• Title, Summary, Keyword: Innovations

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Association between intake of antioxidant vitamins and metabolic syndrome risk among Korean adults (한국 성인의 항산화 비타민 섭취와 대사증후군 위험 간의 관련성)

  • Ahn, Seoeun;Jun, Shinyoung;Kang, Minji;Shin, Sangah;Wie, Gyung-Ah;Baik, Hyun Wook;Joung, Hyojee
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.50 no.4
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    • pp.313-324
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between intake of antioxidant vitamins and prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) among Korean adults. Methods: A total of 614 subjects aged 30~60 years were recruited from those who received a medical checkup at a general hospital in South Korea between 2009 and 2012. Presence of MetS was determined based on criteria issued by the NCEP ATP III. Intakes of antioxidant vitamins (vitamin A, retinol, carotenoids, vitamin C, and vitamin E) were estimated by combining 3-day diet records with an antioxidant vitamin database for common Korean foods. We used multiple logistic regression analysis to assess the association between dietary intakes of antioxidant vitamins and MetS. Results: Men in the highest tertile for retinol (OR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.23~0.71, P for trend = 0.0009), carotenoids (OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.32~1.00, P for trend = 0.0470), and vitamin E (OR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.30~0.92, P for trend = 0.0190) intakes had a lower likelihood of having Mets than those in the lowest tertile. The OR of high fasting blood glucose among men in the highest tertile for vitamin A (${\mu}g$ RE: OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.32~0.97, P for trend = 0.0417, ${\mu}g$ RAE: OR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.29~0.92, P for trend = 0.0211), carotenoids (OR = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.23~0.73, P for trend = 0.0036), and vitamin E (OR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.26~0.82, P for trend = 0.0080) intakes was lower than those in the lowest tertile. In women, subjects in the highest tertile of retinol intakes had a lower prevalence of MetS than those in the lowest tertile group (OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.30~0.98). The OR for abdominal obesity was lower among women with the highest vitamin A (${\mu}g$ RE) intakes compared to those in the lowest tertile (OR = 0.51, 95% CI = 0.28~0.93, P for trend = 0.0293). Conclusion: These results suggest that dietary intakes of antioxidant vitamins might be associated with reduced risk of having MetS among Korean adults.

The Influence of Entrepreneurial Orientation of Small-Medium Enterprise's CEO on Business Performance: Mediating Effect of Product and Service Innovation (중소기업 경영자의 기업가적 지향성이 제품 및 서비스혁신을 매개로 경영성과에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Suheyong;Kang, Heekyung;An, na
    • Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Venturing and Entrepreneurship
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.145-157
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    • 2017
  • SMEs play an important role in the domestic economy. Regarding competency to respond flexibly to unpredictable changes, agility of SMEs is more emphasized. Entrepreneurship orientation is an important factor in the source of SMEs that enable such competency. Entrepreneurial orientation refers to the tendency of a CEO or a member of a corporation to be innovative, risk-taking, and active in the face of various market opportunities. In other words, it refers to the tendency to be expressed in the activities of the entire company without regard to specific technologies or industries. Entrepreneurial orientation has a direct or indirect effect on business performance. Therefore, in this study, we conducted theoretical and empirical studies on the effect of entrepreneurial orientation of SME managers on business performance. Research hypotheses were derived through theoretical research. We focused on the mediating effect of innovation activity and tried to identify the mechanism that entrepreneurial orientation leads to business performance through product innovation and service innovation activity. We investigated whether innovativeness, proactiveness, and risk-taking, which are sub-variables of entrepreneurial orientation, affect business performance through product innovation and service innovation. We conducted a survey of SMEs in Busan and Kyungnam regions to examine the research hypotheses. The results show that product innovation and service innovation have mediating effects. The results of the study are as follows. Product innovation has mediating effect of innovativeness and risk-taking on business performance. Service innovation has been found to mediate innovativeness, proactiveness, and risk-taking on business performance. There was a difference in the mediation effect between the two innovations. Product innovation showed a low mediating effect and a large direct effect. On the other hands, service innovation is relatively more mediating than product innovation. The implications of the research results are derived in relation to the essential differences between product innovation and service innovation. Limitations of the study and directions for future research are presented.

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An Analysis on the Role of Enabling Technology in the Relationship between Core Technology and Business Model during the Process of Disruptive Innovation (와해성 혁신과정에서 핵심기술과 비즈니스 모델간의 관계와 보완기술의 중요성 분석: 인터넷 쇼핑몰 사례를 중심으로)

  • Lee, Su;Lee, Sang-Hyun;Kim, Kil-Sun
    • Journal of Technology Innovation
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.79-109
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    • 2011
  • In his highly cited book, Innovator's Dilemma (1997), Christensen introduced a notion of disruptive technology that is based on the observations from disk-drive industry and used it as an explanatory variable through which new entrants outperform incumbents in the industry. In explaining his later observations of disruptive innovations in other industries, however, his early theory based on disruptive technology has been applied to all cases without careful distinction between the notions of technology and business model (Markides, 2006). Furthermore, it has been criticized that his model suffers from lack of enough explanatory power and other important factors that are necessary to fully explain the observed phenomena in various cases (Danneels, 2004). Motivated by the critics in literature, the current study carefully distinguishes between innovation of technology and innovation of business model in the process of disruptive innovation, and apply our framework to the case of internet shopping mall business. Our study yields two main results. First, the internet-related business model which Christensen argued as an example of disruptive innovation is accomplished through two distinctive and separable growth phases: a period of technology growth and a period of business model growth. Second, in the process of disruptive innovation, the notion of enabling technology plays an important bridging role that connects core technology and business model. Furthermore, we confirm that the success of business model innovation depends on the degree of maturity of the enabling technologies. In conclusion, Christensen's notion of disruptive innovation can be further detailed in terms of technology innovation and business model innovation, and if there exist enabling technologies, the chance of success of the business model is higher when the enabling technology is matured rather than when the core technology is merely acknowledged as a disruptive technology.

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Empirical Analysis of University Patenting in Korea (특허자료를 이용한 우리나라 대학 연구의 특성 분석)

  • Suh, Joonghae
    • KDI Journal of Economic Policy
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.115-151
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    • 2010
  • Recently Korean universities show very rapid increases in both patents and R&D (research and development) expenditures. During the period from 1970 to 2008, university R&D spending has on the average increased 15.3% annually. Along with steady increases in R&D spending, university's research outputs have also continuously increased. In 1990 Korea as a total published 1,613 SCI-level scientific papers and Korean universities applied 27 patents to Korea patent office. In 2008, Korea published more that 35,000 SCI papers and Korean universities applied about 7,300 patents. The growth of scientific articles had begun from the early 1990s whereas the growth of patent has ignited entering the 2000s. The paper tried to investigate university research through the window of patent. Patents lie between invention and innovation and represent the potential value of invention which will be realized at the marketplace. Since Korean patents do not contain citation information, the paper used US patents-NBER patent database-as the main data. The key empirical question is whether Korean university patents granted from USPTO are characteristically different from other Korean patents granted from USPTO. Previous studies on US and Europe show that corporate patents are more stylized in appropriablity of invention, whereas university patents basicness. In case of Korea, the paper confirmed the appropriability characteristic of corporate patents; but the Korean unversity patents are not distinguishable in terms of basicness. The paper estimated the citation frequency function-an empirical model which was firstly developed by Caballero and Jaffe (1993) and later articulated by Jaffe and Trajtenberg (1996, 2002). The model is specified mainly composed of two interacting parts-diffusion effect and obsolescence effect of new ideas or innovations. Estimation results show that differences in forward citations between university and corporate patents are not statistically significant, after controlling self-citation. Since forward citations represent the quality of patents, this estimation result implies that there are no statistically significant quality differences between university and corporate patents. Prior research results, based on the same model of citation frequency function, about US and some European cases show that, in terms of forward citations, university patents are generally superior to corporate patents -for the case of US- or, the former not inferior to the latter-for the case of most of Europe. It is argued that some important and significant policy changes caused the rapid rise of university patents in Korea. Policy changes include the revision of technology transfer act allowing the ownership of publicly-funded research results to researchers and the changes in faculty/professor evaluation which gives more credit to the number of patents. These policy changes have triggered the rapid growth of the number of university patents. The results of the empirical analysis in this paper indicated that Korea now needs to make further efforts to enhance the quality of university patents, not just to produce more numbers of patents.

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International Monetary System Reform and the G20 (국제통화제도의 개혁과 G20)

  • Cho, Yoon Je
    • KDI Journal of Economic Policy
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.153-195
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    • 2010
  • The recent global financial crisis has been the outcome of, among other things, the mismatch between institutions and the reality of the market in the current global financial system. The International financial institutions (IFIs) that were designed more than 60 years ago can no longer effectively meet the challenges posed by the current global economy. While the global financial market has become integrated like a single market, there is no international lender of last resort or global regulatory body. There also has been a rapid shift in the weight of economic power. The share of the Group of 7 (G7) countries in global gross domestic product (GDP) fell and the share of emerging market economies increased rapidly. Therefore, the tasks facing us today are: (i) to reform the IFIs -mandate, resources, management, and governance structure; (ii) to reform the system such as the international monetary system (IMS), and regulatory framework of the global financial system; and (iii) to reform global economic governance. The main focus of this paper will be the IMS reform and the role of the Group of Twenty (G20) summit meetings. The current IMS problems can be summarized as follows. First, the demand for foreign reserve accumulation has been increasing despite the movement from fixed exchange rate regimes to floating rate regimes some 40 years ago. Second, this increasing demand for foreign reserves has been concentrated in US dollar assets, especially public securities. Third, as the IMS relies too heavily on the supply of currency issued by a center country (the US), it gives an exorbitant privilege to this country, which can issue Treasury bills at the lowest possible interest rate in the international capital market. Fourth, as a related problem, the global financial system depends too heavily on the center country's ability to maintain the stability of the value of its currency and strength of its own financial system. Fifth, international capital flows have been distorted in the current IMS, from EMEs and developing countries where the productivity of capital investment is higher, to advanced economies, especially the US, where the return to capital investment is lower. Given these problems, there have been various proposals to reform the current IMS. They can be grouped into two: demand-side and supply-side reform. The key in the former is how to reduce the widespread strong demand for foreign reserve holdings among EMEs. There have been several proposals to reduce the self-insurance motivation. They include third-party insurance and the expansion of the opportunity to borrow from a global and regional reserve pool, or access to global lender of last resort (or something similar). However, the first option would be too costly. That leads us to the second option - building a stronger globalfinancial safety net. Discussions on supply-side reform of the IMS focus on how to diversify the supply of international reserve currency. The proposals include moving to a multiple currency system; increased allocation and wider use of special drawing rights (SDR); and creating a new global reserve currency. A key question is whether diversification should be encouraged among suitable existing currencies, or if it should be sought more with global reserve assets, acting as a complement or even substitute to existing ones. Each proposal has its pros and cons; they also face trade-offs between desirability and political feasibility. The transition would require close collaboration among the major players. This should include efforts at the least to strengthen policy coordination and collaboration among the major economies, and to reform the IMF to make it a more effective institution for bilateral and multilateral surveillance and as an international lender of last resort. The success on both fronts depends heavily on global economic governance reform and the role of the G20. The challenge is how to make the G20 effective. Without institutional innovations within the G20, there is a high risk that its summits will follow the path of previous summit meetings, such as G7/G8.

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An Empirical Study on the Factors Affecting RFID Adoption Stage with Organizational Resources (조직의 자원을 고려한 RFID 도입단계별 영향요인에 관한 실증연구)

  • Jang, Sung-Hee;Lee, Dong-Man
    • Asia pacific journal of information systems
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.125-150
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    • 2009
  • RFID(Radio Frequency IDentification) is a wireless frequency of recognition technology that can be used to recognize, trace, and identify people, things, and animals using radio frequency(RF). RFID will bring about many changes in manufacturing and distributions, among other areas. In accordance with the increasing importance of RFID techniques, great advancement has been made in RFID studies. Initially, the RFID research started as a research literature or case study. Recently, empirical research has floated on the surface for announcement. But most of the existing researches on RFID adoption have been restricted to a dichotomous measure of 'adoption vs. non-adoption' or adoption intention. In short, RFID research is still at an initial stage, mainly focusing on the research of the RFID performance, integration, and its usage has been considered dismissive. The purpose of this study is to investigate which factors are important for the RFID adoption and implementation with organizational resources. In this study, the organizational resources are classified into either finance resources or IT knowledge resources. A research model and four hypotheses are set up to identify the relationships among these variables based on the investigations of such theories as technological innovations, adoption stage, and organizational resources. In order to conduct this study, a survey was carried out from September 27, 2008 until October 23, 2008. The questionnaire was completed by 143 managers and workers from physical distribution and manufacturing companies related to the RFID in South Korea. 37 out of 180 surveys, which turned out unfit for the study, were discarded and the remaining 143(adoption stage 89, implementation stage 54) were used for the empirical study. The statistics were analyzed using Excel 2003 and SPSS 12.0. The results of the analysis are as follows. First, the adoption stage shows that perceived benefits, standardization, perceived cost savings, environmental uncertainty, and pressures from rival firms have significant effects on the intent of the RFID adoption. Further, the implementation stage shows that perceived benefits, standardization, environmental uncertainty, pressures from rival firms, inter-organizational cooperation, and inter-organizational trust have significant effects on the extent of the RFID use. In contrast, inter-organizational cooperation and inter-organizational trust did not show much impact on the intent of RFID adoption while perceived cost savings did not significantly affect the extent of RFID use. Second, in the adoption stage, financial issues had adverse effect on both inter-organizational cooperation and the intent against the RFID adoption. IT knowledge resources also had a deterring effect on both perceived cost savings and the extent of the RFID adoption. Third, in the implementation stage, finance resources had a moderate effect on environmental uncertainty and extent of RFID use while IT knowledge resources had also a moderate effect on perceived cost savings and the extent of the RFID use. Limitations and future research issues can be summarized as follows. First, it is difficult to say that the sample is large enough to be representative of the population. Second, because the sample of this study was conducted among manufacturers only, it may be limited in analyzing fully the effect on the industry as a whole. Third, in consideration of the fact that the organizational resources in the RFID study require a great deal of researches, this research may deem insufficient to fulfill the purpose that it initially set out to achieve. Future studies using performance research are, therefore, needed to help better understand the organizational level of the RFID adoption and implementation.

A Study on the Regional Development Effects by the Location of a New Automobile Assembly Plant -In the Case of Hyundai Motors Co. in Yulchon Industrial Complex, Chonnam Province- (자동차공업의 입지와 지역발전에 관한 연구 -전남 율촌 산업단지를 사례로-)

  • Lee, Jeong-Rock;Lee, Sang-Seok
    • Journal of the Korean association of regional geographers
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.77-98
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    • 1998
  • In general, spatial imbalance in regional growth is a major cause of social and political conflicts within a state. In Korea, this inequality has functioned as a threat to the state's integration. With the economic development policies by regional industrialization over the past three decades, most of the industrial activities have been concentrated in Seoul and Pusan metropolitan areas, which are surrounded by Kyonggi, Kyongnam provinces respectively. Compared to these areas, Chonnam and Chonbuk provinces have lagged behind in economic development. Therefore, in order to increase the regional economic development of the southwestern region in Korea, the central government has been enforcing several policies aimed at regional industrialization since the 1980s. The purpose of this study focuses on the regional economic impacts of a newly established industrial estate-Yulchon industrial complex- which would act as a regional growth center in the Kwangyang bay area. The Kwangyang bay area consists of several industrial estates such as Kwangyang Iron and Steel Co. and its related industrial complex, Chuam rural industrial estate, Yeochon industrial complex, and so on. In addition, the Kwangyang container port was constructed in 1997. The Kwangyang bay area has been changing to a new industrial district in the southwestern part of Korea as a result of industrialization policies which were activated by central government. The Yulchon industrial complex, which is expected to be completed in 2001, would draw many manufacturing plants. For example, Hyundai Motors Co. has a plan to locate a new automobile assembly plant within the estate. As the plan has high probability to be realized, it will be interesting to study the effects a new automobile assembly plant and its related production linkages have on the region. This study is to estimate the expected structural characteristics of automobile production activities in Yulchon. The following details will be discussed: the regional economic impacts of a new automobile industry in Yulchon industrial complex, the production linkage formation via hierarchical subcontracting systems, the alternative strategies to promote the growth of regional economies, and the scheme to improve the auto-parts and components industry in Kwangju and Chonnam provinces by establishing auto-mobile production function. Automoblie industry generally gives great influences on not only regional economies but the related industries, for example, the firms producing automotive components. If a new plant producing automobiles and its related firms producing components are to be established in Yulchon, they will affect on the regional development directions and change the regional characteristics of industrial structure. In order to increase the spread effects of the new industry in Yulchon industrial complex, almost all of the automobile production processes must be organized concurrently within a limited range of distance. There is an imperative that the co-operation system should be structured between the assembly firm and many firms producing its components. In addition to those, it would be required such as the effective division of labors between the firms, much more capabilities in the technical innovations, and the reconstruction of interrelationship between the labor unions and the firms' managers.

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Toward a Social Sciences Methodology for Electronic Survey Research on the Internet or Personal Computer check (사회과학 연구에 있어 인터넷 및 상업용 통신망을 이용한 전자설문 조사방법의 활용)

  • Hong Yong-Gee;Lee Hong-Gee;Chae Su-Kyung
    • Management & Information Systems Review
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    • v.3
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    • pp.287-316
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    • 1999
  • Cyberspace permits us to more beyond traditional face-to-face, mail and telephone surveys, yet still to examine basic issues regarding the quality of data collection: sampling, questionnaire design, survey distribution, means of response, and database creation. This article address each of these issues by contrasting and comparing traditional survey methods(Paper-and-Pencil) with Internet or Personal Computer networks-mediated (Screen-and-Keyboard) survey methods also introduces researchers to this revolutionary and innovative tool and outlines a variety of practical methods for using the Internet or Personal Computer Networks. The revolution in telecommunications technology has fostered the rapid growth of the Internet all over the world. The Internet is a massive global network and comprising many national and international networks of interconnected computers. The Internet or Personal Computer Networks could be the comprehensive interactive tool that will facilitate the development of the skills. The Internet or Personal Computer Networks provides a virtual frontier to expand our access to information and to increase our knowledge and understanding of public opinion, political behavior, social trends and lifestyles through survey research. Comparable to other technological advancements, the Internet or Personal Computer Networks presents opportunities that will impact significantly on the process and quality of survey research now and in the twenty-first century. There are trade-offs between traditional and the Internet or Personal Computer Networks survey. The Internet or Personal Computer Networks is an important channel for obtaining information for target participants. The cost savings in time, efforts, and material were substantial. The use of the Internet or Personal Computer Networks survey tool will increase the quality of research environment. There are several limitations to the Internet or Personal Computer Network survey approach. It requires the researcher to be familiar with Internet navigation and E-mail, it is essential for this process. The use of Listserv and Newsgroup result in a biased sample of the population of corporate trainers. However, it is this group that participates in technology and is in the fore front of shaping the new organizations of interest, and therefore it consists of appropriate participants. If this survey method becomes popular and is too frequently used, potential respondents may become as annoyed with E-mail as the sometimes are with mail survey and junk mail. Being a member of the Listserv of Newsgroup may moderate that reaction. There is a need to determine efficient, effective ways for the researcher to strip identifiers from E-mail, so that respondents remain anonymous, while simultaneously blocking a respondent from responding to a particular survey instrument more than once. The optimum process would be on that is initiated by the researcher : simple, fast and inexpensive to administer and has credibility with respondents. This would protect the legitimacy of the sample and anonymity. Creating attractive Internet or Personal Computer Networks survey formats that build on the strengths of standardized structures but also capitalize on the dynamic and interactive capability of the medium. Without such innovations in survey design, it is difficult to imagine why potential survey respondents would use their time to answer questions. More must be done to create diverse and exciting ways of building an credibility between respondents and researchers on the Internet or Personal Computer Networks. We believe that the future of much exciting research is based in the Electronic survey research. The ability to communicate across distance, time, and national boundaries offers great possibilities for studying the ways in which technology and technological discourse are shaped. used, and disseminated ; the many recent doctoral dissertations that treat some aspect of electronic survey research testify to the increase focus on the Internet or Personal Computer Networks. Thus, scholars should begin a serious conversation about the methodological issues of conducting research In cyberspace. Of all the disciplines, Internet or Personal Computer Networks, emphasis on the relationship between technology and human communication, should take the lead in considering research in the cyberspace.

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A Study for Factors Influencing the Usage Increase and Decrease of Mobile Data Service: Based on The Two Factor Theory (모바일 데이터 서비스 사용량 증감에 영향을 미치는 요인들에 관한 연구: 이요인 이론(Two Factor Theory)을 바탕으로)

  • Lee, Sang-Hoon;Kim, Il-Kyung;Lee, Ho-Geun;Park, Hyun-Jee
    • Asia pacific journal of information systems
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.97-122
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    • 2007
  • Conventional networking and telecommunications infrastructure characterized by wires, fixed location, and inflexibility is giving way to mobile technologies. Numerous research reports point to the ultimate domination of wireless communication. With the increasing prevalence of advanced cell-phones, various mobile data services (hereafter MDS) are gaining popularity. Although cellular networks were originally introduced for voice communications, statistics indicate that data services are replacing the matured voice service as the growth engine for telecom service providers. For example, SK Telecom, the Korea's largest mobile service provider, reported that 25.6% of revenue and 28.5% of profit came from MDS in 2006 and the share is growing. Statistics also indicate that, in 2006, the average revenue per user (ARPU) for voice didn't change but MDS grew seven percents from the previous year, further highlighting its growth potential. MDS is defined "as an assortment of digital data services that can be accessed using a mobile device over a wide geographic area." A variety of MDS have been deployed, with a few reaching the status of killer applications. Many of them need to access the Internet through the cellular-phone infrastructure. In the past, when the cellular network didn't have acceptable bandwidth for data services, SMS (short messaging service) dominated MDS. Now, Internet-ready, next-generation cell-phones are driving rich digital data services into the fabric of everyday life, These include news on various topics, Internet search, mapping and location-based information, mobile banking and gaming, downloading (i.e., screen savers), multimedia streaming, and various communication services (i.e., email, short messaging, messenger, and chaffing). The huge economic stake MDS has on its stakeholders warrants focused research to understand associated dynamics behind its adoption. Lyytinen and Yoo(2002) pointed out the limitation of traditional adoption models in explaining the rapid diffusion of innovations such as P2P or mobile services. Also, despite the increasing popularity of MDS, unexpected drop in its usage is observed among some people. Intrigued by these observations, an exploratory study was conducted to examine decision factors of MDS usage. Data analysis revealed that the increase and decrease of MDS use was influenced by different forces. The findings of the exploratory study triggered our confirmatory research effort to validate the uni-directionality of studied factors in affecting MDS usage. This differs from extant studies of IS/IT adoption that are largely grounded on the assumption of bi-directionality of explanatory variables in determining the level of dependent variables (i.e., user satisfaction, service usage). The research goal is, therefore, to examine if increase and decrease in the usage of MDS are explained by two separate groups of variables pertaining to information quality and system quality. For this, we investigate following research questions: (1) Does the information quality of MDS increase service usage?; (2) Does the system quality of MDS decrease service usage?; and (3) Does user motivation for subscribing MDS moderate the effect information and system quality have on service usage? The research questions and subsequent analysis are grounded on the two factor theory pioneered by Hertzberg et al(1959). To answer the research questions, in the first, an exploratory study based on 378 survey responses was conducted to learn about important decision factors of MDS usage. It revealed discrepancy between the influencing forces of usage increase and those of usage decrease. Based on the findings from the exploratory study and the two-factor theory, we postulated information quality as the motivator and system quality as the de-motivator (or hygiene) of MDS. Then, a confirmative study was undertaken on their respective role in encouraging and discouraging the usage of mobile data service.

Science Teachers' Recognition of the Changing School Environment and Challenges for Teaching Practices (학교의 변화를 마주한 과학 교사들의 인식과 수업 실천에서 나타난 도전과 변화)

  • Ji, Youngrae;Shim, Hyeon-Pyo;Baek, Jongho;Park, Hyoung-Yong
    • Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
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    • v.37 no.6
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    • pp.937-949
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    • 2017
  • In this study, we investigated how science teachers perceive the changes in school systems, including infrastructure and curriculum, in the context of preparing for future education. And the changes in their perception of the educational environment, the challenges, and changes of science teachers' classroom practices were also explored. In-depth interviews and analysis were conducted with two science teachers in a middle school that is trying to innovative on changes compared with general schools. The results of the study are as follows: First, teachers perceived that their schools had factors that could change the science class in terms of school size and infrastructure, peer teacher culture, and students' abilities. Second, the enthusiasm of teachers who are trying various ways of teaching and the students' ability to adapt in a smart learning environment formed a synergistic circle that lowered entry barriers to trying changes. Third, science classes changed to activity-centered classes, and teachers realized that these changes promoted students' self-directed learning. Fourth, teachers perceived themselves as playing an independent role in curriculum management, and this perception promoted more varied attempts in improving their classes. Through the changes of the learning environment and systems of the school and the formation of a culture that shares their challenges and innovations with the voluntary learning community, teachers constantly try to change their classes and schools. The changes of school need to be understood in the context of the interaction of teachers, students, and infrastructure.