• Title/Summary/Keyword: Indicator species

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Development of Benthic Macroinvertebrates Index (BMI) for Biological Assessment on Stream Environment (하천환경의 생물학적 평가를 위한 저서동물지수(BMI)의 개발)

  • Kong, Dongsoo;Son, Se-Hwan;Hwang, Soon-Jin;Won, Doo Hee;Kim, Myoung Chul;Park, Jung Ho;Jeon, Te Su;Lee, Jong Eun;Kim, Jong Hyun;Kim, Jong Sun;Park, Jaeheung;Kwak, Inn Sil;Ham, Sun Ah;Jun, Yung-Chul;Park, Young-Seuk;Lee, Jae-Kwan;Lee, Su-Woong;Park, Chang-Hee;Moon, Jeong-Suk;Kim, Jin-Young;Park, Hae Kyung;Park, Sun Jin;Kwon, Yongju;Kim, Piljae;Kim, Ah Reum
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.183-201
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    • 2018
  • The tolerance of Korean benthic macroinvertebrates to organic pollution has been analyzed since the early 1990s. However, considering the fact that there have been related studies carried out in some European countries since the early 20th century, the history of the research in Korea is very short and there is still much knowledge to supplement. We revised the saprobic valency, the saprobic value and the indicator weight value of 190 benthic macroinvertebrates taxa through the data of water quality and individual abundance collected from 7,086 sampling units in Korea from 2008 to 2014. The individual abundance of Uracanthella (Ephemeroptera) as a representative, one of the most common and abundant taxa in Korea, showed a typical lognormal distribution to 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) concentration, and a normal distribution to the class interval of BOD5 concentration according to saprobic series. The value combining the mean individual abundance and the relative frequency of occurrence was a more efficient indicator value than that of each property alone. Benthic Macroinertebrates Index (BMI) was newly proposed as a modification of the saprobic index of Zelinka and Marvan (1961). BMI showed extremely significant correlation (determination coefficient $r^2$ > 0.6, n = 569 sites) with the concentration of BOD5, and the coefficient was a little higher than those of the previous indices. Until now, there has been very little research on the assessment of biological integrity of benthic macroinvertebrates community in Korea. While continuing researches into improve the reliability of BMI, it is necessary to develop multimetric indices for evaluating the integrity, including the composition of species and functional guilds, and the richness and diversity of the community.

An Analysis of Vegetation-Environment Relationships of Pinus densiflora for. erecta and Chunyang-type of Pinus densiflora Communities by TWINSPAN and DCCA (TWINSPAN과 DCCA에 의한 금강(金剛)소나무 및 춘양목(春陽木)소나무 군집(群集)과 환경(環境)의 상관관계(相關關係) 분석(分析))

  • Song, Ho Kyung;Kim, Seong Deog;Jang, Kyu Kwan
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.84 no.2
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    • pp.266-274
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    • 1995
  • Vegetational data from 62 quadrats of Pinus densiflora for. erecta and Chunyang-type of Pines densiflora forests were analyzed by using two multivariate methods : TWo-way INdicator Species ANalysis(TWINSPAN) for classification and Detrended Canonical Correspondence Analysis(DCCA) for ordination. The dominant tree species of Pinus densiflora for. erecta communities were found in the order of Pines densiflora for. erecta, Quercus mongolica, Quercus variabilis, Lindera obtusiloba, Fraxinus rhynchophylla, and Rhus trichocapa. The dominant tree species of Chunyang -type of Pinus densiflora communities were Quercue variabilis. Quercue mongolica, Fraxiraus sieboldiana, Styrax obassia, and Quercus serrata. The forest vegetation of Pinus densiflora was classified into Quercars variabilis-Styrax obassia. Quercus variabilis Quercus variabilis-Quercus mongolica, and Quercue mongolica communities according to TWINSPAN. Pinus densiflora for. erecta community was distributed in the good nutrition area of total nitrogen. organic matter, $K^+$, $Ca^{{+}+}$, $Mg^{{+}+}$, and canon exchange capacity, while Chunyang type of Pinus densiflora community in the good nutrition area of $P_2O_5$. The relationship between the distribution of dominant communities for forest vegetation and soil condition in Pinus densiflora communities was investigated by analysing the elevation and soil nutrition gradients. Quercus mongolica community was distributed in the high elevation and good nutrition area of total nitrogen, organic matter, and ration exchange capacity, while Quercus variabilis community was distributed in the low elevation and poor nutrition area of total nitrogen, organic matter, and ration exchange capacity. Quercus variabilis Styrax obassia and Quercus variabilis-Quercus mongolica community was distributed en the medium elevation and medium nutrition area.

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Review of a Plant-Based Health Assessment Methods for Lake Ecosystems (식물에 의한 호수생태계 건강성 평가법에 대한 고찰)

  • Choung, Yeonsook;Lee, Kyungeun
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.46 no.2
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    • pp.145-153
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    • 2013
  • It is a global trend that the water management policy is shifting from a water quality-oriented assessment to the aquatic ecosystem-based assessment. The majority of aquatic ecosystem assessment systems were developed solely based on physicochemical factors (e.g., water quality and bed structure) and a limited number of organisms (e.g., plankton and benthic organisms). Only a few systems use plants for a health assessment, although plants are sensitive indicators reflecting long-term disturbances and alterations in water regimes. The development of an assessment system is underway to evaluate and manage lakes as ecosystem units in the Korean Ministry of Environment. We reviewed the existing multivariate health assessment methods of other leading countries, and discussed their applicability to Korean lakes. The application of multivariate assessment methods is costly and time consuming, in addition to the correlation problem among variables. However, a single variable is not available at this moment, and the multivariate method is an appropriate system due to its multidimensional evaluation and cumulative data generation. We, therefore, discussed multivariate assessment methods in three steps: selecting metrics, scoring metrics and assessing indices. In the step of selecting metrics, the best available metrics are species-related variables, such as composition and abundance, as well as richness and diversity. Indicator species, such as sensitive species, are the most frequently used in other countries, but their system of classification in Korea is not yet complete. In terms of scoring metrics, the lack of reference lakes with little anthropogenic impact make this step difficult, and therefore, the use of relative scores among the investigated lakes is a suitable alternative. Overall, in spite of several limitations, the development of a plant-based multivariate assessment method in Korea is possible using mostly field research data. Later, it could be improved based on qualitative metrics on plant species, and with the emergence of further survey data.

Perspectives on the Landscape Ecological Function of Dangsan Forests and Rural Community Forests as a Stream Landscape (하천경관으로서 당산숲.마을숲의 경관생태학적 기능 고찰)

  • Choi, Jai-Ung;Kim, Dong-Yeob
    • Journal of Environmental Policy
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.31-55
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    • 2005
  • Dangsan forests and Rural Community Forests(RCF) have been historical assets for the rural communities of more than 40,000 in Korea and they have provided an identity through the cultural heritage. The Dangsan forests and the RCF are parts of a unique cultural landscape in the rural areas as components of stream landscape. In many cases, the Dangsan forests and the RCF are located close to stream corridors. The objective of this study was to understand the function of the Dangsan forests and the RCF on stream water quality and to evaluate its ecological landscape values. Through the consideration of international concensus and domestic government policy for close-to-nature stream, we could find out that Dangsan forests and RCF's have close relationship with the close-to-nature streams. The water quality of the streams close to the Dangsan forests and the RCF are maintained with local culture. It is also compared to the streams located where Dangsan forests and the RCF are absent. Eight study sites were selected. Water samples were collected at three different locations at each study site. Water samples were analyzed for temperature, pH, total P, total N, dissolved oxygen, EC, BOD, COD and SS. Aquatic invertebrates were observed as water quality indicator species. The results showed that the number of aquatic invertebrate species, GPI, DO, EC, BOD, and SS were significantly improved in stream water due to the presence of the Dangsan forests and the RCF. The role of Dangsan forests and the RCF was evident in the conservation of stream landscape and rural culture as well as in maintaining stream water quality. The management schemes of the streams with Dangsan forests and the RCF's are also suggested.

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Variation of zooplankton Distribution in the Seomjin River Estuary with Respect to Season and Salinity Gradients (계절과 염분 변화에 따른 섬진강 하구역 동물플랑크톤의 분포 변화)

  • Park, Chul;Lee, Pyung-Gang;Yang, Sung-Ryull
    • The Sea:JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF OCEANOGRAPHY
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.51-59
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    • 2002
  • The seasonal variation in species composition and abundance distribution of zooplankton was studied in the Seomjin river estuary along the salinity gradients. In this estuary, marine taxa predominated in all seasons and very limited number of freshwater species appeared. The total abundances showed a seasonal fluctuation. The highest total abundance appeared in spring with over 3,000 individuals/m$^3$. In summer, the high abundance was sustained although it decreased a little. The abundance was minimal in fall with about 500 individuals/m$^3$. When the study area was divided into three salinity regimes, oligohaline (salinity less than 5 psu), mesohaline (5${\sim}$18 psu), and polyhaline zone (over 18 psu), the zone of high abundance as well as the composition of zooplankton community in each salinity regime changed seasonally. In fall, marine copepods predominated in oligohaline zone while marine species other than crustaceans dominated in polyhaline zone. However, in winter copepods predominated in all area. In spring and summer, holozoic dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans dominated in higher salinity regimes. We listed major copepod species of each salinity regime for each season with the ranges of water temperatures (T) and salinities (S) of their occurrence. T, S's of maximum abundances of those major copepod species were also reported. The observed very wide tolerance ranges of major copepod species for salinity suggested that the concept of 'indicator species' should be used in quantitative context rather than qualitative.

Community Structure and Health Assessment of Macrobenthos in Tidal Flats along the West Coast of Korea in Spring and Summer (서해안 갯벌의 춘·하계 대형저서동물의 군집구조 및 건강도 평가)

  • Ong, Giho;Jeon, Seung Ryul;Koo, Jun Ho;Park, Jong-Woo;Jeung, Hee-Do;Kang, Jung-Ha;Cho, Yoon-Sik
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.500-509
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    • 2021
  • This study investigated the characteristics of a macrobenthos community and sediment environment and assessed the health of tidal flats along the west coast of Korea. A survey was conducted from Ganghwa-do to Mokpo, Jeollanam-do in April (spring) and August (summer) 2017, and April (spring) 2018. The sediment grain sizes in the Chungcheongnam-do region were coarser, and the sediment in the Gyeonggi-do·Incheon, Jeollanam-do, and Jeollabuk-do regions were finer. A total of 140 macrobenthic species were collected from this study and using a cluster similarity analysis of the macrobenthos community, they were divided into four groups. Group2 was associated with Manila clam farm stations, and Ruditapes phillipinarum, Nephtys polybranchia and Lumbrineris nipponica were dominant. Group4 included some sites with finer sediment composed relatively, and Eteone longa and Nemertea unid. appeared at a high frequency. From the health assessment of the western tidal flat, the ISEP and BHI indices had a "High status," and the AMBI index had a "Good status." In conclusion, the tidal flats along the west coast of Korea have good ecological health. However, pollution indicator species such as Theora lata and Capitella capitata have appeared in some areas. Therefore, periodic administration and interventions are necessary to prevent deterioration of the tidal flat environment.

Limno-Biological Investigation of Lake Ok-Jeong (옥정호의 육수생물학적 연구)

  • SONG Hyung-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.1-25
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    • 1982
  • Limnological study on the physico-chemical properties and biological characteristics of the Lake Ok-Jeong was made from May 1980 to August 1981. For the planktonic organisms in the lake, species composition, seasonal change and diurnal vertical distribution based on the monthly plankton samples were investigated in conjunction with the physico-chemical properties of the body of water in the lake. Analysis of temperature revealed that there were three distinctive periods in terms of vertical mixing of the water column. During the winter season (November-March) the vertical column was completely mixed, and no temperature gradient was observed. In February temperature of the whole column from the surface to the bottom was $3.5^{\circ}C$, which was the minimum value. With seasonal warming in spring, surface water forms thermoclines at the depth of 0-10 m from April to June. In summer (July-October) the surface mixing layer was deepened to form a strong thermocline at the depth of 15-25 m. At this time surface water reached up to $28.2^{\circ}C$ in August, accompanied by a significant increase in the temperature of bottom layer. Maximum bottom temperature was $r5^{\circ}C$ which occurred in September, thus showing that this lake keeps a significant turbulence Aehgh the hypolimnial layer. As autumn cooling proceeded summer stratification was destroyed from the end of October resulting in vertical mixing. In surface layer seasonal changes of pH were within the range from 6.8 in January to 9.0 in guutuost. Thighest value observed in August was mainly due to the photosynthetic activity of the phytoplankton. In the surface layer DO was always saturated throughout the year. Particularly in winter (January-April) the surface water was oversaturated (Max. 15.2 ppm in March). Vertical variation of DO was not remarkable, and bottom water was fairly well oxygenated. Transparency was closely related to the phytoplankton bloom. The highest value (4.6 m) was recorded in February when the primary production was low. During summer transparency decreased hand the lowest value (0.9 m) was recorded in August. It is mainly due to the dense blooming of gnabaena spiroides var. crassa in the surface layer. A. The amount of inorganic matters (Ca, Mg, Fe) reveals that Lake Ok-Jeong is classified as a soft-water lake. The amount of Cl, $NO_3-N$ and COD in 1981 was slightly higher than those in 1980. Heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd and Hg) were not detectable throughout the study period. During the study period 107 species of planktonic organisms representing 72 genera were identified. They include 12 species of Cyanophyta, 19 species of Bacillariophyta, 23 species of Chlorophyta, 14 species of Protozoa, 29 species of Rotifera, 4 species of Cladocera and 6 species of Copepoda. Bimodal blooming of phytoplankton was observed. A large blooming ($1,504\times10^3\;cells/l$ in October) was observed from July to October; a small blooming was present ($236\times10^3\;cells/l$ in February) from January to April. The dominant phytoplankton species include Melosira granulata, Anabaena spiroides, Asterionella gracillima and Microcystis aeruginota, which were classified into three seasonal groups : summer group, winter group and the whole year group. The sumner group includes Melosira granulate and Anabaena spiroides ; the winter group includes Asterionella gracillima and Synedra acus, S. ulna: the whole year group includes Microtystis aeruginosa and Ankistrodesmus falcatus. It is noted that M. granulate tends to aggregate in the bottom layer from January to August. The dominant zooplankters were Thermocpclops taihokuensis, Difflugia corona, Bosmina longirostris, Bosminopsis deitersi, Keratelle quadrata and Asplanchna priodonta. A single peak of zooplankton growth was observed and maximum zooplankton occurrence was present in July. Diurnal vertical migration was revealed by Microcystis aeruginosa, M. incerta, Anabaena spiroides, Melosira granulata, and Bosmina longirostris. Of these, M. granulata descends to the bottom and forms aggregation after sunset. B. longirostris shows fairly typical nocturnal migration. They ascends to the surface after sunset and disperse in the whole water column during night. Foully one species of fish representing 31 genera were collected. Of these 13 species including Pseudoperilnmpus uyekii and Coreoleuciscus splendidus were indigenous species of Korean inland waters. The indicator species of water quality determination include Microcystis aeruginosa, Melosira granulata, Asterionelta gracillima, Brachionus calyciflorus, Filinia longiseta, Conochiloides natans, Asplanchna priodonta, Difflugia corona, Eudorina elegans, Ceratium hirundinella, Bosmina longirostris, Bosminopsis deitersi, Heliodiaptomus kikuchii and Thermocyclops taihokuensis. These species have been known the indicator groups which are commonly found in the eutrophic lakes. Based on these planktonic indicators Lake Ok-Jeong can be classified into an eutrophic lake.

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Review of the Korean Indigenous Species Investigation Project (2006-2020) by the National Institute of Biological Resources under the Ministry of Environment, Republic of Korea (한반도 자생생물 조사·발굴 연구사업 고찰(2006~2020))

  • Bae, Yeon Jae;Cho, Kijong;Min, Gi-Sik;Kim, Byung-Jik;Hyun, Jin-Oh;Lee, Jin Hwan;Lee, Hyang Burm;Yoon, Jung-Hoon;Hwang, Jeong Mi;Yum, Jin Hwa
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.119-135
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    • 2021
  • Korea has stepped up efforts to investigate and catalog its flora and fauna to conserve the biodiversity of the Korean Peninsula and secure biological resources since the ratification of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) in 1992 and the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits (ABS) in 2010. Thus, after its establishment in 2007, the National Institute of Biological Resources (NIBR) of the Ministry of Environment of Korea initiated a project called the Korean Indigenous Species Investigation Project to investigate indigenous species on the Korean Peninsula. For 15 years since its beginning in 2006, this project has been carried out in five phases, Phase 1 from 2006-2008, Phase 2 from 2009-2011, Phase 3 from 2012-2014, Phase 4 from 2015-2017, and Phase 5 from 2018-2020. Before this project, in 2006, the number of indigenous species surveyed was 29,916. The figure was cumulatively aggregated at the end of each phase as 33,253 species for Phase 1 (2008), 38,011 species for Phase 2 (2011), 42,756 species for Phase 3 (2014), 49,027 species for Phase 4 (2017), and 54,428 species for Phase 5(2020). The number of indigenous species surveyed grew rapidly, showing an approximately 1.8-fold increase as the project progressed. These statistics showed an annual average of 2,320 newly recorded species during the project period. Among the recorded species, a total of 5,242 new species were reported in scientific publications, a great scientific achievement. During this project period, newly recorded species on the Korean Peninsula were identified using the recent taxonomic classifications as follows: 4,440 insect species (including 988 new species), 4,333 invertebrate species except for insects (including 1,492 new species), 98 vertebrate species (fish) (including nine new species), 309 plant species (including 176 vascular plant species, 133 bryophyte species, and 39 new species), 1,916 algae species (including 178 new species), 1,716 fungi and lichen species(including 309 new species), and 4,812 prokaryotic species (including 2,226 new species). The number of collected biological specimens in each phase was aggregated as follows: 247,226 for Phase 1 (2008), 207,827 for Phase 2 (2011), 287,133 for Phase 3 (2014), 244,920 for Phase 4(2017), and 144,333 for Phase 5(2020). A total of 1,131,439 specimens were obtained with an annual average of 75,429. More specifically, 281,054 insect specimens, 194,667 invertebrate specimens (except for insects), 40,100 fish specimens, 378,251 plant specimens, 140,490 algae specimens, 61,695 fungi specimens, and 35,182 prokaryotic specimens were collected. The cumulative number of researchers, which were nearly all professional taxonomists and graduate students majoring in taxonomy across the country, involved in this project was around 5,000, with an annual average of 395. The number of researchers/assistant researchers or mainly graduate students participating in Phase 1 was 597/268; 522/191 in Phase 2; 939/292 in Phase 3; 575/852 in Phase 4; and 601/1,097 in Phase 5. During this project period, 3,488 papers were published in major scientific journals. Of these, 2,320 papers were published in domestic journals and 1,168 papers were published in Science Citation Index(SCI) journals. During the project period, a total of 83.3 billion won (annual average of 5.5 billion won) or approximately US $75 million (annual average of US $5 million) was invested in investigating indigenous species and collecting specimens. This project was a large-scale research study led by the Korean government. It is considered to be a successful example of Korea's compressed development as it attracted almost all of the taxonomists in Korea and made remarkable achievements with a massive budget in a short time. The results from this project led to the National List of Species of Korea, where all species were organized by taxonomic classification. Information regarding the National List of Species of Korea is available to experts, students, and the general public (https://species.nibr.go.kr/index.do). The information, including descriptions, DNA sequences, habitats, distributions, ecological aspects, images, and multimedia, has been digitized, making contributions to scientific advancement in research fields such as phylogenetics and evolution. The species information also serves as a basis for projects aimed at species distribution and biological monitoring such as climate-sensitive biological indicator species. Moreover, the species information helps bio-industries search for useful biological resources. The most meaningful achievement of this project can be in providing support for nurturing young taxonomists like graduate students. This project has continued for the past 15 years and is still ongoing. Efforts to address issues, including species misidentification and invalid synonyms, still have to be made to enhance taxonomic research. Research needs to be conducted to investigate another 50,000 species out of the estimated 100,000 indigenous species on the Korean Peninsula.