• Title, Summary, Keyword: Innovations

Search Result 610, Processing Time 0.046 seconds

The Effect of Diffusion Starters' Centralities on Diffusion Extent in Diffusion of Competing Innovations on a Social Network (사회 네트워크 상의 기술 확산 경쟁에서 확산 시작 지점의 중심성에 따른 확산 경쟁의 결과)

  • Hur, Wonchang
    • Journal of the Korean Operations Research and Management Science Society
    • /
    • v.40 no.4
    • /
    • pp.107-121
    • /
    • 2015
  • Diffusion of innovation is the process in which an innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among the members of a social system. The literatures have emphasized the importance of interpersonal network influences on individuals in convincing them to adopt innovations and thereby promoting its diffusion. In particular, the behavior of opinion leaders who lead in influencing others' opinion is important in determining the rate of adoption of innovation in a system. Centrality has been recognized as a good indicator that quantifies a node's influences on others in a given network. However, recent studies have questioned its relevance on various different types of diffusion processes. In this regard, this study aims at examining the effect of a node exhibiting high centrality on expediting diffusion of innovations. In particular, we considered the situation where two innovations compete with each other to be adopted by potential adopters who are personally connected with each other. In order to analyze this competitive diffusion process, we developed a simulation model and conducted regression analyses on the outcomes of the simulations performed. The results suggest that the effect of a node with high centrality can be substantially reduced depending upon the type of a network structure or the adoption thresholds of potential adopters in a network.

Multicenter Evaluation of an Image Analysis Device (APAS): Comparison Between Digital Image and Traditional Plate Reading Using Urine Cultures

  • Glasson, John;Hill, Rhys;Summerford, Michael;Olden, Dianne;Papadopoulos, Fotula;Young, Stephen;Giglio, Steven
    • Annals of Laboratory Medicine
    • /
    • v.37 no.6
    • /
    • pp.499-504
    • /
    • 2017
  • Background: The application of image analysis technologies for the interpretation of microbiological cultures is evolving rapidly. The primary aim of this study was to establish whether the image analysis system named Automated Plate Assessment System (APAS; LBT Innovations Ltd., Australia) could be applied to screen urine cultures. A secondary aim was to evaluate differences between traditional plate reading (TPR) and the reading of cultures from images, or digital plate reading (DPR). Methods: A total of 9,224 urine samples submitted for culture to three clinical laboratories, two in Australia and one in the USA, were included in the study. Cultures were prepared on sheep blood and MacConkey agar plates and read by panels of three microbiologists. The plates were then presented to APAS for image capture and analysis, and the images and results were stored for later review. Results: Image analysis of cultures using APAS produced a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 99.0% and 84.5%, respectively. Colonies were detected by APAS on 99.0% of blood agar plates with growth and on 99.5% of MacConkey agar plates. DPR agreed with TPR for colony enumeration on 92.1% of the plates, with a sensitivity of 90.8% and specificity of 92.8% for case designation. However, several differences in the classification of colony morphologies using DPR were identified. Conclusions: APAS was shown to be a reliable screening system for urine cultures. The study also showed acceptable concordance between DPR and TPR for colony detection, enumeration, and case designation.

An Exploratory Study on the Circular Causal-Relationship of Downsizing and Technological Innovation in Organization.: System Thinking Approach (다운사이징과 기술혁신의 순환적 인과관계에 대한 탐색적 연구: 시스템 사고에 의한 접근)

  • 전상길;정우수
    • Korean System Dynamics Review
    • /
    • v.1 no.2
    • /
    • pp.33-60
    • /
    • 2000
  • This study aims to conceptually identify the circular causal-relationship which is structured between downsizing and technological innovation in organization. First, through the literature review concerning downsizing and (technological) innovations, we have outlined the conceptual building blocks and research boundaries in this field. Second, we used system thinking method to accomplish our research purpose. The research findings are as follows. First, the promotion of financial resources by downsizing have trade-off relations that have negative of effects in short terms, but positive effects in long time. Second, workforce reduction by downsizing usually has negative influence on employees. Third, capital reduction by downsizing generates not only the climates of cost-cut but also the fact that although the climates may increase economic performance in short terms, it may interrupt technological innovations in long terms. In conclusion, this theses suggests that the relationship of downsizing and technological innovations have complex causal and feedback structures. Therefore, the results of this thesis propose that the argument or practices of downsizing with partial emphasis is very dangerous. Finally some limitations are also discussed.

  • PDF

Models of Technological Innovation at a Project And a Firm Level (기업에 있어서 기술혁신의 동태적 모형)

  • 이진주
    • Journal of the Korean Operations Research and Management Science Society
    • /
    • v.3 no.1
    • /
    • pp.57-67
    • /
    • 1978
  • This paper reviews various models of technological innovations at different levels: project level and productive segment level. Firstly, it examines a number of significant factors influencing the success and failure of technological innovation at project level. Specifically, the role and characteristics of technical information for the success of innovation is analyzed. Secondly, the paper discusses in detail the relationship between technological innovation and the evolution of a firm. Product and process innovations are analyzed in accordance with a three stage model; the stages are performance maximizing (uncoordinated), sales maximizing (segmental) and cost minimizing (systemic). Various implications of the model are presented in terms of the business policy variables such as diversification, standardization, productivity improvement, marketing, etc. The applicability of the model to a developing country is sought and a few suggestions to develop new model of technological innovations in LDC are discussed.

  • PDF

An Estimating Method for Cognitional timeliness of Critical Success Factors (성공요인의 중점적 인식시점 추정방법론)

  • Oh, Sang-Young;Hong, Hyun-Gi
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
    • /
    • v.7 no.5
    • /
    • pp.948-953
    • /
    • 2006
  • This study presents a statistic method to estimate the salient time of critical success factors for successful business. Generally, the importance of the facts is flexible along with changes of business circumstance. Also, the change of business circumstance is affected by time. Thus, the importance of facts is change through the time. This study, based on Roger's diffusion of innovations theory suggests a precise estimating method to cognitional timeliness of the critical success factors in technology-based Industry.

  • PDF

Patent Scope - Legal and Economic Foundations with Policy Implications - (특허범위 - 법적.경제적 이론과 정책적 함의 -)

  • 한윤환;유평일
    • Journal of Technology Innovation
    • /
    • v.7 no.1
    • /
    • pp.187-205
    • /
    • 1999
  • Traditional analyses of patent system have considered innovations in isolation and precluded the technological interrelationships between innovations. Common feature of cumulativeness during the process of technological change, however, brings the scope of patent protection into the major policy concern and currently occupies the central position in recent patent reform controversy. This study surveys the recent developments in the economic analysis of patent scope with corresponding introduction to the legal perspectives regarding patent scope. Although the issue of patent scope is complex in nature and depends crucially upon technological environment and the nature of innovations, this study can enlarge the understanding of the pros and cons of patent scope policy, which will become increasingly disputable in the forth-coming era of specialized patent court in Korea.

  • PDF

Measurement of Psychological Work Environment for Technology Innovation (기술혁신을 촉진하는 심리적 작업환경의 측정-척도의 신뢰성과 타당성 검증을 중심으로-)

  • 한인수;박경환
    • Journal of Technology Innovation
    • /
    • v.6 no.1
    • /
    • pp.163-186
    • /
    • 1998
  • The psychological work environments which facilitate technology innovations in organizations are divided into two dimensions of supportive work environments and uncertain work environments. The measurement variables have significant reliability. And the confirmatory factor analysis confirm the construct validity of two dimensional work environments. Two work environments have the significant effects on motivations to the technology innovations. So, simple and hierarchical regression analyses confirm criterion-related validity. Therefore, Both of the uncertain work environments(uncertainty of external-organizational environments and tasks) and the two important work environments(supporting idea, resource supply, job autonomy) are the two important psychological work environments which indicate technology innovations in organizations. Measures for innovative psychological work environments are provided.

  • PDF

2G HTS wire with enhanced engineering current density attained through the deposition of HTS layer with increased thickness

  • Markelov, A.;Valikov, A.;Chepikov, V.;Petrzhik, A.;Massalimov, B.;Degtyarenko, P.;Uzkih, R.;Soldatenko, A.;Molodyk, A.;Sim, Kideok;Hwang, Soon
    • Progress in Superconductivity and Cryogenics
    • /
    • v.21 no.4
    • /
    • pp.29-33
    • /
    • 2019
  • 2G HTS wire with high engineering current density is desired for applications where compact, high power density superconducting equipment is important. We have succeeded in enhancing engineering current density of commercial SuperOx 2G HTS wire based on GdBCO by increasing the HTS layer thickness without fast degradation of the HTS film microstructure. This was possible after improving the temperature uniformity along the HTS film deposition zone. In particular, the wire engineering current density was increased from 700-770 A/㎟ (for a 65 ㎛-thick wire without stabilisation) or 430-480 A/㎟ (for a 105 ㎛-thick stabilised wire) at the beginning of this study to almost 1200 A/㎟ (for a 67 ㎛-thick wire without stabilisation) or 770 A/㎟ (for a 107 ㎛-thick stabilised wire) at completion of this study.

Effects of Design Innovations on Small and Medium Enterprises' International Competitiveness (디자인혁신이 중소기업의 국제경쟁력에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee Soo-Bong
    • Archives of design research
    • /
    • v.19 no.4
    • /
    • pp.163-174
    • /
    • 2006
  • The purpose this study is to discuss effects of product design innovations on small and medium enterprises' business accomplishments and further on raising those enterprises' international competitiveness through reviewing previous studies that quantitatively analyzed economic and technological performance and ripple effects of products developed through design innovations. To determine how much design innovations are influential and contributing to small and medium enterprises' international competitiveness, then, the researcher took most advantage of statistical data from quantitative analyses of business accomplishments brought by design innovation development and investment, or economic effects like sales and exports increase. Results of the study can be summarized as follows. First, product design innovations by small and medium enterprises directly contribute to creating plenty of technological and economical achievements, for example, improved product quality, increased product profitability, the effect of product differentiation, improved price competitiveness and increased business sales and exports. Second, technological and economic achievements brought by product design innovations can directly lead to ripple effects like accumulating related knowledge and know-hows, strengthening the competitiveness of products, improving corporate image, increasing business sales and net profit, and meeting many different consumer requirements. Third, technological and economic achievements and ripple effects brought by product design innovations all become very important factors and sources on which small and medium enterprises strengthen their international competitiveness in world markets and maintain their sustainable competitive advantage. Fourth, business accomplishments or economic effects brought by design innovations can be quantitatively measured and analyzed with statistical data. Additional data from the moves can help understand and express the very value or nature of design in a quantitative way. This study is significant in that its results was made based on statistical data from empirical, objective measurements and quantification. The researcher hopes that the study contributes to promoting design innovations by small and medium enterprises and helps CEOs of those businesses better understand the very value and nature of design.

  • PDF

Estimation in Autoregressive Process with Non-negative Innovations (양(陽)의 오차(誤差)를 가지는 백기회귀모형(白己回歸模型)에서의 추정(推定))

  • Lee, Kwang-Ho;Park, Jeong-Gun
    • Journal of the Korean Data and Information Science Society
    • /
    • v.3 no.1
    • /
    • pp.65-78
    • /
    • 1992
  • In this paper, we obtain the natural estimators of the coefficient parameters and propose strongly consistent estimators of the parameter in the autoregressive model of order three with non-negative innovations. It is shown that the natural estimators are also strongly consistent for the parameters. We also compare the proposed estimators with the natural estimators and the least square estimators via Monte Carlo simulation studies.

  • PDF