• Title, Summary, Keyword: Initial QP

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Effective Global Placement Technique Using Quadratic Programming (Quadratic Programming을 이용한 효과적인 광역배치 기법)

  • Kim Dong-Hyun;Hur Sung-Woo
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics Engineers of Korea SD
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    • v.43 no.6
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    • pp.23-29
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    • 2006
  • In this paper, we propose an effective global placement technique using quadratic programming(QP). In order to resolve cell congestion problem which is a drawback of QP based placement techniques, additional force and grid pre-warping technique are used. We devised a new density function for evaluating proper additional force which depends on density. Grid pre-warping technique relocates cells over entire area according to the relative ordering between coordinates of cells. Using the additional force obtained by the new density function and applying the pre-warping technique iteratively we obtained a well-distributed global placement. Mongrel which is a middle-down methodology based placer takes such a good global placement as an initial placement and produces a final detailed placement. Experimental results show that proposed technique outperforms the FM algorithm based global placement and are comparable with the well-known leading placers, FengShui, Dragon.

Applicability of Artificial Light Source and Newly Developed Growing Medium for Lettuce Cultivation in a Closed-type Plant Production System (밀폐형 식물생산시스템에서 상추재배를 위한 인공광원과 신개발 배지의 적용)

  • Lee, Hye Ri;Kim, Hye Min;Kim, Hyeon Min;Park, Sang Hyun;Hwang, Seung Jae
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.134-142
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    • 2019
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the growth characteristics of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) as affected by artificial light sources and different growing media in a closed-type plant production system (CPPS). The lettuce seeds were sown in the 128-cell plug tray filled with 5 different growing media such as urethane sponge (US), rock-wool (RW), Q-plug (QP), TP-S2 (TP) and PU-7B (PU). The germination rate of lettuce seeds was examined during 12 days after sowing. On the 13 days after sowing, the lettuce seedlings were transplanted in a CPPS with temperature $25{\pm}1^{\circ}C$ and nutrient solution (EC $2.0dS{\cdot}m^{-1}$, pH 6.5) using recirculating deep floating technique system. The light sources were set with FL (fluorescent lamps) and combined RB LEDs (red : blue = 7 : 3) with $150{\pm}10{\mu}mol{\cdot}m^{-2}{\cdot}s^{-1}$ PPFD and a photoperiod of 14/10 hours (light/dark). The initial germination rate of lettuce was the highest in TP. The final germination and mean daily germination were the significantly highest in RW, QP and TP. The plant height, leaf length, leaf width, leaf area, and fresh and dry weights of shoot were the greatest in QP irradiated with RB LED. The number of leaves, fresh and dry weights of root and SPAD were the greatest in QP and TP irradiated with RB LED. The root length was the longest in TP irradiated with RB LED. Therefore, these results indicate that RB LED was effective for the growth of lettuce and it was also found that the QP and TP were effective for the germination and growth of lettuce in a CPPS. In addition, we confirmed the applicability of the newly developed growing medium TP for the lettuce production in a CPPS.

Derivation of the Synthetic Unit Hydrograph Based on the Watershed Characteristics (유역특성에 의한 합성단위도의 유도에 관한 연구)

  • 서승덕
    • Magazine of the Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.3642-3654
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    • 1975
  • The purpose of this thesis is to derive a unit hydrograph which may be applied to the ungaged watershed area from the relations between directly measurable unitgraph properties such as peak discharge(qp), time to peak discharge (Tp), and lag time (Lg) and watershed characteristics such as river length(L) from the given station to the upstream limits of the watershed area in km, river length from station to centroid of gravity of the watershed area in km (Lca), and main stream slope in meter per km (S). Other procedure based on routing a time-area diagram through catchment storage named Instantaneous Unit Hydrograph(IUH). Dimensionless unitgraph also analysed in brief. The basic data (1969 to 1973) used in these studies are 9 recording level gages and rating curves, 41 rain gages and pluviographs, and 40 observed unitgraphs through the 9 sub watersheds in Nak Oong River basin. The results summarized in these studies are as follows; 1. Time in hour from start of rise to peak rate (Tp) generally occured at the position of 0.3Tb (time base of hydrograph) with some indication of higher values for larger watershed. The base flow is comparelatively higher than the other small watershed area. 2. Te losses from rainfall were divided into initial loss and continuing loss. Initial loss may be defined as that portion of storm rainfall which is intercepted by vegetation, held in deppression storage or infiltrated at a high rate early in the storm and continuing loss is defined as the loss which continues at a constant rate throughout the duration of the storm after the initial loss has been satisfied. Tis continuing loss approximates the nearly constant rate of infiltration (${\Phi}$-index method). The loss rate from this analysis was estimated 50 Per cent to the rainfall excess approximately during the surface runoff occured. 3. Stream slope seems approximate, as is usual, to consider the mainstreamonly, not giving any specific consideration to tributary. It is desirable to develop a single measure of slope that is representative of the who1e stream. The mean slope of channel increment in 1 meter per 200 meters and 1 meter per 1400 meters were defined at Gazang and Jindong respectively. It is considered that the slopes are low slightly in the light of other river studies. Flood concentration rate might slightly be low in the Nak Dong river basin. 4. It found that the watershed lag (Lg, hrs) could be expressed by Lg=0.253 (L.Lca)0.4171 The product L.Lca is a measure of the size and shape of the watershed. For the logarithms, the correlation coefficient for Lg was 0.97 which defined that Lg is closely related with the watershed characteristics, L and Lca. 5. Expression for basin might be expected to take form containing theslope as {{{{ { L}_{g }=0.545 {( { L. { L}_{ca } } over { SQRT {s} } ) }^{0.346 } }}}} For the logarithms, the correlation coefficient for Lg was 0.97 which defined that Lg is closely related with the basin characteristics too. It should be needed to take care of analysis which relating to the mean slopes 6. Peak discharge per unit area of unitgraph for standard duration tr, ㎥/sec/$\textrm{km}^2$, was given by qp=10-0.52-0.0184Lg with a indication of lower values for watershed contrary to the higher lag time. For the logarithms, the correlation coefficient qp was 0.998 which defined high sign ificance. The peak discharge of the unitgraph for an area could therefore be expected to take the from Qp=qp. A(㎥/sec). 7. Using the unitgraph parameter Lg, the base length of the unitgraph, in days, was adopted as {{{{ {T}_{b } =0.73+2.073( { { L}_{g } } over {24 } )}}}} with high significant correlation coefficient, 0.92. The constant of the above equation are fixed by the procedure used to separate base flow from direct runoff. 8. The width W75 of the unitgraph at discharge equal to 75 per cent of the peak discharge, in hours and the width W50 at discharge equal to 50 Per cent of the peak discharge in hours, can be estimated from {{{{ { W}_{75 }= { 1.61} over { { q}_{b } ^{1.05 } } }}}} and {{{{ { W}_{50 }= { 2.5} over { { q}_{b } ^{1.05 } } }}}} respectively. This provides supplementary guide for sketching the unitgraph. 9. Above equations define the three factors necessary to construct the unitgraph for duration tr. For the duration tR, the lag is LgR=Lg+0.2(tR-tr) and this modified lag, LgRis used in qp and Tb It the tr happens to be equal to or close to tR, further assume qpR=qp. 10. Triangular hydrograph is a dimensionless unitgraph prepared from the 40 unitgraphs. The equation is shown as {{{{ { q}_{p } = { K.A.Q} over { { T}_{p } } }}}} or {{{{ { q}_{p } = { 0.21A.Q} over { { T}_{p } } }}}} The constant 0.21 is defined to Nak Dong River basin. 11. The base length of the time-area diagram for the IUH routing is {{{{C=0.9 {( { L. { L}_{ca } } over { SQRT { s} } ) }^{1/3 } }}}}. Correlation coefficient for C was 0.983 which defined a high significance. The base length of the T-AD was set to equal the time from the midpoint of rain fall excess to the point of contraflexure. The constant K, derived in this studies is K=8.32+0.0213 {{{{ { L} over { SQRT { s} } }}}} with correlation coefficient, 0.964. 12. In the light of the results analysed in these studies, average errors in the peak discharge of the Synthetic unitgraph, Triangular unitgraph, and IUH were estimated as 2.2, 7.7 and 6.4 per cent respectively to the peak of observed average unitgraph. Each ordinate of the Synthetic unitgraph was approached closely to the observed one.

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Adaptive Intra Frame Encoding for H.264/AVC (H.264/AVC를 위한 적응적 인트라 프레임 압축)

  • Park, Sang-Hyun
    • The Journal of the Korea institute of electronic communication sciences
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    • v.9 no.12
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    • pp.1447-1454
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    • 2014
  • In H.264 standard, an intra frame is the first frame of a GOP (Group of Pictures) and all macroblocks of an intra frame are encoded using the same quantization parameter. In addition, an intra frame is used for encoding the following frames of the same GOP so the encoding results of an intra frame affect the encoding results of the entire GOP. Thus, it is important to find the optimal quantization parameter of an intra frame for improving the quality of a GOP. In this paper, we propose an searching method for an optimal quantization parameter of an intra frame in real time. The proposed method uses a gradient descent method to find the optimal value based on characteristics of the optimal quantization parameters. Experimental results show that the proposed method captures the characteristics of the optimal quantization parameter and accurately estimates the optimal value.

Quantization Modeling of Intra Frame for Rate Control (비트율 제어를 위한 인트라 프레임 양자화 모델링)

  • Park, Sang-Hyun
    • The Journal of the Korea institute of electronic communication sciences
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    • v.9 no.10
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    • pp.1207-1214
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    • 2014
  • The first frame of a GOP is encoded in intra mode which generates a larger number of bits. In addition, the first frame is used for the inter mode encoding of the following frames. Thus the encoding results of the intra frame affects the first frame as well as the following frames. Traditionally, the quantization parameter for an intra frame is determined only depending on the bpp not considering the characteristics of the intra frame. For accurate intra frame encoding, we should consider not only bpp but also the complexity of the video sequence and the output bandwidth. In this paper, we propose a real-time quantization model which is used to calculate the quantization parameter for an intra frame encoding based on the investigation on the characteristics of a GOP. It is shown by experimental results that the proposed quantization model captures the characteristics of an intra frame effectively and the proposed method for model parameters accurately estimates the real values.

Early Termination of Block Vector Search for Fast Encoding of HEVC Screen Content Coding

  • Ma, Jonghyun;Sim, Donggyu
    • IEIE Transactions on Smart Processing and Computing
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    • v.3 no.6
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    • pp.388-392
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    • 2014
  • This paper proposes an early termination method of a block vector search for fast encoding of high efficiency video coding (HEVC) screen content coding (SCC). In the proposed algorithm, two blocks indicated by two block vector predictors (BVPs) were first employed as an intra block copy (IBC) search. If the sum of absolute difference (SAD) value of the block is less than a threshold defined empirically, an IBC BV search is terminated early. The initial threshold for early termination is derived by statistical analysis and it can be modified adaptively based on a quantization parameter (QP). The proposed algorithm is evaluated on SCM-2.0 under all intra (AI) coding configurations. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm reduces IBC BV search time by 29.23% on average while the average BD-rate loss is 0.41% under the HEVC SCC common test conditions (CTC).

Effects of Dissolved Oxygen Level on Avermectin $B_{1a}$ Production by Streptomyces avermitilis in Computer-Controlled Bioreactor Cultures

  • Song, Sung-Ki;Jeong, Yong-Seob;Kim, Pyeung-Hyeun;Chun, Gie-Taek
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.16 no.11
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    • pp.1690-1698
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    • 2006
  • In order to investigate the effect of dissolved oxygen (DO) level on AVM $B_{1a}$ production by a high yielding mutant of Streptomyces avermitilis, five sets of bioreactor cultures were performed under variously controlled DO levels. Using an online computer control system, the agitation speed and aeration rate were automatically controlled in an adaptive manner, responding timely to the oxygen requirement of the producer microorganism. In the two cultures of DO limitation, the onset of AVM $B_{1a}$ biosynthesis was observed to casually coincide with the fermentation time when oxygen-limited conditions were overcome by the producing microorganism. In contrast, this phenomenon did not occur in the parallel fermentations with DO levels controlled at around 30% and 40% throughout the entire fermentation period, showing an almost growth-associated mode of AVM $B_{1a}$ production: AVM $B_{1a}$ biosynthesis under the environments of high DO levels started much earlier than the corresponding oxygen-limited cultures, leading to a significant enhancement of AVM $B_{1a}$ production during the exponential stage. Consequently, approximately 6-fold and 9-fold increases in the final AVM $B_{1a}$ production were obtained in 30% and 40% DO-controlled fermentations, respectively, especially when compared with the culture of severe DO limitation (the culture with 0% DO level during the exponential phase). The production yield ($Y_{p/x}$), volumetric production rate (Qp), and specific production rate (${\bar{q}}_p$) of the 40% DO-controlled culture were observed to be 14%, 15%, and 15% higher, respectively, than those of the parallel cultures that were performed under an excessive agitation speed (350 rpm) and aeration rate (1 vvm) to maintain sufficiently high DO levels throughout the entire fermentation period. These results suggest that high shear damage of the high-yielding strain due to an excessive agitation speed is the primary reason for the reduction of the AVM $B_{1a}$ biosynthetic capability of the producer. As for the cell growth, exponential growth patterns during the initial 3 days were observed in the fermentations of sufficient DO levels, whereas almost linear patterns of cell growth were observed in the other two cultures of DO limitation during the identical period, resulting in apparently lower amounts of DCW. These results led us to conclude that maintenance of optimum DO levels, but not too high to cause potential shear damage on the producer, was crucial not only for the cell growth, but also for the enhanced production of AVM $B_{1a}$ by the filamentous mycelial cells of Streptomyces avermitilis.

Velocity-effective stress response of $CO_2$-saturated sandstones ($CO_2$로 포화된 사암의 속도-유효응력 반응)

  • Siggins, Anthony F.
    • Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.60-66
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    • 2006
  • Three differing sandstones, two synthetic and one field sample, have been tested ultrasonically under a range of confining pressures and pore pressures representative of in-situ reservoir pressures. These sandstones include: a synthetic sandstone with calcite intergranular cement produced using the CSIRO Calcite In-situ Precipitation Process (CIPS); a synthetic sandstone with silica intergranular cement; and a core sample from the Otway Basin Waarre Formation, Boggy Creek 1 well, from the target lithology for a trial $CO_2$ pilot project. Initial testing was carried on the cores at "room-dried" conditions, with confining pressures up to 65 MPa in steps of 5 MPa. All cores were then flooded with $CO_2$, initially in the gas phase at 6 MPa, $22^{\circ}C$, then with liquid-phase $CO_2$ at a temperature of $22^{\circ}C$ and pressures from 7 MPa to 17 MPa in steps of 5 MPa. Confining pressures varied from 10 MPa to 65 MPa. Ultrasonic waveforms for both P- and S-waves were recorded at each effective pressure increment. Velocity versus effective pressure responses were calculated from the experimental data for both P- and S-waves. Attenuations $(1/Q_p)$ were calculated from the waveform data using spectral ratio methods. Theoretical calculations of velocity as a function of effective pressure for each sandstone were made using the $CO_2$ pressure-density and $CO_2$ bulk modulus-pressure phase diagrams and Gassmann effective medium theory. Flooding the cores with gaseous phase $CO_2$ produced negligible change in velocity-effective stress relationships compared to the dry state (air saturated). Flooding with liquid-phase $CO_2$ at various pore pressures lowered velocities by approximately 8% on average compared to the air-saturated state. Attenuations increased with liquid-phase $CO_2$ flooding compared to the air-saturated case. Experimental data agreed with the Gassmann calculations at high effective pressures. The "critical" effective pressure, at which agreement with theory occurred, varied with sandstone type. Discrepancies are thought to be due to differing micro-crack populations in the microstructure of each sandstone type. The agreement with theory at high effective pressures is significant and gives some confidence in predicting seismic behaviour under field conditions when $CO_2$ is injected.