• Title, Summary, Keyword: Inoculant

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Effects of Management Practices on the Quality of Round Baled Oat Silage (제조 방법이 라운드베일 연맥 사일리지의 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, J.G.;Cheung, E.S.;Seo, S.;Kang, W.S.;Ham, J.S.;Lee, S.C.
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.185-192
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    • 2000
  • This experiment was canied out to determine the effect of management practices on the quality of round baled oat silage at experimental field of Grassland and Forage Crops division, National Livestock Research Institute, RDA, Suwon from 1997 to 1998. The experiments are consist of randomized block design with 3 replications. The treatments are 3 wilting dates(0, 2 and 4 days), 3 wrap colors(white, black and green and 3 inoculant(untreated, Inoculant A and Inocuant B). The crude protein(CP) content was increased by prolonged wilting periods, but the effect of wrap color and inoculant were not founded. Acid detergent fiber(ADF) and neutral detergent fiber(NDF) content of all silages were not founded significant difference, but in vitro dry matter digestibility of oat silage with inoculant was significantly higher compare with control. Wilting treatment increased the mean silage acidity compare with control and inoculant treatment significantly reduced silage acidity. Wrap color did not influence the silage acidity. Wilting or inoculant treatments increased lactic acid content but, decreased the content of acetic and butyric acid. The quality grade of all silage were grade 3, except inoculant treated silage. Wilting or inoculant decreased silage DM loss, but wrap color did not effect on siage DM loss. The result of this study indicate that wilting for 2-4 days and inoculant will improve the silage fermentation and quality of round baled oat silage. (Key words : Oat, Wilting, Inoculant, Wrap color, Round bale silage)

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Effects of the Additives on the Quality of Alfalfa Silage (첨가제 처리가 알팔파 사일리지의 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, J.G.;Chung, E.S.;Kang, W.S.;Ham, J.S.;Kim, J.D.;Seo, S.;Lee, J.K.
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.115-120
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    • 1999
  • This experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of additives on the quality of alfalfa(Medicago sativa L.) silage at the forage experimental field, National Livestock Research Institute, RDA, Suwon in 1996. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with three replications. The treatments consisted of different additives(control, formic acid, molasses, inoculant A and inoculant B). Crude protein(CP) and Nitrogen free extract(NFE) content of alfalfa silage with additives were higher compared with those obtained control, but Crude ash(CA) and Crude fiber(CF) content of control(11.5 and 39.6%) were higher than those of additive treated plots. ADF and NDF contents of control silage were the highest as 36.2 and 48.6%, respectively, and increased by 4% compared with those obtained before ensiling. The acidity(pH) of control was the highest(5.45), but the lowest in inoculant A(4.32). Inoculant teratment significantly reduced acidity of silage compared with control. DM content of control silage was the lowest but DM loss of control silage was higher than that of additive treated silage. Ammonia-N content was the highest at formic acid treatment and level of Lactobacillus was decreased at control and formic acid treated silage. Total organic acid and lactic acid content of inoculant A and inoculant B were higher than those of other treated plots. The results of this study indicate that the treatment of LAB(Lactic acid bacteria) could be recommended as producing high quality of alfalfa silage.

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Effects of Inoculants on the Quality of Round Baled Grass Silage (유산균제 첨가가 라운드베일 목초 사일리지의 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Jong-Geun;Chung, Eui-Soo;Seo, Sung;Ham, Jun-Sang;Yoon, Sei-Hyung;Lim, Young-Chul
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.139-146
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    • 2006
  • This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of microbial inoculant on the quality of round baled grass silage at experimental field of Grassland and Forages Division, National Livestock Research Institute, RDA, Suwon from 1997 to 1998. The experiment was consist of randomized block design with three replications. The treatments were three different inoculant (control, inoculant A, B and C). The contents of ether extract(EE), crude protein(CP) and in vitro dry matter digestibility(IVDMD) in inoculant treatment plots were higher than those in control. Silages treated by Inoculant A, Band C had significantly lower acidity than that of control silage (p<0.05). Dry matter(DM) content of control silage was higher than those of inoculant treated silage. There were significant differences in organic acid contents among treatments(p<0.05). Lactic acid was increased with inoculant treatment, but, acetic and butyric acid was decreased. The DM loss of all silages were decreased with inoculant treatment and quality grade of inoculant treated silage was higher than that of control. Results of this study indicate that addition of microbial inoculant will improve the fermentation and quality of round baled grass silage.

Effects of Rhizobium Inoculant, Compost, and Nitrogen on Nodulation, Growth, and Yield of Pea

  • Solaiman, A.R.M.;Rabbani, M.G.
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.51 no.6
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    • pp.534-538
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    • 2006
  • The effects of Rhizobium inoculant, compost, and nitrogen on nodulation, growth, dry matter production, yield attributes, and yield of pea (Pisum sativum) var, IPSA Motorshuti-3 were assessed by a field experiment. Among the treatments Rhizobium inoculant alone performed best in recording number and dry weight of nodules/plant. The highest green seed yield of 8.38 ton/ha (36.9% increase over control) and mature seed yield of 2.97 ton/ha (73.7% increase over control) were obtained by the application of 90 kg N/ha. The effects of 60 kg N/ha, Rhizobium inoculant alone and Rhizobium inoculant along with 5 ton compost/ha were same as the effect of 90 kg N/ha in recording plant height, root length, dry weight of shoot, and root both at preflowering and pod filling stages, number of mature pods/plant, number of mature seeds/pod, 1000-seed weight, green, and mature seed yields of pea.

Ability and Fading Behavior of Inoculants in Ductile Cast Iron Melt and Effect of Minor Elemets on them (구상흑연주철 용탕 중 접종제의 접종능과 페이딩 거동 및 이들에 미치는 미량 원소의 영향)

  • Kwon, San-Bin;Kwon, Hae-Wook;Nam, Won-Sik
    • Journal of Korea Foundry Society
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.102-108
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    • 2005
  • The ability and fading behavior of inoculant in ductile cast iron melt and the effect of minor element on them were investigated. The result obtanied on nodularization and the performance of inoculant were more distinct when the melt was treated and held at the high temperature range of $1450{\sim}1500^{\circ}C$ than at the lower one of $1350{\sim}1400^{\circ}C$. The performance of 5.2%Mg-Fe-Si alloy was the best of 4 nodularizers. That of Fe-75%Si(I) alloy was better than other 4 inoculants. The performance of the Fe-75%Si(I) inoculant was deteoriated by the addition of sulfur or bismuth. On the other hand, that was improved by the addition of cerium, even though its extent was not big.

Effects of Inoculant Application Level on Chemical Compositions of Fermented Chestnut Meal and Its Rumen Fermentation Indices (밤 발효사료 제조과정에서 미생물 첨가수준이 영양소 함량과 반추위 내 발효특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Dong-Hyeon;Joo, Young-Ho;Lee, Hyuk-Jun;Lee, Seong-Shin;Paradhipta, Dimas H.V.;Choi, Nag-Jin;Kim, Sam-Churl
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.27 no.5
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    • pp.333-340
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    • 2018
  • This study aimed to estimate the effect of inoculant application level on chemical composition and bacterial count of fermented chestnut meal (FCM), and its rumen fermentation characteristics. The inoculant contained Lactobacillus acidophilus ($1.2{\times}10^{10}cfu/g$), Bacillus subtilis ($2.1{\times}10^{10}cfu/g$), and Saccharomyces cerevisiae ($2.3{\times}10^{10}cfu/g$). The chestnut meal mixed with molasses, double distilled water, and inoculant at 1 kg, 3 g, 480 mL, and 20 mL ratio for the basal chestnut meal diet. The double distilled water from basal chestnut meal diet was substituted with bacterial inoculant at a level of 0 (Control), 20 (Medium), and 40 mL (High) in the experimental diets. The mixed experimental diets were incubated at $39^{\circ}C$ for 7, 14, and 21 days, respectively. On 7 days of FCM incubation, the contents of crude protein (CP) (quadratic, P=0.043) and neutral detergent fiber (quadratic, P=0.071) decreased by increases of inoculant application levels, whereas bacterial count (quadratic, P=0.065) and rumen $NH_3-N$ (linear, P=0.063) increased. By increases of inoculant application levels on 14 days of FCM incubation, the increases were found on dry matter (DM) (quadratic, P=0.085), CP (quadratic, P=0.059), acid detergent fiber (quadratic, P=0.056), in vitro DM digestibility (linear, P=0.002), rumen total volatile fatty acid (VFA) (linear, P=0.057), and rumen iso-butyrate (linear, P=0.054). However, the decreases were found on bacterial count (linear, P=0.002), propionate (linear, P=0.099), and butyrate (quadratic, P=0.082). On 21 days of FCM incubation, in vitro DM digestibility (linear, P=0.002) and total VFA (linear, P=0.001) increased by increases of inoculant application levels, whereas the contents of CP (quadratic, P=0.034) and neutral detergent fiber (quadratic, P=0.047) decreased. These results indicate that the FCM with a medium level of inoculant application and 14 of fermentation had beneficial effects by increasing DM digestibility and rumen total VFA content, without altering bacterial count.

Effects of Homolactic Bacterial Inoculant Alone or Combined with an Anionic Surfactant on Fermentation, Aerobic Stability and In situ Ruminal Degradability of Barley Silage

  • Baah, J.;Addah, W.;Okine, E.K.;McAllister, T.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.369-378
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    • 2011
  • The effect of a homolactic inoculant containing a blend of Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus acidilactici and Enterococcus faecium or, the anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), alone or in combination on fermentation characteristics, aerobic stability and in situ DM, OM and NDF degradability of barley silage was investigated. Barley (Hordeum vulgare, L.) was harvested (45% DM), chopped and treated with water at 24 ml/kg forage (Control), inoculant at $1.09{\times}10^5$ cfu/g forage (I), SDS at 0.125% (wt/wt) of forage (S) or with the inoculant ($1.09{\times}10^5$ cfu/g) plus SDS (0.125% wt/wt; I+S). The treated forages were ensiled in triplicate mini silos and opened for chemical and microbiological analyses on d 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 42 and 77. Silage samples from d 77 were opened and aerobically exposed for 7 d. The in situ rumen degradability characteristics of silage DM, OM and NDF were also determined. The terminal concentration of NDF in S and I+S was lower (p<0.001) than in other treatments. Lactate concentration was higher (p<0.001) and the rate and extent of pH decline were greater (p<0.001) in I and I+S than S and Control silages. A homolactic pathway of fermentation in I and I+S was evidenced by reduced (p<0.001) water-soluble carbohydrates concentration, higher lactate (p<0.01), lower acetate (p<0.01) and lower pH values (p<0.001) than in S and Control silages. All silages remained stable over 7 d of exposure to air as indicated by lower temperatures and moulds, and by non-detectable yeast populations. The treated silages had lower DM and OM degradability than in the Control but NDF degradation characteristics of I+S were improved compared to other treatments. It is concluded that the inoculant alone improved the fermentation characteristics whereas the combination of the inoculant with SDS improved both fermentation and NDF degradability of barley silage.

Effect of S, Ce and Bi on the Performance of 1.0 wt%Ba-Fe-Si Inoculant in Gray Cast Iron Melts (회주철 용탕 중 1.0 wt%Ba-Fe-Si 접종제의 성능에 미치는 S, Ce 및 Bi의 영향)

  • Kwon, Hae-Wook;Nam, Won-Sik
    • Journal of Korea Foundry Society
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    • v.24 no.5
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    • pp.295-303
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    • 2004
  • The effects of three minor elements, S, Ce and Bi, on the inoculation ability and fading behavior of 1.0 wt%Ba-Fe-Si were investigated through thermal analysis. The performance of 1.0 wt%Ba-Fe-Si inoculant was better and more consistant at the high temperature range of $1,450{\sim}1,500^{\circ}C$ than that of low one of $1,300{\sim}1,400^{\circ}C$. That was improved with individual addition of three minor elements. The optimum amount of addition was 1.0% of the weight of inoculant added, respectively. That was improved also by the simultaneous addition of two or three kinds of minor elements. Even though worse with the addition of two kinds of them simultaneously than with individual addition, that was improved with the simultaneous addition of all three kinds over that with the individual one.

Effects of Rhizobium Inoculant, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Molybdenum on Nodulation, Yield, and Seed Protein in Pea

  • Rabbani M. G.;Solaiman A. R. M.;Hossain K. M.;Hossain T.
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.50 no.2
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    • pp.112-119
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    • 2005
  • The effects of Rhizobium inoculant, nitrogen, phosphorus, and molybdenum on nodulation, dry matter production, yield attributes, pod and seed yields, protein and phosphorus contents in seed of pea (pisum sativum) var. IPSA Motorshuti-3 were assessed by a field experiment. Among the treatments Rhizobium inoculant in combination with 25kg P and 1.5kg Mo/ha performed best in recording number of nodules/plant, total dry matter yield, number of pods/plant, number of seeds/pod, 1000-seed weight, green pod yield, green and mature seed yields of pea. The highest green pod yield of 15.37 t/ha ($97.05\%$ increase over control) and green seed yield of 9.6t/ha ($69.31\%$ increase over control) were obtained by inoculating pea with Rhizobium inoculant in association with 25kg P and 1.5 Mo/ha. The effects of 60 or 120kg N/ha were comparable to Rhizobium inoculant in most cases. There were positive correlations among yield attributes, yield, protein and phosphorus contents in seeds of pea. From the viewpoint of yield attributes, yield, and seed quality, application of Rhizobium inoculant along with 25kg P and 1.5kg Mo/ha was considered to be the balanced combination of nutrients for achieving the maximum output from cultivation of pea in Shallow-Red Brown Terrace Soil of Bangladesh.

Effect of Harvest Maturity, Wilting and Inoculant on the DM Losses and Morphological Changes of Round Baled Rye Silage (수확시 숙기, 예건 및 유산균첨가제 처리가 호밀 원형곤포 사일리지의 건물 손실률 및 형태변화에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Jong Geun;Park, Hyung Soo;Lee, Sang Hoon;Kim, Meing Joong;Kim, Jong Kwan;Lim, Young Chul;Chung, Eui Soo
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.283-289
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    • 2015
  • Three experiments were carried out to determine the effect of harvest maturity and management practices on the dry matter losses and morphological changes of round baled rye silage. Rye was harvested at three growing stages (boot, heading and flowering stage) in three different conditions i) with wilting (unwilted, short wilting and long wilting), ii) with inoculant treatment (untreated, inoculant A and inoculant B) and iii) with three different wrap colors (white, black and green). The morphological changes in round bale silage after 2 months was heavy in the early harvest and unwilted silage. However, harvesting after the heading stage did not change the shape, significantly. Inoculant treatment reduced the morphological changes and dry matter (DM) losses of round baled rye silage. DM loss was decreased with a delayed harvesting date and was significantly reduced by the inoculant. Dramatic changes in the shape were observed in all treatment at boot stage. Inoculant treatment resulted in more severe changes in the boot stage compared to untreated silage. Black color wrapping had the greatest impact among the wrap colors and there were no significant difference in the wrap colors. Harvest maturity and wilting periods was highly correlated (p<0.01) with morphological change. Result of these studies indicated that dry matter content is the most important factor that affects the morphological change in round bale silage.