest in the kidney. For the determination of nutrient digestibility, a metabolic trial was conducted in 3 replicates in randomized complete block (RCB) design. A total of 21 barrows ($50.21{\pm}0.62kg$ of average BW) were used in the metabolic study. Selenium supplementation had no effect on nutrient digestibility except for crude protein. Crude protein digestibility increased with dietary supplementation of organic Se (A) compared with other forms of Se products or control diet (p<0.05). Consequently, this experiment indicated that dietary Se products and levels had no effect on growth performance of pigs. Se concentration in tissues and serum was increased in proportion to dietary Se level, especially when organic Se was provided. Although pigs were fed organic forms of Se, bioavailability of organic forms varied among products, consequently bioactivity of organic products to the animals should be evaluated before practical application in animal feed.

The Investigation of a Novel Indicator System for Trace Determination and Speciation of Selenium in Natural Water Samples by Kinetic Spectrophotometric Detection

  • Gurkan, Ramazan;Ulusoy, Halil Ibrahim
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.31 no.7
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    • pp.1907-1914
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    • 2010
  • A novel catalytic kinetic method is proposed for the determination of Se(IV), Se(VI) and total inorganic selenium in water based on the catalytic effect of Se(IV) on the reduction of bromate by p-nitrophenylhydrazine at pH 3.0. The generated bromine, $Br_2$ or $Cl_2$ plus $Br_2$ in 0.1 M NaCl (or NaBr) environment efficiently decolorized Calmagite and the reaction was monitored spectrophotometrically at 523 nm as a function of time. In this indicator reaction, bromide acted as an activator for the catalysis of selenium (IV) and a reducing agent for selenium (VI) at pH 3.0, which allowed the determination of total selenium. The fixed time method was adopted for the determination and speciation of inorganic selenium. Under the optimum conditions, the calibration graph are linear in the range 1 - 35 ${\mu}gL^{-1}$ of Se(IV) for the fixed time method at $25^{\circ}C$. The detection limit based on statistical $3S_{blank}$/m-criterion was 0.215 ${\mu}gL^{-1}$ for the fixed time method (7 min). All of the variables that affect the sensitivity at 523 nm were investigated, and the optimum conditions were established. The interference effect of various cations and anions on the Se (IV) determination was also studied. The selectivity of the selenium determination was greatly improved with the use of the strongly cation exchange resin such as Amberlite IR120 plus. The proposed kinetic method was validated statistically and through recovery studies in natural water samples. The RSDs for ten replicate measurements of 5, 15 and 25 ${\mu}gL^{-1}$ of Se(IV) and Se(VI) was changed between 2.1 - 4.85%. Analyses of a certified standard reference material (NIST SRM 1643e) for selenium using the fixed-time method showed that the proposed kinetic method has good accuracy. Se(IV), Se(VI) and total inorganic selenium in environmental water samples have been successfully determined by this method after selective reduction of Se(VI) to Se(IV).

INORGANIC SELENIUM FOR SHEEP II. ITS INFLUENCE ON RUMEN BACTERIAL YIELD, VOLATILE FATTY ACID PRODUCTION AND TOTAL TRACT DIGESTION OF TIMOTHY HAY

  • Serra, A.B.;Nakamura, K.;Matsui, T.;Harumoto, T.;Fujihara, T.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.91-96
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    • 1994
  • This study was conducted to determine the effect of inorganic selenium (Se) sources on rumen bacterial yield, ruminal volatile fatty acid (VFA) production and total tract digestion of timothy hay (Phlewm pratense L.) in Japanese Corriedale wethers. A $3{\times}3$ Latin square design was used with three wethers, three periods and three treatments. In each period, there was 7 d dietary adjustment followed by 5 d total collection of urine and feces. Ruminal fluid samples were obtained at 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 h postprandially on the final day of the collection period. The three dietary treatments were: (1) without Se supplementation (control); (2) with Se supplementation as sodium selenate; and (3) sodium selenite at a rate 0.2 mg Se/kg dietary DM. The basal diet was timothy hay fed at 2% of body weight/d. Results indicated that there was slight decrease in rumen bacterial yield of animal supplement with inorganic Se, however, differences over the control were insignificant. It was found that Se content of ruminal fluid was negatively correlated (p < 0.05) to rumen bacterial yield. The various VFA contents and acetate and propionate ratio of the different ruminal fluid samples were insignificant across treatment means and the same manner was observed to the different digestibilities (DM, OM, CP, NDF, ADF and NDS). This study concludes that Se supplementation at 0.2 mg Se/kg dietary DM either from sodium selenate or sodium selenite could not significantly influence rumen bacterial functions.

The Characteristics of Photoresist using Inorganic $a-Se_{75}Ge_{25}$ (무기질 $a-Se_{75}Ge_{25}$ 을 이용한 포토레지스트의 특성)

  • Chung, Hong-Bay;Huh, Hun;Kim, Tae-Wan;Hoon, Hyuk;Song, Joon-Suk;Kim, Jong-Been
    • Proceedings of the KIEE Conference
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    • pp.197-199
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    • 1987
  • This paper is investigated on characteristics of photoresist using inorganic a-$Se_{75}Ge_{25}$. The sensitivity of negative photoresist showing insolubility against alkalie solution, with Ag-photodoped, is more prominent than that of positive photoresist used with only a-$Se_{75}Ge_{25}$. It is also showed that the contrast of negative photoresist, ${\gamma}=2.9$, is more prominent than that of positive photoresist, ${\gamma}=1.4$.

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