• Title, Summary, Keyword: Indirect intakes

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Designation and Management of Water Source Protection Areas for Indirect Intakes

  • Choi, Ji-Yong;Hwang, Dae-Ho
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.231-237
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    • 2010
  • With increased chemical and economic development activities in upstream areas, the amounts of pollutants released have increased, and as such, so has the need for positive management of water supply source areas. Although more than 90% of the water supply sources in Korea depend on direct intake from surface water, the interest in indirect intake, such as riverbank filtration water, has recently risen, with some local governments currently undertaking indirect intake. Even in cases of indirect intake, water supply source protection zones need to be assigned for the comprehensive control of pollutants. To establish water quality protection zones for indirect intake, the scope of the protection zones needed to reflect the hydrological features of the water-bearing deposits of each site. Water source protection areas were estimated and presented as the 1st (within a 100 m radius from an intake well) and 2nd (within a 2 km radius from an intake well) zones. The 1st zone was more sensitive; hence, the installation of various facilities should be prohibited, and the area should be regarded as off-limits. For the 2nd zone, appropriate management should prohibit and restrict activities already present in the water source protection zone.

The Effects of Mothers' Market Work Participation and Away-from-Home Food Consumption on Children's Selected Nutrient Intakes

  • Kim, So-Ra;Douthitt, Robin A.
    • International Journal of Human Ecology
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.63-74
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    • 2006
  • This study examines the effect of mother's market work participation and presumably in the home, on the production of child quality, where child quality is measured by nutritional status. In general, our analysis answers how does mothers' employment affect away-home food consumption and their children's diet quality. The data come from the 1994-1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) in 1998 and the sample used in this study is 1774 children that provided information on their food intake for two days from 1065 households. The direct effects and indirect effects through foods-away-from home consumption were obtained. The results suggested that although mothers' employment showed small direct effects on their children's nutrient intakes, it can have a larger effect through foods-away-from home consumption.

Effects of Maternal Dietary Intakes and Health-Related Behaviors on Vitamin B Concentrations in Human Milk (수유부의 식이 섭취 및 건강관련 습관이 모유내 비타민 B 함량에 미치는 영향)

  • Chun Yun Mi;Kim Young Ju;Chang Namsoo
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.313-319
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    • 2005
  • Adequate vitamin $B_2$, vitamin $B_6$, folate and vitamin $B_{12}$ intakes are known to be important for the growth and development in infants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate concentrations of vitamin $B_2$, vitamin $B_6$, folate and vitamin $B_{12}$ in human milk and to investigate the relationship between vitamin B levels in human milk and dietary habits and other health-related behaviors. Milk samples were obtained from 38 healthy lactating women (aged 29.0 $\pm$ 3.2 years) who are participating in the cohort study on pregnant women. Vitamin $B_2$ concentrations in human milk were positively correlated with maternal vitamin $B_2$ intakes in lactating mothers. Vitamin $B_6$, folate and vitamin $B_{12}$ concentrations in human milk were not correlated with maternal B vitamin intakes. Vitamin $B_6$ concentrations in human milk were negatively correlated with the amount of postpartum weight loss. The vitamin B concentrations in human milk were not associated with maternal age, height, weight and parity. Mothers who were exposed to indirect smoking had lower vitamin $B_2$ concentrations, and those who reported to consume health foods had higher vitamin $B_2$ concentrations in their milk. In conclusion, lactating women need to consume more vitamin B intakes for the growth and development in infants. Further researches are needed to find other diet and health-related factors which influence on B vitamin concentrations in human milk.

Differences in dietary intakes, body compositions, and biochemical indices between metabolically healthy and metabolically abnormal obese Korean women

  • Kang, Eun Yeong;Yim, Jung-Eun
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.13 no.6
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    • pp.488-497
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    • 2019
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: There are various factors that affect metabolic abnormalities related to obesity. The purpose of this study is to analyze the differences in dietary intakes and body compositions of obese women according to metabolic risks and to classify them as metabolically healthy obese (MHO) or metabolically abnormal obese (MAO). SUBJECTS/METHODS: This study was conducted on 59 obese Korean women aged 19 to 60 years. NCEP-ATPIII criteria were applied and the women classified as MHO (n = 45) or MAO (n = 14). Body composition of each subject was measured by using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Three-day food records were used to analyze dietary intake. Eating habits and health-related behaviors were determined through questionnaires. Indirect calorimetry was used to measure resting metabolic rate and respiratory rate. RESULTS: The average age of the subjects was 43.7 years. The analysis of body composition according to phenotype revealed significantly higher body fat mass (P < 0.05), arm fat mass (P < 0.05), and android fat mass (P < 0.05), as measured by DEXA, in the MAO group than in the MHO group. There was no significant difference in the dietary intake of the two groups. However, eating behaviors differed. Compared to the MHO group, the MAO women had a shorter meal time (less than 10 minutes), a preference of oily foods, and a tendency to eat until full. Therefore, the eating habits of MHO women were more positive than those of MAO women. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that fat distribution in each body region affects various metabolic abnormalities. A high level of arm fat mass in obese Korean women may increase metabolic risk. In addition, eating habits of obese Korean women are considered to be environmental factors affecting the metabolic phenotype of obese Korean women.

Energy Expenditure in Normal-Weight and Overweight Korean Middle-Aged Women

  • Kim, Wha-Young;Cha, Jin-Young
    • Nutritional Sciences
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.34-38
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    • 2001
  • The purpose of this study was to compare the energy expenditure of normal-weight and overweight Korean middle-aged women (40-60 yr). Middle-aged oveweight ($BMI\;{\geq}\;25$, n= 20) and normal-weight women were ($BMI\;{\leq}\;23$, n = 20) were recruited in Seoul. Anthropometric measurements, body composition, energy intake, daily activity time, and energy costs of some daily activities were measured. Energy expenditure at rest and while reading the newspaper, washing dishes, mopping the floor, and walking on a treadmill at 1.0, 2.0, 3.5mph were measured by indirect calorimeter and total daily energy expenditure was estimated by summation of energy costs of different activities. The overweight group had significantly higher values of body weight, triceps skinfold thickness, thigh circumference, waist circumference, hip circumference, BMI, WTR, WHR, body surface area, percentage body fat, fat mass, fat free mass (FFM), and muscle mass compared to normal-weight group. The energy intakes of both groups were close to RDA and other nutrient intake status was also satisfactory. There were no significant differences in intakes of energy and nutrients between the two groups. Overweight subjects showed lower energy expenditure per kg body weight for reading the newspaper, washing dishes and mopping the floor, and walking on a treadmill at 2.0 and 3.5 mph, however, energy expenditure per kg FFM did not differ between the two groups. Daily energy expenditure for all activities was significantly higher in the overweight compared to the normal-weight group due to higher body weight. Both overweight and normal-weight groups showed negative energy balance between energy intake and energy expenditure, and there was no significant difference in energy balance between the two roups. Total daily energy expenditure correlated highly with FFM and body surface area. The result of present study does not offer an explanation on the energy imbalance and weight gain of overweight women.

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Analysis of Factors to Influence Requirements of Vitamins E and Vitamin C in Young and Healthy Men and Women (건강하고 젊은 남녀의 비타민 E와 비타민 C 요구량에 영향을 미치는 요인 분석)

  • 박선민
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.729-738
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    • 1998
  • Antioxidants such as vitamin C and E may play a preventive role in the development of cancer and coronary heart disease. The status of vitamins C and E may be affected by lifestyle habits such as smoking , drinking, and exercise. These habits can modify the dietary requirements of vitamin C and vitamin E. the purpose of this study was to determine whether Korean young healthy men and women consume vitamins C and E in sufficient quantities relative to their lifestyle habits. Among the participants in this study, 52% of the men and none of the women were smokers. ; 84% of all subjects drank alcohol more than once a week ; and the men exercised more often than the women. The concentrations of serum total , HDL-, and LDL- cholesterol were higher in the women than in the men, but the serum triglyceride concentrations were higher in the men than in the women. The men consumed less satuated fat than the women (p<0.05) . The daily intakes of vitamin C for the men and the women were 47.1mg and 65.6mg, respectively. On the other hand , the daily vitamin E intake was higher in the men (11.8mg) than women(6.9mg). The serum $\alpha$-tocopherol concentrations of all subjects were in a normal range, and in no subjects were they below the minimum value of ranges. However, about 19% of male subjects and 10% of female subjects showed deficient status, although the mean serum vitamin C levels were normal . Lifestyle habits fo the sort mentioned above have little influence on the serum vitamin C and $\alpha$-tocopherol concentrations. The serum $\alpha$-tocopherol concentration had a positive correlation with total fat and alcohol consumption. The serum vitamin C concentration was positively associated with regular exercise, but it was negatively correlated with the number of cigarettes smoked. Meanwhile, the serum lipid persoxide concentration , the indirect index of oxidative stress, was influenced by certain variable such as body mass index , the number of cigarettes smoked , alcohol consumption, energy expenditure, vitamin C intake, and serum ${\gamma}$-tocopherol concentration. Serum lipid peroxide concentration was positively associated with body mass index, the number of cigarette smoked , serum triglyceride , and HDL-cholesterol concentration. In conclusion , the vitamin E requirements of the subjects were met by the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) regardless of lifestyle habits. However, serum vitamin C concentrations showed individual variation and was below the normal ranges. Smoking and exercise influenced serum vitamin C concentration. Therefore, a reevaluation of the requirements of vitamin C relative to lifestyle habits is necessary.

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